476 results for Scholarly text, 2011

  • The immediate threat to our oceans

    Vopel, K (2011-07-13)

    Scholarly text
    Auckland University of Technology

    "We are about to fundamentally change the chemistry of our ocean. The greatest risk to our marine environment is the accelerating enrichment of seawater with anthropogenic CO2. This CO2 pollution results from our ignorance of the fundamental processes that link the marine environment with the atmosphere and the land. The overall human CO2 emissions over the industrial era amount to close to 560 billion tons. A little less than half of this CO2 remains in the atmosphere acting as greenhouse gas leading to climate change. The remainder is, at present, removed in roughly equal parts into the ocean and by land vegetation. We are emitting roughly 10 billion tons of carbon annually, a rate that exceeds the natural emissions by a factor of nearly 100. About 87% of this release originates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production and another 12% from deforestation. The ocean is a complex system well designed for maintaining a balance between inputs and outputs of carbon but the current rapid rise in atmospheric CO2 exceeds its capacity to maintain this balance.

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  • "Western thoughts, Eastern feelings": A study of filial piety and elder mistreatment among Korean immigrants in New Zealand

    Park, Hong-Jae (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Thesis available in print.

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  • Performance Reporting by New Zealand Central Government Agencies

    Murwanto, Rahmadi (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study attempts to assess longitudinally the increase in the quality of performance information resulting from the Managing for Outcome (MfO) initiative, embarked on by the New Zealand Government in December 2001, and to identify the internal and external factors influencing the increase in quality. To measure the quality of performance information, a disclosure index was developed. The index assesses the comprehensiveness of information in compliance with available guidance, and reflects the approaches used by Marston and Shrives (1991), and Guthrie et. al. (2004). The disclosure analysis was applied to publicly available planning documents - the Statement of Intent and Annual Report of 27 New Zealand Government departments over the period 2003-2007. Agency theory, focusing on the role of information in the accountability relationship between principals and their agents, and public choice theory, focusing on the mechanisms to mitigate public choice problems, are used to explain the improvement in the quality of performance information and the external and internal factors influencing the improvement in quality. The roles performed and the activities initiated and implemented by ministers and other government agencies in the MfO initiative are identified and analysed. The data for the study was obtained from the reports of selected New Zealand central government departments and from semi-structured interviews. The findings support the Auditor General's assertion of disappointing quality in performance information. Weak incentives for reporting outcomes, the lack of authoritative reporting standards, and constraints on measuring performance have been the key factors in explaining the lack of meaningful progress in New Zealand performance reporting practice implemented under the MfO initiative. The initiatives do not include proper accountability arrangements, where the ministers responsible for outcomes also report; instead the current arrangement is that chief executives report but are not themselves accountable.

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  • An Investigation of the Health Information Needs and Behaviors of the Samoan Community in Porirua, New Zealand

    Sasagi, Fiona (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study focuses on identifying the sources and the barriers to health information for the Samoan population in New Zealand. It also looks at solutions to improve access to health information. Survey questionnaires were used to solicit data from the participants. Results found that young Samoan participants prefer to search the internet for health information while older participants prefer to consult the doctor for their health. Challenges that emerged from the findings show a gap between young and older generations and their health information behavior. These challenges may need to be looked into in future studies.

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  • Phi: Designing Wellington Zoo in Harmony with Nature

    Brown, Logan S (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The harmonious balance of architecture and nature is undermined by their mutual struggle for control. Their corrosive relationship directly leads to the degradation and displacement of natural ecosystems through economic development, of which modern society is fundamentally reliant. To preserve Earth’s ecology and biodiversity for future generations, architecture needs to become symbiotic with nature. As Adolf Zeising speculated the ratio Phi (the Golden Section) to be the morphological law of nature, this thesis investigates whether its principles can help generate symbiotic architecture. This thesis investigates the historical perception of how Phi relates to nature, and applies its core principles to the development of Wellington Zoo’s ‘Welcome Plaza’. The investigation of Phi finds symbolism to be of central importance reflecting the ancient Pythagorean conception of Aether, later conceived as the medium of electromagnetic fields. The design basis of the Welcome Plaza utilises that which the ratio symbolises, being the Aether and its correlated electromagnetic qualities, rather than deriving its architectural form from the Phi ratio itself. The impact of the Welcome Plaza’s generated form, upon the ecological value of the site, determines the appropriateness of the principles of Phi as a design mechanism. This thesis determines whether the principles ascribed to Phi can be used as a design methodology to generate Wellington Zoo’s Welcome Plaza in a way that is harmonious with nature.

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  • Golden-Mean and Secret Sharing Matroids

    Welsh, Michael (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Maximum-sized results are an important part of matroid theory, and results currently exist for various classes of matroids. Archer conjectured that the maximum-sized golden-mean matroids fall into three distinct classes, as op- posed to the one class of all current results. We will prove a partial result that we hope will lead to a full proof. In the second part of this thesis, we look at secret sharing matroids, with a particular emphasis on the class of group-induced p-representable matroids, as introduced by Matúš. We give new proofs for results of Matúš', relating to M(K₄), F₇ and F⁻₇. We show that the techniques used do not extend in some natural ways, and pose some unanswered questions relating to the structure of secret sharing matroids.

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  • Financial abuse of older people in New Zealand

    Davey, Judith A; McKendry, Jayne (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This working paper is linked to a workshop hosted by the Institute of Policy Studies, Victoria University of Wellington, in June 2011. Following discussion of definitional issues and exploration of what we know about FEA, we identify strategies to prevent and reduce FEA in New Zealand. Our purpose is to promote discussion and development of policies which ensure a multi-faceted response to this issue. This will help to ensure that older people are free from elder abuse in all its forms.

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  • Television and the Public Sphere: Relationships of Power and Resistance in Contemporary New Zealand Television

    Cook, Frances (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis considers New Zealand television’s public sphere role, by analysing three television programmes in terms of how they enable the exercise of power or resistance. The programmes 7 Days, Campbell Live, and Shortland Street were used as case studies of typical public sphere spaces that are available to the New Zealand public. These programmes were analysed in terms of Foucault’s concepts of power and resistance as active exercises that are present in all interrelations. The research found that the programmes were sites of both the exercising of power and the possibility of resistance, as they each worked to circulate competing discourses that subjects could take up to reinforce existing power structures or to resist the exercise of power upon them. Despite this conflicted nature, each programme was found to circulate these competing discourses in a manner that accommodated critical positions and discourses, as well as reinscribing normative power relations.

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  • The Selection Tools Used for the Acquisition of New Zealand Materials in New Zealand Public Libraries

    Tharmatheva, Jenny (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research project used a mixed method survey to rank the preference of selection tools used by New Zealand Public Library acquisition librarians for selecting New Zealand subject and New Zealand published material for their library collection and the reasons for their preferences. This research found that for the majority of the research participants, 25-50% of the library collection materials were of New Zealand subject and New Zealand published material. The main selection tools used for sourcing these materials were supplier and publisher catalogues and websites, mainly because they were up to date and the materials were available in New Zealand. The New Zealand National Bibliographic Reports, which the libraries considered authoritative, were their third choice, followed by recommendations by patrons and third party selection of materials through standing orders. The findings in this research may lead publishers and suppliers to collaborate more closely with the National Library to make publisher and supplier websites and catalogues more user friendly and more bibliographically detailed to aid public libraries in their selection of New Zealand publications and New Zealand subject materials.

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  • State-Structures in Somalia: Why do Some Succeed and Others Fail?

    Sand, Jens Bjerg (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    State-structures in Somalia is addressing the problem of what a state-structure is, what it should do and how and why they are being created. The Internal demand for structures among ordinaries Somalia to provide them security, often conflict with the security interests that the international society and external actors have in forming a state structure to promote their own security needs. How successful/unsuccessful statestructure are formed, their performance and ability to survive is the focus of this thesis. This thesis concludes that in order to be successful, a state-structure has to be formed bottom-up though the demand of the local people, and build on accepted local governance norms. A state-structure imposed top-down by external actors or the international society will always fail in Somalia due to lack of local legitimacy and support.

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  • Correlation of Impact Measures of Institutional Repositories and PBRF Ranking

    Li, Rui (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study examines the correlation of website impact factor of institutional repositories (IR) of all eight universities in New Zealand and the Performance Based Research Fund (PBRF) quality score. The purpose of the research is to find out whether there is correlation between these two figures. The research problems are: the correlation between the IR homepage ranking and the PBRF quality score, the correlation between the IR website inlinks and the PBRF quality score, and the correlation between the IR website impact factor and the PBRF quality score. The research also studied the different web ranking tools and tried to find out whether these tools can be used to measure the quality of IR documents. The research used Yahoo Site Explorer to collect information of inlinks and also use other tools to collect the webpage ranking. The finding of this research are that there is small correlation between the IR website impact factor and PBRF quality score, and the page ranking is not a good tool to exam the quality of IR document as a whole.

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  • Celebrating Difference: Architectural Conflation within an Urban Fabric

    Anderson, Casey (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Celebrating Difference questions New Zealand’s current civic architecture, and the way we will design these environments in the future. This thesis explores various cultural literary precedents supported by two detailed case studies and a civic scale architectural design project. Firstly, this thesis explores a global stance on multi-culture and difference and investigates a contemporary breakdown of difference, culture and multiculturalism. The reader is then taken through a journey of New Zealand’s civic history, with an emphasis on cultural and social climates, and their acknowledgement or celebration through architectural discourse. Multicultural Australia, Bernard Tschumi’s metaphorical consumption and a literal exploration of food’s contribution in the civic arena are all literary examples examined within the research with an emphasis on re-direction and possibly unseen correlations within civic scale design. These examinations are to question an international field of cultural architectural discourse and identify events and forms that contribute to cultural celebration. The two case studies examined are Federation Square, Melbourne city and Wellington’s CBD, in New Zealand. These studies highlight each space’s exhibition of cultural celebration and aid in defining key characteristics that encourage cultural celebration through architecture. The hypothesis aligns the study’s key findings with the design project, Architectural Conflation within an Urban Fabric. This correlative piece identifies human similarity as a critical point of understanding in the equation of difference. When similarity is acknowledged, a closeness is formed allowing a greater understanding of human difference to be achieved – doesn’t make good sense. A re-discovery of Raw Foods, Landscape and Materiality are determined as key architectural attributes that aid in creating environments that celebrate difference through architectural discourse.

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  • New Zealand information on the Internet: the Power to Find the Knowledge

    Smith, Alastair G. (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In a world of apparently ubiquitous information, does knowledge still equal power? Whatever the answer to this question, we will not have power unless we can retrieve our knowledge. Despite the advances of the last decades, issues remain in finding information on the Web relating to Aotearoa. These include: the efficiency with which the global search engines index the NZ web space, searching for macronised words, the quality of Wikipedia information about NZ, and the availability of open access NZ research.

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  • A Survey of Weeding Practices in New Zealand Academic Libraries

    Johnston, Angus (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Weeding is the removal and disposal of materials from a library’s collection that meet criteria set out in the collection development policy. Weeding the print collection of an academic library should be viewed as a means of continuously improving the quality of the collection, reflecting changes in the university’s academic curriculum and meeting patrons’ research needs (Dubicki, 2008). Weeding is often neglected however because of time constraints, a desire to maintain the size of a collection, and the belief that a book may be needed some time in the future ...

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  • Individual Roles and Conflicting Moral Obligations: Examples from Corporate and Professional New Zealand

    Krauthausen, Udo (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper is concerned with the notion of role morality. It attempts to answer the question of how individuals deal with conflicts between role morality and personal convictions. Based upon the answer to this question the paper further attempts to answer the question of how institutions that establish role morality need to proceed in order to ensure that the rules and principles issued by them are actually followed. Finally, the paper takes a look at the situation in professional and corporate societies in New Zealand and the way professional associations and business corporations in New Zealand deal with the fact that obligations under professional and corporate ethics may conflict with the personal convictions of professionals and employees.

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  • Motivating Public Transport Use: Travel Behaviour and Integrated Ticketing for Greater Wellington

    Morley, Camilla (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Car use is engrained in our culture. Changing behaviour towards using more sustainable travel modes such as public transport is notoriously difficult, despite the increasing awareness of environmental problems caused by car use. Integrated ticketing is a policy measure more recently used in strategies towards achieving integrated and sustainable transport systems. It allows a passenger to travel with one public transport ticket throughout a region. This research uses a mixed method approach to assess how integrated ticketing may affect public transport use in Greater Wellington. The psychological constructs determining decisions to use public transport are tested using an integrated environmental behaviour model proposed by Bamberg and Möser (2007). The results support the integrated modelling approach. Intentions to use public transport are indirectly affected by awareness of environmental problems caused by car use mediated through social norms, guilt, perceived behavioural control and attitude. The intention to use public transport explains 56% of the variance in public transport behaviour. Integrated ticketing presents an opportunity to increase the ease and convenience of travel, shown to be important in the model. The majority of survey respondents perceived that they would use integrated ticketing in Greater Wellington and that it was important both on a regional and national scale. Achieving an effective integrated ticketing system in Greater Wellington will be conditional on firstly improving public transport service reliability and stakeholder communication. Integrating fares across the region and across modes will also be crucial to the success of the system.

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  • Factors Affecting the Care of Acutely Unwell Ward Patients: A Multiple Case Study

    Quirke, Sara Jane Michaela (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Suboptimal care of acutely unwell ward patients is of growing concern internationally. As empirical study of the problem is underdeveloped this thesis explores factors affecting suboptimal care of acutely unwell ward patients. In order to bring a theoretical understanding to this area, a concept analysis of the term suboptimal care was undertaken. The results of this concept analysis were then used to inform the design and analysis of this multiple case study. The cases for this study were two general surgical and two general medical wards located in two hospitals in the North Island of New Zealand. Interviews and focus groups with nurses, doctors, and managerial staff were undertaken using a semi structured interview approach informed by the concept analysis. Organisational and ward documentation was also reviewed. Using categorical aggregation and pattern matching, an analytical framework emerged from the data. This framework was then used to conduct within, cross case, and hospital analyses. Key findings of this research reveal that workload, teamwork, communication, leadership, skills and knowledge deficit, and organisational systems and processes are significant factors affecting care of acutely unwell ward patients and that these factors are not unique to specific contexts. Polarised views about workload were expressed by those who manage organisations and those who deliver care at ward level. Current approaches to improving care of the acutely unwell ward patient have involved the introduction of service initiatives. However, this study demonstrates that service initiatives alone are insufficient to improve care for acutely unwell ward patients. Recommendations from this study are that strategies should be put in place to support and develop clinical shift leaders and that staffing resources should be reviewed in the context of contemporary acute care settings. These must be informed by the views of organisational managers and ward staff leading to an integrated hospital-wide understanding of factors affecting care of the acutely unwell ward patient.

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  • Getting the Message: Development Communication Strategies in the Kingdom of Tonga

    Lewis, Kennith Robert (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    All development initiatives comprise a communications component, whether a public notice in the local newspaper, community meetings or a mass media public awareness campaign. But communication within development involves more than simply informing recipient populations of initiatives, events and targets. Communication is central to eliciting buy-in and creating a sense of community ownership; it is integral to maintaining public trust through the transparency and accountability it encourages; and, most importantly, it allows target populations to have their say in development initiatives that impact on their lives. Different countries, cultures and socio-political conditions will suit different communication types. Determining factors include, literacy rates, geographic distance, telecommunications infrastructure, religion, culture and politics. This thesis examines the communication strategies deployed by NGOs working in the Kingdom of Tonga. These strategies are analysed in the context of wider political, cultural and mass media conditions, with particular reference to the state of Tonga’s news media. In-country research for this thesis was conducted at the culmination of a tumultuous period for the Pacific’s only Constitutional Monarchy. Tonga has experienced rapid socio-political changes in recent decades with an increasingly dependent economy, growing challenges to traditional institutions and the crowning of a new King in 2006. In November 2010, the nation elected the first Parliament in 135 years to give commoners, rather than nobles, the majority in the Legislative Assembly. The General Election was conducted under an amended constitution, and was the first since riots destroyed much of the capital of Nuku’alofa four years earlier. With these events as a backdrop, this research asks what forms of communication work best in Tonga? Are these as effective on the relatively developed main island of Tongatapu as remote, outer islands? And what role does mainstream media play in keeping the population informed of development issues?

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  • The Development Impact of Rural Tourism in Peru's Colca Valley: Linking Grassroots and Structuralist Perspectives

    Bidwell, Simon (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Theories of Latin American underdevelopment have converged on neostructuralist approaches, which aim to promote more inclusive development through diversified economic activities with links to international markets. These include alternative forms of tourism, which are claimed to provide economic benefits to historically marginalised areas while supporting and enhancing traditional livelihoods. This study aimed to assess these claims by taking a broad political economy approach to evaluating the impact of rural tourism in the Colca Valley of southern Peru. Detailed case studies of two contrasting localities were linked with analysis of the wider economic, political and social context. Field research in one case study area found that tourism had created opportunities for local families with existing skills and resources and had provided useful additional income for others but had involved only a minority of residents. Loss of control of tourism to the regional metropolis and destructive competition had resulted in diminishing returns and general dissatisfaction with the “disorderly” nature of tourism development. In another case study locality, a more cohesive social context and intensive support from external institutions had allowed the planned development of a rural tourism project that emphasised broad community participation, but the low tourist volumes to date were a constraint on progress. Nevertheless, throughout the Colca Valley tourism had contributed to the revalorization of local culture and identity and provided a platform for local selfassertion. The thesis argues that an appreciation of the wider economic and political context in Peru is crucial to understanding the way tourism has evolved in the case study areas. It suggests that more work to link local, grassroots perspectives with broad structuralist analysis would represent a fruitful research agenda in development studies.

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  • Is Anyone Listening? An Examination of New Zealand Musicians in the Digital Age

    Brannick, Kyle (2011)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    With major recording artist Thom Yorke predicting the record industry will crumble in “Months” (Hudson, 2010), and sensationalist headlines such as “iPods and Young People Have Utterly Destroyed Music” (Buchanan, 2009) becoming commonplace, this research attempts to determine the current state of New Zealand music in the digital age. Despite the doom and gloom coming from the press in regards to the music industry, musicians haven’t stopped continuing to record, release, and promote their music as the costs of doing so continues to decline with the advent of new technologies. This research looks specifically into the music hosting website Bandcamp and determines what methods New Zealand musicians are currently using on the site in an effort to get their music into the ears and onto the hard drives of fans. Although a large amount of research has been performed on the impacts of piracy on music sales, very little has been conducted on what strategies musicians are implementing to increase their exposure and connect with their fan base in the 21st century, with no specific research having been performed on the unique circumstances faced by artists in New Zealand. This paper first presents a historical overview of the music industry in the last century, as well as a summary of where the industry currently stands in regards to Copyright, distribution methods, and price models in order to provide perspective on the difficulties and variety of choices currently facing musicians. Within this research paper, several hypotheses were tested in order to determine what factors have a significant effect on the amount of exposure that an artist has received for their music. In order to test these hypotheses, the number of audio streams and downloads that an artist has received for their songs posted to the music hosting site Bandcamp was used as a measure to determine the amount of exposure that a specific artist has received. Due to the subjective nature of the quality of music which each musician creates, a survey was sent to over 500 New Zealand musicians whom provided at least one song for download on the website in order to gather as much overall data on the success generated by New Zealand musicians online as possible. A quantitative analysis was then performed to determine what social networking and music hosting sites are most popular with Kiwi artists; whether musicians are still creating physical copies of their works; and what licenses and payment models artists are applying to their songs. This analysis identified two important factors as statistically significant in terms of affecting the number of downloads and audio streams an artist receives on Bandcamp, the length of time that an artist has been present on the site and the payment model that an artist applies to their works. In addition to the quantitative analysis performed on the success that artists were achieving on Bandcamp, a qualitative analysis was performed on the motivations artists had for applying specific pricing models and licenses to their works. The results of this analysis found a nearly unanimous positive response from musicians who had applied traditional Copyright to their work when asked if they would allow their fans to share their music without expressed permission. This research also determined that a majority of musicians currently applying traditional Copyright to their works are unfamiliar, unaware, or uninformed about Creative Commons licenses, with traditional Copyright being applied more out of habit than a desire for their works to be protected under the rights granted under traditional Copyright. A discussion about what these results indicate for artists is also presented as a guide for future and current musicians looking to upload their music to Bandcamp, depending on the goals that the musician is looking to achieve with their music. Finally, this paper concludes with an analysis of what limitations are present in the results of the research, as well as where the need exists for future research.

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