619 results for Scholarly text, 2014

  • Performance Management in the New Zealand Public Sector

    Bonner, Sarah (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research seeks to understand Performance Management from a New Zealand perspective and answer the question “What are the barriers to the implementation of Organisational Performance Management in the NZ Public Sector”. An extensive literature review was undertaken relating to research on organisational Performance Management. The review identified that there were two key gaps in the research, (1) A contextual gap, and (2) a conceptual gap. Contextually; there is limited research about PM in New Zealand, especially in terms of the New Zealand public sector, and what was available was predominately from a practitioner view (Gill, 2011). Conceptually; the literature reviewed identified four broad barriers to implementation of PM; these were generally discussed in isolation to each other. However, analysis of these barriers suggests that there are inter-related and linked by an over arching barrier related to psychological attitudes, therefore they are co-dependent of each other: (1) organisational and managerial, (2) political, (3) cultural, and (4) psychological. Drawing on the identification of the above mentioned gaps the research sought to further explore theses gaps. From the contextual perspective within the New Zealand public sector, there are two PM frameworks in place The Performance Improvement Framework (PIF) and The Better Administrative Services Framework (BASS). The research used a case study approach to analyse results from both these PM frameworks, and identified that while the performance measurement frameworks where valuable in their own right, they lacked contextual depth, and suffered limitations from duplication and fragmentation. The case study highlighted further emergent themes related to the conceptual perspective, confirming that there were indeed barriers associated with successful implementation of the performance information gained from these frameworks. These barriers aligned with those identified in the literature review; however, additional themes emerged. These were the lack of incentives to drive improvements, the impact of risk taking, fragmentation and duplication and the absence of a holistic system view of agency performance. These emergent themes interlink with the barriers identified and reiterate that psychological perceptions and attitudes are the core resistance to the successful implementation of performance management and should not be viewed in isolation.

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  • Using BIM to calculate accurate building material quantities for early design phase Life Cycle Assessment

    Berg, Brian (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research simplifies the calculation of the Initial Embodied Energy (iEE) for commercial office buildings. The result is the improved integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) assessments of building materials into the early stages of the building design process (sketch design). This maximises the effectiveness of implementing design solutions to lower a building’s environmental impact. This thesis research proposes that building Information Models (BIM) will make calculating building material quantities easier, to simplify LCA calculations, all to improve their integration into existing sketch design phase practices, and building design decisions. This is achieved by developing a methodology for using BIM LCA tools to calculate highly detailed material quantities from a simple BIM model of sketch design phase building information. This is methodology is called an Initial Embodied Energy Building Information Model Life Cycle Assessment Building Performance Sketch (iEE BIM LCA BPS). Using this methodology calculates iEE results that are accurate, and represent a sufficient proportion (complete) of a building’s total iEE consumption, making them useful for iEE decision-making. iEE is one example of a LCA-based indicator that was used to test, and prove the feasibility of the iEE BIM LCA BPS methodology. Proving this, the research method tests the accuracy that a BIM model can calculate case study building’s building material quantities. This included developing; a methodology for how to use the BIM tool Revit to calculate iEE; a functional definition of an iEE BIM LCA BPS based on the environmental impact, and sketch design decisions effecting building materials, and elements; and an EE simulation calibration accuracy assessment methodology, complete with a function definition of the accuracy required of an iEE simulation to ensure it’s useful for sketch design decision-making. Two main tests were conducted as part of proving the iEE BIM LCA BPS’ feasibility. Test one assessed and proved that the iEE BIM LCA BPS model based on sketch design information does represent a sufficient proportion (complete) of a building’s total iEE consumption, so that are useful for iEE decision-making. This was tested by comparing the building material quantities from a SOQ (SOQ) produced to a sketch design level of detail (truth model 3), to an as-built level of detail, defined as current iEE best practices (truth model 1). Subsequent to proving that the iEE BIM LCA BPS is sufficiently complete, test two assessed if a BIM model and tool could calculate building material quantities accurately compared to truth model 3. The outcome was answering the research question of, how detailed does a BIM model need to be to calculate accurate building material quantities for a building material LCA (LCA) assessment? The inference of this thesis research is a methodology for using BIM models to calculate the iEE of New Zealand commercial office buildings in the early phases of the design process. The outcome was that a building design team’s current level of sketch design phase information is sufficiently detailed for sketch design phase iEE assessment. This means, that iEE and other LCA-based assessment indicators can be integrated into a design team’s existing design process, practices, and decisions, with no restructuring required.

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  • Curvature dependence of propagating velocity for a simplified calcium model

    Zhang, W (2014-02-20)

    Scholarly text
    Auckland University of Technology

    It is known that curvature relation plays a key role in the propagation of two-dimensional waves in an excitable model. Such a relation is believed to obey the eikonal equation for typical excitable models (e.g., the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) model), which states that the relation between the normal velocity and the local curvature is approximately linear. In this paper, we show that for a simplified model of intracellular calcium dynamics, although its temporal dynamics can be investigated by analogy with the FHN model, the curvature relation does not obey the eikonal equation. Further, the inconsistency with the eikonal equation for the calcium model is because of the dispersion relation between wave speed s and volume-ratio parameter γ in the closed-cell version of the model, not because of the separation of the fast and the slow variables as in the FHN model. Hence this simplified calcium model may be an unexpected excitable system, whose wave propagation properties cannot be always understood by analogy with the FHN model.

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  • A debt behaviour model

    Zhang, W (2014-02-20)

    Scholarly text
    Auckland University of Technology

    A stochastic model with hidden discrete Markov processes is constructed to understand the behavior of debtors.

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  • The effect of the Canterbury earthquakes on alcohol consumption and motivations for drinking among psychologically resilient individuals

    Marie, Leila Michele Anastasia (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Individual responses to natural disasters are highly variable. The psychological and behavioural response trajectories of those who manage to cope well with adverse life events are in need of further investigation. Increased alcohol use is often observed in communities exposed to mass traumas, particularly among those exposed to severe levels of trauma, with males drinking more than females. The current study examined patterns of alcohol use and motivations for drinking among a sample of psychologically resilient individuals with varying levels of exposure to the Canterbury earthquakes (N = 91) using structured and semi-structured interviews and self-report measures. As hypothesised, there was a significant increase in alcohol consumption since the earthquakes began, and males reported significantly higher levels of pre-earthquake and current alcohol consumption than females. Contrary to expectations, there was no association between traumatic exposure severity and alcohol consumption. While participants reported anxiety-based coping motives for drinking at levels comparable to those reported by other studies, depression-based coping motives were significantly lower, providing partial support for the hypothesis that participants would report coping motives for drinking at levels comparable to those found by other researchers. No gender differences in drinking motives were found. As expected, current alcohol consumption was positively correlated with anxiety and depression-based coping motives for drinking. Psychological resilience was not significantly associated with alcohol use, however resilience was negatively associated with depression-based coping motives for drinking. These findings have inter-generational and international implications for post-traumatic intervention.

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  • An Independent Review of Project Management Processes for CERA’s Port Hills Land Clearance Programme

    Patterson, Todd Keith (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report to RCP Ltd and University of Canterbury summarises the findings of a 5 month secondment to the CERA Port Hills Land Clearance Team. Improvement strategies were initiated and observed. The Port Hills Land Clearance Programme is the undertaking of the demolition of all built structures from the Crown’s compulsory acquired 714 residential red zoned properties. These properties are zoned red due to an elevated life risk as a result of geotechnical land uncertainty following the 2011 Canterbury Earthquakes.

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  • SYNTHESIS AND COMPLEXES OF BRIDGING HETEROCYCLIC LIGANDS

    Rajan, Siji (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ligand–mediated coupling between metal centres is of fundamental importance in inorganic and materials chemistry. Bridging ligands involving azo groups as coordinating π–acceptors can yield complexes with interesting properties. This thesis describes the synthesis of a series of N–heterocyclic compounds containing the azo functionality, designed for potential coordination to the metal through the azo nitrogen and a N–heterocyclic ring. The azo ligands are divided into four categories; ligands based on azobispyridines, ligands containing pyrimidine and fused aromatic azine groups and ligands capable of coordinating in a bis–tridentate fashion to the metal centre. Ligands containing flexible imine subunits connected directly, or through different spacers, are also discussed. Overall twenty one ligands were synthesised, six of which are new compounds. The coordination and metallosupramolecular chemistry of these ligands with ruthenium(II) and silver(I) metal atoms was investigated. A total of thirty five ruthenium(II) and eleven silver(I) complexes were prepared, of which thirty eight were characterised by X–ray crystallography. Mononuclear and dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesised and characterised by a combination of spectroscopic and structural techniques. UV/Visible absorption studies and electrochemical methods were used to investigate the nature of metal–ligand and metal–metal interactions. In the mononuclear Ru(II) complexes, N–heterocyclic azo ligands act as chelating ligands forming five–membered chelate rings involving azo–N and heterocyclic–N atoms. The non–coordinated pyridine ring of the azo ligand is twisted with respect to the azo–N atom and is directed towards the adjacent bipyridine rings. Studies reveal that these azo ligands posses extremely low–lying π*–orbitals and are electron deficient. X–Ray structural analysis of the dinuclear complexes revealed short inter–metal separations of ca. 4.9 Å and electrochemical studies indicate that these ligands mediate very strong interactions between the metal centres , due to the excellent π*–acceptor properties of the azo functionality. Varying the pyridine ring of the azo ligand to pyrimidines and fused N–aromatic rings has a considerable effect on the electronic properties of these complexes. Incorporation of a pyrimidine ring facilitates the stabilisation of azo anion radicals and leads to the formation of diruthenium(II) species, bridged by radical species. The X–ray crystal structures of both these complexes were determined. The use of the hexadentate ligands coordinating in a bis–tridentate manner mediate even stronger communication between the two ruthenium centres. Ligands containing bis–pyridylimines result in weaker coupling between the metal centres in dinuclear ruthenium(II) species. A complete absence in the inter–metal communication was observed with increasing the distance and/or flexibility between the two pyridylimine units, contrary to a previous reported claim. Reaction with different silver(I) salts afforded an array of one–dimensional coordination polymers and a discrete dinuclear complex depending on the coordination strengths of the anions. The metallosupramolecular assemblies obtained were characterised mainly by X–ray crystallography, elemental analysis and mass spectrometry.

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  • Characterisation and Control of 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate Synthase from Geobacillus sp

    Othman, Mohamad (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    3-Deoxy-D-arabino heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAH7PS) catalyses the first step of the shikimate pathway, responsible for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. This pathway is found in microorganisms, plants and apicomplexan parasites and its absence in mammals makes it a viable target for antimicrobial drug design. DAH7PS enzymes differ in the regulatory machinery that decorates the catalytic (β/α)8 barrel. Some DAH7PS enzymes are fused to chorismate mutase (CM), another enzyme in the shikimate pathway. This fusion protein is allosterically regulated by chorismate (CA) or prephenate (PA), the precursor of tyrosine and phenylalanine. It has been suggested that DAH7PS enzymes evolved these extensions to the core barrel for the sole purpose of regulation. Geobacillus sp DAH7PS (GspDAH7PSWT) is a thermophilic type Iβ DAH7PS enzyme with an N-terminal CM domain fused through a linker region. This thesis describes the functional characterisation work carried out on GspDAH7PSWT, in attempt to help determine how DAH7PS enzymes evolved such diverse methods of regulation. Chapter 2 describes the functional characterisation work carried out on the catalytic and regulatory domains of GspDAH7PSWT. The enzyme demonstrated both DAH7PS and CM activities with the DAH7PS domain determined to be metal dependent and most activated by Cd2+. PA completely inhibited the catalytic activity of GspDAH7PSWT, and AUC demonstrated an equilibrium exists between the dimeric and tetrameric quaternary states of the enzyme in solution. Chapter 3 describes the domain truncation of GspDAH7PSWT carried out at the linker region in order to obtain two separate protein domains, the catalytic domain lacking the N-terminal domain (GspDAH7PSDAH7PS) and the regulatory domain without the catalytic domain (GspDAH7PSCM). Both variants were fully characterised, and information obtained from each domain was compared to the respective catalytic and regulatory domains of the wild-type enzyme, which was also characterised. Like GspDAH7PSWT, GspDAH7PSDAH7PS showed greatest activation in the presence of Cd2+, with other metals having varying effects on activation rates and stability of the enzyme. Both truncated variants followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics where GspDAH7PSDAH7PS was found to be more active than GspDAH7PSWT and unaffected by PA, whereas GspDAH7PSCM was a less efficient catalyst than the CM domain of GspDAH7PSWT. AUC demonstrated that in solution an equilibrium occurs between the monomeric and tetrameric oligomeric states of GspDAH7PSDAH7PS. Chapter 4 summarises the findings of the thesis along with future directions of this research, combining the results obtained and expanding upon them. It is concluded that the catalytic regulatory CM domain supports both protein structure and allosteric regulation of GspDAH7PSWT

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  • Local authority liability for flooding: Where should loss fall?

    Brennan, Sean (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Flooding is New Zealand’s most frequent natural hazard the cost of which is outdone only by the recent Canterbury earthquakes. Local authorities are the bodies primarily tasked with protecting communities against flooding through a range of measures including physical works such as stopbanks. This essay explores the extent to which a local authority can be liable in tort where those physical works fail, causing damage. Direct liability and non-delegable duties are discussed, the latter addressing whether a local authority can nevertheless be liable having outsourced the construction of flood works to independent contractors. Additionally, whether local authorities should be liable for such damage or whether individual property owners ought to protect their own interests through insurance is discussed.This essay recommends that property owners should purchase private insurance, but that local authorities should remain liable at least for their own negligence.

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  • Using Photographs and Human Body Diagrams as Visual Aids to Help Children Talk About Bodily Touch

    Barton, Rachel (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The present study aimed to examine whether using two separate visual aids (Human Body Diagram vs. photograph of subject) for different purposes (to clarify/elaborate reported touches vs. elicit unreported touches) effected the accuracy and amount of touch-related information reported by children aged between 5 and 6 years. It was found that children reported more correct touches from the scripted event when they were interviewed using a photograph of their bodies. Contrary to expectations though, the amount and accuracy of touch-related information did not significantly differ between interviewing conditions. Additionally, all children reported the most accurate information prior to touch-inquiry before visual aids were introduced. In light of these findings, it is suggested that visual aids may not provide any more substantial benefits compared to verbal prompting alone. Given the risks associated with their use (i.e., leading to increases in reported errors) the present study endorses future research that seeks to develop more effective verbal interviewing techniques, which assist in the retrieval of more complete and accurate statements from children.

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  • Expressive Musical Robots: Building, Evaluating, and Interfacing with an Ensemble of Mechatronic Instruments

    Murphy, Jim (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    An increase in the number of parameters of expression on musical robots can result in an increase in their expressivity as musical instruments. This thesis focuses on the design, construction, and implementation of four new robotic instruments, each designed to add more parametric control than is typical for the current state of the art of musical robotics. The principles followed in the building of the four new instruments are scalable and can be applied to musical robotics in general: the techniques exhibited in this thesis for the construction and use of musical robotics can be used by composers, musicians, and installation artists to add expressive depth to their own works with robotic instruments. Accompanying the increase in parametric depth applied to the musical robotics is an increase in difficulty in interfacing with them: robots with a greater number of actuators require more time to program. This document aims to address this problem in two ways: the use of closed-loop control for low-level adjustments of the robots and the use of a parametric encoding-equipped musical robot network to provide composers with intuitive musical commands for the robots. The musical robots introduced, described, and applied in this thesis were conceived of as musical instruments for performance and installation use by artists. This thesis closes with an exhibition of the performance and installation uses of these new robots and with a discussion of future research directions.

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  • The influence of life experience on leadership practices: A case study of Indonesian school principals

    Sri Suwarningsih, Dwi Purwestri (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The purpose of this research study was to explore how individuals’ life-stories impact on their leadership development and affect their educational leadership practices. The context for the study is the Nusa Tenggara Timur Province of Indonesia, where the overall educational achievement statistics rank very low compared to other provinces. There is currently a lack of appropriate educational policy or strategy in this province to enhance academic results. Previous research has identified that the quality of leadership may have an impact on school effectiveness and student outcomes, particularly the leadership of the school principals. Thus, this current research focuses on leadership practices of school principals. This qualitative study employed a case study design and semi-structured interviews and document analysis were used. Data were collected from six school principals from the highest achieving schools in Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Indonesia and analysed used thematic analysis. Four factors identified from principals’ life experience that appeared to influence leadership practices were: childhood experiences; previous leadership experiences; learning from role models; and values. This study highlights the impact on life experiences on leadership practices such as setting goals and strategies, ensuring the quality of teaching, supporting teachers’ professional development, and creating healthy and safe environments. This study contributes to the existing literature regarding school principal leadership practices, and also makes recommendations to the Nusa Tenggara Timur Province government on the selection processes for educational leaders.

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  • Dependence structure in financial time series: Applications and evidence from wavelet analysis

    Vo, Long Hai (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Conventional time series theory and spectral analysis have independently achieved significant popularity in mainstream economics and finance research over long periods. However, the fact remains that each is somewhat lacking if the other is absent. To overcome this problem, a new methodology, wavelet analysis, has been developed to capture all the information localized in time and in frequency, which provides us with an ideal tool to study non-stationary time series. This paper aims to explore the application of a variety of wavelet-based methodologies in conjunction with conventional techniques, such as the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models and long-memory parameter estimates, in analysing the short and long term dependence structure of financial returns and volatility. Specifically, by studying the long-memory property of these time series we hope to identify the source of their possible predictability. Above all else, we document the indispensable role of trading activities associated with low frequencies in determining the long-run dependence of volatility. It follows that GARCH models incorporating long-memory and asymmetric returns-volatility dynamics can provide reasonably accurate volatility forecasts. Additionally, the persistence parameter of returns, represented by the Hurst index, is observed to be correlated to trading profits obtained from typical technical rules designed to detect and capitalize on existing trending behaviour of stock prices. This implies that the Hurst index can be used as a good indicator of the long-memory characteristic of the market, which in turn drives such trending behaviour.

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  • Engagement with angry faces during attentional bias modification: Insights from the N2pc

    Hunkin, Lisa Michelle (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Healthy individuals show an attentional bias toward threat, and this bias is exaggerated in anxious individuals. Recent studies have shown that training anxious individuals to attend to neutral information can reduce their threat bias and anxiety levels. This training is called attentional bias modification (ABM). However, despite the large literature on ABM, it is still unclear how ABM achieves its effects. Two mechanisms – facilitated engagement with threat, and delayed disengagement from threat – are thought to be involved in the threat bias. In this thesis, I investigated the effects of ABM on engagement with angry faces. First, in Experiment 1 I developed an ABM task to train healthy individuals to attend to either angry or neutral faces. Participants completed a dot-probe task in which they saw two faces – one angry and one neutral – followed by a target that appeared more often in the location of either the angry or neutral face (depending on their respective training condition). Experiment 1 was successful at inducing a bias. Next, Experiment 2 used this task to investigate the effects of ABM on event-related potentials before, during, and after training. The N2pc component, which provides a measure of attentional engagement, was used to investigate changes in engagement with angry and neutral faces as a function of training. Consistent with previous studies, there was an overall N2pc for the angry face, indicating that participants were engaging their attention with the angry face. However, the N2pc was not affected by training, even though participants were moving their eyes in the training-congruent direction during training, indicating sensitivity to the training contingency. These results suggest that ABM does not affect attentional engagement with threat stimuli. Rather, it is likely that an improved ability to disengage attention from threat stimuli underlies ABM’s training effects.

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  • An Analysis of the Information Architecture of New Zealand Tertiary Library Websites

    Bledsoe, Summer Michelle (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Library websites are becoming more and more important as so much of a library’s content is accessed through its website. It is important that this is usable for the site’s users and that the information contained in the site is findable. In order for this to happen the site must have a good information architecture. This study was done firstly as a literature analysis to determine what is currently considered to be best practice in information architecture for library websites. This was then formed into a checklist of best practice criteria and was used to analyse a sample of New Zealand’s tertiary library websites to determine what areas that these sites were doing well with their information architecture and what areas may need improvement. The study found that in many areas the sites matched well with the criteria such as having effective site navigation systems and using clear label terms. There were also areas that needed improvement such as the prominence of the library branding and search tools needing to be more user-friendly. This study provides a good picture of the current state of New Zealand tertiary library sites information architecture that could be used when updating these sites and it also provides a good checklist that can be used in the analysis of other library sites. Future research could extend this project by analysing sites more thoroughly and it could also do a more specific analysis by looking at what a certain library’s users want and need in the information architecture of their library site.

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  • Dust Eruptions

    Singh, Harpreet (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    We present a new model for the fragmentation of dust beds in laboratory shock tube experiments. The model successfully explains the formation of layers in the bed using mass and momentum conservation. Our model includes the effect of wall friction, inherent cohesion, and gravitational overburden. We find that the pressure changes caused by the expansion wave take time to penetrate into the bed, while simultaneously increasing in magnitude. By the time the pressure difference is large enough to overcome wall friction, the overburden and the intrinsic cohesion of the bed, it has penetrated ~8-15 bead diameters into the bed, thus causing a layer of dust to be lifted off. We have found the dependence of layer size upon bead diameter and found a good match to experiment. We have also predicted the dependence of layer size and fragmentation time on bead density.

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  • City of Flux: Liberating the Concrete Terrain

    Carden, Tara-Lee (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In recent decades the world has increasingly become aware of our role in the continual degradation of our planet’s natural environment. One of the most influential and controversial issues of the Twenty First Century is climate change and a subsequent rise in global sea-levels. The implications of the most recent scientific predictions will play out over the following century and beyond, significantly affecting millions of people and thousands of coastal cities around the world. Accelerated sea-level rise globally will demand urban, landscape and architectural solutions for low-lying regions to respond over the coming decades to the extensive changes that will occur. New Zealand has a vast coastline and therefore will be particularly vulnerable to the predicted one-half, to two meter rise in sea-level during the following century (Evans, Milfont, and Lawrence 3). As occupants of an island nation, New Zealanders’ share a strong affinity to water. The earliest Maori settlements to the most recent developments in New Zealand have occurred predominantly in coastal regions, taking advantage of both land and marine resources. In order to envision a vital future for New Zealand’s coastal cities, the temporality of the relationship between these urban centres and the sea forces us to confront the transitory quality of our place within it. Simultaneously, the design proposal presented in this thesis recognises that Wellington has historically reclaimed large areas of land to form the majority of the central city seen today, and that in order to flourish in the coming century of climate change will require urban design more responsive than we know today. The imminent threat of the encroaching ocean within the high value precinct of Wellington’s central business district provides an opportunity to engage with the dynamic transition from land based activities to those functions that engage with incremental flooding. Using a critical transect of Wellington’s central city this thesis proposes a system of intervention to modify a section of the existing urban fabric to accommodate, prepare and adapt for flooding. The aim of this design investigation will be to place the programme as a hinge between land and sea.

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  • The implication of the precautionary principle on international trade

    Wibowo, Fitria Anindhita H. (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper looks at the origin and nature of the precautionary principle as an emerging principle in international law that arises as a response to the impacts of human activities on the environment. As a chosen focus, this paper discusses the implication of the precautionary principle on international trade by looking at its relationship and interaction with international trade law under the World Trade Organization. This paper explores the consistency and conflicts between the precautionary principle and the rules under the WTO Agreements by examining the different and possibly similar values underlying both. This paper discusses the problem areas where the precautionary principle can conflict with WTO rules as well as explore areas where they can be made to comply with each other.

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  • Comparing European Union and Dutch asylum law procedures: Balancing efficiency and substantive examination in asylum applications

    Griemink, Marleen (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Under international law refugee status is granted to those who fall within the definition of a refugee under the Refugee Convention 1951.¹ The Convention, however, does not implement any mechanisms which directly implement its principles. It is therefore up to the State to ensure that refugee rights are implemented directly. James Hathaway suggests two mechanisms to implement the Convention, namely solution-oriented temporary protection and shared responsibility among states, in order to safeguard practical access to meaningful asylum, but acknowledging that any system must take into account the self-interests of states and so must establish effective control systems and to minimize risks.² Although discussion on such proposals is beyond the ambit of this work, it is important as it shows that in the absence of any implementing or remedial mechanisms under the Convention, it is important to have a system which effectively balances the access to asylum with the interests of the State in keeping the risks and numbers of asylum seekers low.

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  • The problem of misdeclared container weight

    King, Murray (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper addresses the problem of misdeclaring container weights, which causes accidents on land and sea, with serious consequences. It reviews the current international and New Zealand domestic law, and the plan to mandate verification of container weight in the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) convention. It concludes that this is unlikely to be enough by itself to fix the problem. It considers the points in the supply chain where responsibility could be placed for weighing, and proposes a “chain of responsibility” approach with initial weighing by the shipper and check weighing later, especially at ports, with misdeclared containers being reportable as incidents. Such a system should rid New Zealand of the problem.

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