6,014 results for Scholarly text

  • Proteomics of lipid accumulation and DGAT inhibition in HepG2 liver carcinoma cells

    Bhatt-Wessel, Bhumika (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome in the liver. It is marked by hepatocyte accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) rich lipid droplets. In some patients, the disease progresses to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), characterized by cellular damage, inflammation and fibrosis. In some cases, cirrhosis and liver failure may occur. However, the pathogenesis of NAFLD is still unclear. The present project is based on the hypothesis that hepatocytes are equipped with mechanisms that allow them to manage lipid accumulation to a certain extent. Continued or increased lipid accumulation beyond this triggers molecular mechanisms such as oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and cell death that aggravate the condition and cause disease progression. The aim of this project is to study the effects of lipid accumulation on the cells using proteomics approach to identify proteins involved in the disease progression. A cell culture model was used in the study. HepG2 cells, a human liver carcinoma cell line, were treated with a mixture of fatty acids (FA) to induce lipid accumulation. The lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells was measured with Oil red O assay and the effect of lipid accumulation on the proliferation of the cells was measured using an MTT cell proliferation assay. HepG2 cells treated with 1 mM FA mixture for 6 hours induced lipid accumulation 1.4 times of control with 90% of cell proliferation capacity of the control cells. The final and the only committed step in TAG biosynthesis is catalysed by acyl-CoA diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. To investigate if limiting lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells would prevent molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, inhibition of DGAT by small molecule inhibitors was performed. Among the three DGAT inhibitors (A922500, PF06424439 and PF04620110) tested, PF04620110 reduced the lipid accumulation to 1.2 fold of the control cells when they were treated with 100 μM of the inhibitor in the presence of 1 mM FA mixture for 6 h. Proteomic analyses were carried out for the control, FA-treated and inhibitor-treated cell groups to identify protein changes in the abundance. Functional analyses of the changed proteins identified suggest that lipid accumulation tends to adversely affect the functioning of the ER and the mitochondria. A complex interplay between the two organelles, possibly mediated by Ca2+ signalling may be vital in ensuring cell survival. PF04620110 was able to counter the FA induced changes in the abundance of some proteins involved in the metabolic processes but it had limited effect on the ER chaperones whose abundance in the inhibitor-treated sample was comparable to that of the FA-treated sample. These data provided important information for future discoveries of biomarkers and molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of NAFLD.

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  • Classical Myth and Margaret Mahy's Young Adult Fiction

    Pohl, Michael (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates the importance of classical myth in the young adult fiction of Margaret Mahy. Mahy's novels are full of references to classical myths, both direct and indirect, in names of characters like Dido, Ovid, Ariadne or Hero; in storylines such as Flora's journey to the Underworld-like Viridian to rescue her cousin Anthea, strongly reminiscent of Demeter's rescue of Persephone from Hades, which take their inspiration from classical myth; in seemingly incidental references like the persistent comparisons of Sorry to Charon, the classical ferryman of the dead, in The Changeover. These references point to a deep engagement with the heritage of classical myth. It is an engagement that has not gone unnoticed by scholars of Mahy's work, but it is one that has not enjoyed the dedicated critical attention it deserves. This thesis explores the full importance of classical myth to Mahy's young adult fiction, and shows how an understanding of the classical background of a large selection of Mahy's major novels can both enhance our appreciation of what is already there, as well as open up new avenues for critical engagement with her work.

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  • Margaret Mahy and the Golden Age of Children's Literature

    Proffitt, Catherine (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Margaret Mahy’s novels contain numerous allusions to the classics of Victorian fiction for children. Some of these take the form of passing references; in 24 Hours, for example, protagonist Ellis thinks of himself as “Ellis in Wonderland.” But Mahy also draws on Victorian precedents for some of her settings, taking imaginary islands from Peter and Wendy and Treasure Island, and the secret garden from Frances Hodgson Burnett’s novel of the same name. She also invokes the forest of the fairy tales that (although they were not invented by the Victorians) featured so prominently in the reading of Victorian children. To date, little attention has been paid to what might be described as the “Victorian dimension” of Mahy’s work. In what follows, I examine its function in five novels. It emerges that Mahy’s response to the values embodied by her Victorian texts is critical on at least three counts. Mahy’s heroines (or, rather, female heroes) reject the passivity and silence exhibited by fairytale characters such as Jorinda in the Grimms’ ‘Jorinda and Joringel’, and the lack of emotional growth displayed by Lewis Carroll’s Alice. They are also shown in the process of leaving childhood (nostalgically idealized by Carroll, J.M. Barrie and other Victorian authors) behind. Moreover, this thesis exposes the tension between Mahy’s insistent allusion to quintessential fantasy spaces such as Wonderland on one hand, and the distinct anxiety present in her work about the dangerously isolating nature of fantasy on the other. While for Mahy’s teenage protagonists the domestic “real” wins out more often than not over the fantastic but dangerous “true”, the transformative journey of maturation that each undergoes is figuratively sparked by their belief in the Red Queen’s “six impossible things before breakfast”. Perhaps by the same token, they learn that fantasy worlds (like Barrie’s “Neverland”) can be dangerously isolating.

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  • A Persistent Force: Violence in Maurice Gee’s Historical Novels for Children

    Armour, Susan (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Since the publication of his first novel, The Big Season, in 1962, Maurice Gee’s fiction for adults has been noted for its preoccupation with violence. But can we say the same of his fiction for children? And if so, how might that predisposition be reconciled for young readers? Using a predominantly literary-historical reading of Gee’s fiction for children published between 1986 and 1999, this thesis attempts to answer these questions. Chapter 1 establishes the impact of violence on Gee’s early years and its likely influence on his writing. Chapters 2-4 then consider the presence of violence in Gee’s five historical novels for children. Chapter 2 focuses on the wartime novels, The Fire-Raiser and The Champion, and their respective depictions of war and racism, while chapter 3 explores individual, family and social violence as “expanding scenes of violence” (Heim 25) in The Fat Man. The fourth and final chapter discusses the two post-war novels, Orchard Street and Hostel Girl, where social violence runs as an undercurrent of everyday life. The thesis finds that violence – in different forms and at different intensities – persists across the novels and that Gee tempers its presence appropriately for his young readers. Violence, Gee seems to be saying, is part of the mixed nature of the human condition and this knowledge should not be denied children.

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  • The Reality of Return: Exploring the Experiences of World War One Soldiers after Their Return to New Zealand

    Clarkson, Coralie (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The focus of this thesis is the lives of New Zealand's returned Great War soldiers. This thesis explores the experiences of men who did not successfully repatriate as a counterpoint to the experiences of those who did, and argues that men's return to New Zealand and their post war lives were shaped by many factors including access to employment and good health. Many returned soldiers were able to resume their lives on return and led relatively happy and successful lives. For these men, their success seems to have come from the ability to find or resume employment, good health, family support, and financial support. For those who did not, one or more of these factors was often missing, and this could lead to short or long term struggle. The 1920s form the backdrop of this thesis, and were a time of uncertainty and anxiety for returned men and their families. The disillusionment of the 1920s was exacerbated by men's nostalgia for New Zealand which they built up during the war. Tens of thousands of men returned to New Zealand from war with dreams and hopes for the future. The horrors of war had given men an idealistic view of peaceful New Zealand, and dreams of home comforts and loved ones had sustained these men through their long absence. For those who returned to find life difficult, the idealistic view of New Zealand as a land of simplicity and happiness would have been hard to maintain. Chapter 1 demonstrates the idealisation of New Zealand and 'home' built up by soldiers and their families during the war. Chapters 2, 3 and 4 use the lenses of employment, illness – specifically tuberculosis – and alcoholism to argue that for many men and their families, the 1920s were an extension of the anxieties and separation of the Great War years. Sadly, for some, their lives were forever marred by the spectre of war and what their absence from home cost them.

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  • Mafutaga Samoa

    Unasa, Leilani (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Turquoise water laps the sandy white shore where coconut palms hang lazily over the sea. The sound of a church choir singing a Samoan hymn in the background. A loud phone ring. The entire landscape shakes like crazy. What is this? An earthquake in paradise? Pan out to reveal that the image is cell phone wallpaper. The phone rests on a church pew beside a bible and a Samoan hymnbook. The ring tone is a tinny version of George McCrae's 'Rock Your Baby'. The phone spills out a chorus before a hand frantically locates it and hits the off button ...

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  • The compromise of conscience: Conscientious objection in healthcare

    Newman, Louise (2013)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper discusses a medical practitioner’s right to conscientiously object to providing a legally available healthcare service in New Zealand, on the grounds of their personal beliefs. Currently, the right to conscientiously object is enshrined in the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 and the Contraception, Sterilisation and Abortion Act. This paper argues the current legislative arrangement regulating a health practitioner’s right to conscientiously object under New Zealand law is vague, and risks cementing uncertainty, due to scope of the protection being unclear. In addition, the current protection risks patient safety, as it does not exclude the right to conscientiously object in medical emergencies, or when the efficacy of the treatment is time dependent. To remedy this unsatisfactory situation, it is recommended that the right to conscientiously object in healthcare be rendered impermissible in the aforementioned scenarios. It is further recommended that direct referral to a non-objecting colleague be mandatory in the event a practitioner wishes to exercise their right to conscientiously object. This is because access to healthcare may be compromised by a practitioner exercising the right to conscientiously object, with no corresponding direct referral requirement, a risk borne by patients.

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  • Kia Tomokia Te Kākahu O Te Reo Māori: He whakamahere i ngā kōwhiri reo a te reo rua Māori

    Olsen-Reeder, Vincent Ieni Rubhen Coire (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Kua eke te hunga kōrero Māori ki tōna 150,000 te rahi i te tau 2013 (Statistics New Zealand). Ahakoa tērā, kāore tonu i te kaha kōrerotia te reo Māori. Kei roto i te whakaora i te reo Māori o nāianei, me whakakōrero i te reo Māori, i tua atu i te whakapiki i te rahi e ako ana i te reo Māori. He reo rua katoa te hunga kōrero Māori. Nā reira, kei te āhua o tō tātou reo ruatanga te ora o te reo Māori. Arā, kei tā tātou kōwhiri i te reo Māori tōna kōrerotanga – tōna nui, tōna iti rānei. Nā reira, kei tā tātou kōwhiri i te reo Māori tōna ora. Ko te pātai nui ia, me pēhea te raweke i ngā kōwhiringa reo a te tangata kia reo Māori? Hei whakaea i tēnei pātai, me wānanga anō he aha rā ngā kōwhiringa reo a te reo rua Māori? He pēhea tōna whakamahi i ōna reo? He aha ngā āhuatanga e ārahi ana i aua kōwhiringa? Koinei te aronga o tēnei tohu kairangi, e aro ana ki te reo rua Māori, me āna kōwhiringa reo. Ko tāna e whai nei, kia mārama mai tā te reo rua Māori whakamahi i ōna reo: hei āhea kōrerotia ai te reo Māori, mō āhea kōrerotia ai te reo Pākehā, he aha hoki ngā tini āhuatanga e ārahi ana i ēnei kōwhiringa āna. Mā te whakatutuki i ēnei kaupapa e korowaitia mai ai he mahere e whakamārama ana i ētahi o ngā tino ārai e aukati ana i te kōrero Māori me te kōrero Pākehā, me ētahi āhuatanga e tautoko ana i te kōrerotia o aua reo. Ko tōna kitenga nui, mō te reo rua Māori ko te kaupapa nui katoa i roto i te kōwhiri reo, ko te hua o te reo Māori i roto i te whakawhitinga kōrero. Ko tā tēnei tuhingaroa e takoha atu nei ki te ao rangahau, ko te mahere kōwhiri reo e hangaia ana i runga tonu i ngā wheako o te reo rua Māori. Ko te manako nui, mā te rangahau nei ka hua mai ētahi maramara whakaaro hei āwhina i te reo rua Māori, e reo Māori ai āna mahi, hei hāpai anō i te ora o tēnei reo ō tātou.

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  • Wander of life: An agora to facilitate elderly's autonomous and connected life in Johnsonville

    Kong, Yuqi (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    New Zealand is experiencing a demographic transitional period when there is increasing percentage of the elder population out of the total. Researches and scholars overseas have investigated in architecture’s role of improving environments for the elderly, primarily from the perspective of disability. However, these considerations which solely come from the physicality point of view and can be easily treated just as after thoughts, sometimes still leaving the elderly in dilemmas. As an attempt to response to such an issue, this thesis asks if accessible architecture can enable the elderly to be included in public space as community members rather than an isolated group. It aims to explore possibilities of creating accessible public space for elderly, which is also thoughtful towards other community members’ interactions. These explorations are set on the intersection of environmental gerontology* and phenomenology, focus on making space accessibly to the elderly physically, sensorially and psychologically. To re-introduce the elderly as community members who are as significant as others, the diversity and complexity of their conditions and needs should be considered, which requires the design explorations to be site-specific to avoid over-generalization. To contextualise the question, Johnsonville is chosen as the site for study, thus, the character of local elderly can be considered for appropriate design iterations. To extend current design discourse about the role of architecture in the context of environmental gerontology, the theory of phenomenology and relevant case studies will be investigated. To highlight implications and limitations for elderly-accessible public space design, reflection will be made regarding the design explorations against the broader discursive arguments. One of the primary implications of this design-led thesis is for the discourse on elderly-friendly environments. The other implication is an advocacy for designing public space for a wider public interaction. It means taking everyone in the community into equal consideration and creating public space that is equal for every user.

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  • Towards the Making of User Friendly Public Space in China: An Investigation of the Use and Spatial Patterns of Newly Developed Small and Medium-Sized Urban Public Squares in Guangzhou and Shenzhen

    Nguyen, Ngoc Minh (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates how new small and medium-sized public squares are designed and used on a daily basis in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, two major cities in the Pearl River Delta, China. Given an extreme lack of open public space in these cities, these newly developed public space are expected to improve the life of millions of Chinese urban citizens; however, many of them are frequently criticised as inconvenient for users. How to improve the performance of these small and medium-sized public squares is therefore a critical issue faced by the city planners and designers. However, to dates, academic studies of public space in China are primarily focused on the architectural expression of the space or the development of the ‘public sphere’ in China. Hence, information about the actual use of small and medium-sized public squares in China is virtually absent. In order to fill this gap in knowledge on how these new public space are designed and used, this thesis examines 13 small and medium-sized public squares that have been (re)developed over the last 15 years in Guangzhou and Shenzhen using primarily the space syntax methodology, including direct (non-participant) observations and space syntax analysis techniques. The thesis focuses on the examination of three aspects: static occupancy and its relation to actual physical settings, transient use of the space and its relation to urban configuration, and the location preferences by Chinese users and the underlying visual logic. The findings from this thesis document a significantly different way of using public squares in China, as compared to their Western counterparts. Specifically, these spaces are used primarily by the elderly and organised activity groups. This collective way of using public space in China in combination with a wide range of cultural specific activities such as “exercising”, “babysitting”, “playing chess/cards” and “group-singing” has resulted in different spatial use patterns. In particular, this thesis has documented a strong preference for visually exposed locations, with much activity occurring at the centre rather than at the edges of public space, which are the most popular locations in public space in the West. Apart from providing valuable insights about the use and design patterns of small and medium-sized public squares, this research also proposes a number of spatial principles that could provide some guidance for designers and policy makers in the making of more user friendly public space in China in the future. Last but not least, findings of this thesis also hope to stimulate further studies of public space in China, especially those using Space Syntax methods.

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  • “Maths is Challenge, Struggle and Mistakes Will Grow Our Brain”: The Impact on Student Attitude, Confidence and Achievement of the Introduction of Inquiry-Based Learning into the Mathematics Programme of a New Zealand Primary School

    Shallard, Steven Dillon (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Underachievement in mathematics in Aotearoa/New Zealand continues to be an issue for some students. Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) has been described by research as one way of addressing these underachievement issues. Ongoing underachievement impacts on students’ confidence which may exacerbate underachievement in a downward spiral. Research has shown that both confidence and achievement can be positively influenced by IBL, therefore IBL was trialled here at All Saints School. This thesis describes a research project which sought to determine the impact of an IBL teaching intervention with the aim of improving outcomes for students underachieving in mathematics. It examines the impact on students’ attitude, confidence and achievement that resulted from the introduction of IBL into the mathematics teaching and learning programme of three classes, Years 3, 4 and 6, in a high socio-economic status (SES), high achieving, urban Catholic full primary school. The intervention drew on a professional learning community where the participant teachers explored literature on IBL and worked together to assist each other to add IBL to the teaching and learning programme for mathematics. The study design was a mixed methods case study. Qualitative data were gathered through student interviews and surveys. The intervention was undertaken over a full school year, so quantitative achievement data were gathered from the school’s usual assessment methods without the introduction of further external testing or assessment. Student surveys and interviews from three classes totalling 51 students informed the research questions on student attitude and confidence. Over-all Teacher Judgement (OTJ) and Progressive Achievement Tests (PAT) provided quantitative data which informed the research questions on the impact IBL had on student achievement and the achievement gap between the highest and lowest achievers. In this school setting students began the intervention with a very positive attitude to mathematics and only minor variations to this were observed. Students also began with a high level of confidence in their overall mathematical ability, but very low confidence in their problem-solving ability specifically. By the end of the intervention, their high level of confidence had extended to their problem-solving confidence also. PAT achievement data revealed the Year 3 class and the Year 4 underachieving students both made mean achievement gains of a statistically significant level. The Year 4 class only just reached national averages, but the Year 3 and 6 classes exceeding national average results for their year level. A deeper exploration of the data revealed that the low achieving students made major achievement gains for the intervention year. The low achieving Year 4 and 6 students made gains that exceeded both national averages and their high achieving classmates by large margins. Taken together these results further add to the body of evidence that argues for the inclusion of IBL in schools’ mathematics programmes.

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  • Television Sharknados and Twitter Storms: Cult Film Fan Practices in the Age of Social Media Branding

    Hay, Stephen (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines the Syfy channel’s broadcast of the television movie Sharknado and the large number of tweets that were sent about it. Sharknado’s audience engaged in cult film viewing practices that can be understood using paracinema theory. Paracinema engagement with cult films has traditionally taken place in midnight screenings in independent movie theatres and private homes. Syfy’s audience was able to engage in paracinematic activity that included making jokes about Sharknado’s low quality of production and interacting with others who were doing the same through the affordances of Twitter. In an age where branding has become increasingly important, Syfy clearly benefited from all the fan activity around its programming. Critical branding theory argues that the value generated by a business’s brand comes from the labour of consumers. Brand management is mostly about encouraging and managing consumer labour. The online shift of fan practices has created new opportunities for brand managers to subsume the activities of consumers. Cult film audience practices often have an emphasis on creatively and collectively engaging in rituals and activities around a text. These are the precise qualities that brands require from their consumers. Sharknado was produced and marketed by Syfy to invoke the cult film subculture as part of Syfy’s branding strategy. This strategy can be understood using the theory of biopolitical marketing. Biopolitical marketing creates brands by encouraging and managing consumer activity on social media. Instead of simply promoting itself, a brand becomes an online platform through which consumers can engage. An active consumer base raises a brand’s profile and puts forward the image of happy, loyal customers. An equally important advantage of biopolitical marketing is that it can mask the marketing aspect of branding. Consumers who are cynical towards marketers may be less defensive towards a group of fellow consumers enjoying a product online. Developing a consumer community around a business where every consumer interaction enhances the brand and there is no semblance of marketer involvement is the end goal of biopolitical marketing. The subculture around cult films not only has brand-friendly practices, but is also positioned as being rebellious, a quality that can be particularly valuable in trying to mask the presence of marketing.

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  • Device Applications of Rare-Earth Nitrides.

    Warring, Andrew Harry (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In this thesis the properties of thin film spintronic devices are investigated. These devices incorporate rare-earth nitrides as the active elements in a geometry with vertical transport perpendicular to the layers. Many rare-earth nitrides are ferromagnetic semiconductors with a rich range of magnetic properties arising from their 4-f magnetic moments. These magnetic moments contain both spin and orbital contributions, in contrast to the quenched, spin-based magnetism frequently exploited in spintronic devices based on transition metals. Magnetic tunnel junctions are demonstrated with the ferromagnetic electrodes made from the intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor GdN surrounding GaN and AlN barriers. Fitting of the current-voltage characteristics of a GdN/GaN/GdN device determines a barrier height of 1.5 eV at room temperature. This puts the GdN Fermi level close to the GaN mid-gap, consistent with recent theoretical predictions of the band alignment at the GdN/GaN interface [Kagawa et al., Phys. Rev. Applied 2, 054009 (2014)]. This barrier height is found to scale with the band gap of the group-III nitride barrier, being approximately twice as large for AlN barriers. It was observed that the barrier height reduces as the AlN barrier thickness increases, signalling the formation of Schottky barriers at the interface. These polycrystalline junctions exhibit a tunnel magnetoresistance of a few percent but do not show clear signs of homogeneous switching. The transport properties of the GdN/GaN/GdN junctions are heavily influenced by the electronic structure of the semiconducting GdN layers, making junctions based on rare-earth nitrides promising candidates for further investigation. A fully semiconductor-based magnetic tunnel junction that uses spin-orbit coupled materials made of intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductors is then presented. Unlike more common approaches, one of the electrodes consists of a near-zero magnetic moment ferromagnetic semiconductor, samarium nitride, with the other electrode comprised of the more conventional ferromagnetic semiconductor gadolinium nitride. Fabricated tunnel junctions exhibit magnetoresistances as high as 200%, implying strong spin polarisation in both electrodes. In contrast to conventional tunnel junctions, the resistance is largest at high fields, a direct result of the orbital-dominant magnetisation in samarium nitride that requires the spin in this electrode aligns opposite to that in the gadolinium nitride when the magnetisation is saturated. The magnetoresistance at intermediate fields is controlled by the formation of a twisted magnetisation phase in the samarium nitride, a direct result of the orbital-dominant ferromagnetism. Thus, new functionality can be brought to magnetic tunnel junctions by use of novel electrode materials, in contrast to the usual focus on tuning the barrier properties. Finally, highly resistive GdN films intentionally doped with Mg are demonstrated. These films are found to have increased resistivities and decreased carrier concentrations, with no observed degradation in crystal quality as compared with undoped films. An increase of the Curie temperature in conductive films is observed which is consistent with the existence of magnetic polarons centred on nitrogen vacancies. The prospect of doping rare-earth nitride films in this manner promises greater control of the material properties and future device applications.

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  • An investigation of the effects of large houses on occupant behaviour and resource-use in New Zealand

    Khajehzadeh, Iman (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    According to Statistics New Zealand the average size of new New Zealand houses almost doubled from 1974‐2011 at the same time that occupancy reduced, meaning fewer people live in larger houses. Features of large houses are extra bedrooms, specialised rooms (e.g. study, media room), more than one living space, several bathrooms (including en‐suites), and double/triple garages. This contrasts with what is defined in this thesis as the “core house”, which is a house (or part of a house) consisting of a living room, a dining room, a kitchen, and a bedroom for each occupant (assuming couples share a bedroom). Based on this, houses with more space than the appropriate core house for each household are considered as living in some level of large housing. Living in larger houses than necessary means use of more natural resources in terms of construction materials, operating energy and the additional furniture and appliances needed. This study, therefore, aimed to measure resource‐use efficiency in different sized houses and rooms found in NZ houses to show the significance of human decisions on housing energy use. To do this, it used a life‐cycle energy approach to measure resource‐use and reveal the long term environmental impact of house size decision. A 100 year cycle was used to cover typical human lifespan. Using grounded theory, the research developed into four studies: 1‐ An observation of the features of New Zealand houses: Houses advertised for sale in TradeMe website were studied to show the features of New Zealand houses and types of furniture and appliances people keep in their houses. 2‐ Study 1: Based on the observation study, a questionnaire was prepared for a pilot study of 7 households living in small and large houses asking about occupants, type/number of rooms and types/number/location of furniture/appliances in their house. Each occupant also reported where he/she spend his/her time at home indoor for 14 consecutive days. This study revealed any problems with the preliminary questionnaire and also set strategy for the large time‐use survey. 3‐ Study 2: Based on the results of study 1, an online questionnaire based survey was undertaken by families with 4 or fewer members living in NZ owner‐occupied houses. The questionnaire asked for information about family members, type/number of spaces in their home, furniture and its location and the time spent in each room of the house, outdoors, and out of home by each occupant over one day. This survey provided a reliable data set about the features of New Zealand owner‐occupied houses and their occupants, the type an number of furniture items, appliances and tools in them and where/for how long each household member spent his/her daily time in the house. 4‐ Floor plan study: To get a better understanding of the size of rooms in NZ houses, a floor plan study of 287 houses was performed. Floor plans were redrawn in AutoCAD and the floor area of each room and the whole house were extracted for mapping with house size in SPSS. Results of the time‐use study indicate New Zealanders on average spend 15.94 hours/day at home indoor and house size does not affect this. On average 54.7% of this is spent in usual bedrooms, 29.9% in the usual living room, dining room and kitchen, and use of other rooms including bathrooms accounts for 15.4% of time at home indoors. Using a life cycle analysis approach, selecting to live in a house with 3 extra rooms, a single person, couple, couple with one child and couple with two children will use 66%, 66%, 75% and 66% more energy for housing over 100 years. By combining time‐use and energy use results, a sample person living in a house with no extra rooms for their whole life will have a housing energy of 1.59GJ/hour which increases to 2.68GJ/hour by living in a house with 3 extra rooms. Based on resources for construction, refurbishment and heating and the time occupants spend in each room over the life the house, for each hour of using a master bedroom New Zealanders use 0.9MJ, and this increases to 9.3MJ for an hour of using a study and 5.1MJ for a play room. This research suggests more public awareness is needed regarding the role of human behaviour in achieving a sustainable architecture and perhaps it is time for governments to control use of natural resources by restricting house sizes where applicable.

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  • The Wellington urban motorway : the parts played by the planning authorities and the Bolton Street Preservation Society

    Miller, Richard Ogilvy (1969)

    Bachelor of Arts thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The inadequacy of our present planning system to accomodate at the critical stage participation of interested citizens in the control of their environment. A case history showing how the negotiations between the various authorities and the Bolton Street Cemetery Preservation Society, the route of the motorway, concerning demonstrates the truth or otherwise of the hypothesis.

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  • Crippling the Will of a People: Morphostatic Structures of Violence and the Crawl-Space of Agency in the Lives of Eritrean Refugees

    Commerer, Jared (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In conjunction with an exposition of the larger historical and political context of the nation of Eritrea, this thesis examines the life narratives of five refugees hailing from the Horn of Africa. In doing so, certain institutional, relational, and embodied forms of violence are identified as permeating Eritrea’s socio-political fabric and thus also the inter- and intra-personal lives of the participants. Where morphostatic structures are deemed as those that constrain an individual’s capacity to pursue their ultimate concerns, it is maintained that violence in the form of extreme nationalism, routinised fear, and varying subjective affects partially accounts for the fact that an estimated 5,000 people are fleeing this small, modernising African nation every month. Following this, I argue that, by examining the life-narratives of Eritrean refugees, violence can be understood as transpiring at the interstices of an ongoing – albeit skewed – dialectic between, on one hand, morphostatic structures of violence appearing in institutional, relational, and embodied forms, and, on the other, a degree of mimetic agency that, when harnessed, acts as a crawl-space through which individuals – if they are to realise their ultimate concerns – must absent themselves relative to such structures of violence.

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  • Customer-led versus market-oriented: An investigation of the lean startup methodology framework

    Jimale, Ismail Mohamed (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Market-oriented approach to customer development has been strongly associated innovativeness and new product success. There is also evidence to suggest customer-led approach, or responding to explicit customer needs, impedes innovation. This thesis investigates whether the increasingly popular Lean Startup Methodology (LSM) favours customer-led or market-oriented approach to discovering and learning about customer needs. The study was conducted using a participatory action research methodology. The LSM was used as a framework for investigating the commercial value of two researched projects originating from within Victoria University. The LSM was also applied to a third project founded by the Master of Advanced Technology Enterprise (MATE) team. The LSM process is shown to assist in the discovery of both explicit and latent customer needs. However, which one the framework favours depends on whether the product or the market is the primary driver of the validation process. In one instance the entrepreneur is deliberately looking to discover a present market need in order to align it with a pre-defined solution, while the alternative is to study the market in order to identify an opportunity followed by the development of a specific solution. The latter is shown to support becoming market oriented. The findings also suggest Domain Knowledge plays a vital role in establishing and maintaining market-oriented approach to customer development. Domain knowledge aids in understanding market data in order to extract novel and meaningful insights. Establishing close relationships with emerging customers and „lead users‟ in a particular market is shown to be an effective method of compensating for a lack of domain knowledge. What‟s more, the presence of preconceived prototypes is shown to negatively impact on the entrepreneur‟s ability to approach customer development in a market-oriented manner. By drawing on the MATE team‟s experiences, this thesis aims to provide practical lessons for individuals and teams that are looking to take a market-oriented approach to customer development.

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  • Analysis of New Zealand Specific Electric Vehicle Adoption Barriers and Government Policy

    Zhu, Jiayi (Jason) (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The New Zealand (NZ) Transport sector represents over 40% of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector. Electric Vehicles (EV) are fast emerging globally as a viable alternative to traditional fossil fuel burning cars. In hope of addressing the low EV adoption in NZ, the Ministry of Transport published a series of EV policies in May 2016. The literature review found a broad spectrum of EV adoption barriers from a global perspective covering technology, economic, social, environmental, and political factors. However, the analysis of barriers from a NZ perspective is overly simplistic and largely based on international findings with little empirical evidence specific to NZ. The most influential barriers specific to NZ are deemed as 1) range; 2) charging time; 3) purchase price; 4) charging facilities and 5) NZ car market. While there is literature which evaluates global policies and suggests effective policies for NZ, there is no current research that evaluates whether the latest NZ government policy is going to be effective in improving EV uptake in NZ. These papers tend to prescribe a solution of government policies without truly knowing whether their assumptions about EV adoption barriers apply to NZ. Using a mixed methodology, a questionnaire containing both quantitative and qualitative research questions was carried out. The findings of this paper show there are four major NZ specific barriers, namely 1) high purchase price; 2) unknown cost of ownership (i.e. service, maintenance and repair); 3) lack of charging facilities and 4) lack of EV knowledge. Other barriers highlighted by literature such as range and charging time are found to be less influential barriers. Overall, the sentiment for EV adoption is positive and the government policy is deemed to be reasonably effective as it either directly or indirectly addresses the above four barriers; however, certain policies such as ones addressing the cost of ownership can be improved.

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  • Forecasting the Term Structure of Implied Volatilities

    Guo, Biao; Han, Qian; Lin, Hai (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Neumann and Skiadopoulos (2013) document that although the implied volatilities are predictable, their economic pro ts become insignificant once the cost is accounted for. We show that the trading strategies based on the predictability of implied volatilities could generate significant risk-adjusted returns after controlling for the transaction cost. The implied volatility curve information is useful for the out-of-sample forecast of implied volatilities up to one week. Short-maturity implied volatilities tend to be more predictable than long-maturity implied volatilities. Although the long-maturity options are much less traded than the short-maturity options, their implied volatilities provide much more information on the price discovery.

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  • The Impact of the Official Information Act 1982 on the Policy Development Process

    Poot, Edward H. (1997)

    Master of Public Policy thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Official Information Act was passed into statute in 1982. Among the purposes of the Act is the enhancement and respect for the law and the promotion of good government. The aim of this paper is to detennine, from a participation perspective, the impact of the Official Information Act 1982 on the core public sector policy process. The paper starts with a background to the Act before reviewing the expected and actual impact of the Act, as outlined in the literature. The policy making process in New Zealand' s core public sector is considered, highlighting opportunities for participation. Participation theory is discussed. The research involves a survey across the core public sector to gain general views of the impact of the Act on the policy development process. The results are used as the basis for three in-depth case studies of core public sector agencies. The conclusions are that while the Act is an important instrument of accountability, the success of the Act in enabling more effective participation is not so clear. While information is more readily obtainable, technocratic officials and Ministers keen to control information impact on the ability of citizens to participate. It is concluded that for the Act to be of maximum benefit education of officials and a loosening on the control of information will be needed.

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