5,974 results for Scholarly text

  • Identifying and referencing images

    Jowsey, Tanisha (2016-10-11)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    This resource provides information about identifying and referencing images from the internet using Creative Commons.

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  • Qualitative methodology made easy

    Jowsey, Tanisha; Desborough, J (2016-08-12)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    This resource provides an outline of main philosophical paradigms (constructionism, constructivism, and phenomenology) and qualitative research methods.

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  • ICT for Development: sustainable technology-supported participatory development for poverty alleviation in the context of digital divides

    Blake, Adam; Quiros Garzon, M (2010-12)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    Despite the recognized potentials of ICTs1 for alleviating poverty, still they are not equally accessible, leaving the poorest people behind (von Braun, 2010). There is a set of interrelated and continually unfolding factors influencing the field of ICT and its role in development (Chambers, 2010)...

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  • Polynesian Lexicon Project Online

    Clark, David; Greenhill, SJ; Biggs, B (2010-06-15)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    Pollex is a large-scale comparative dictionary of Polynesian languages. This is an online version of the POLLEX database previously listed.

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  • Critical Friend Korero -925

    McGlashan, Alison (2010)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Architecture for IP Flow Information Export

    Sadasivan, G; Brownlee, John; Claise, B; Quittek, J (2009-03)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    This memo defines the IP Flow Information eXport (IPFIX) architecture for the selective monitoring of IP Flows, and for the export of measured IP Flow information from an IPFIX Device to a Collector.

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  • Towards the Making of User Friendly Public Space in China: An Investigation of the Use and Spatial Patterns of Newly Developed Small and Medium-Sized Urban Public Squares in Guangzhou and Shenzhen

    Nguyen, Ngoc Minh (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates how new small and medium-sized public squares are designed and used on a daily basis in Guangzhou and Shenzhen, two major cities in the Pearl River Delta, China. Given an extreme lack of open public space in these cities, these newly developed public space are expected to improve the life of millions of Chinese urban citizens; however, many of them are frequently criticised as inconvenient for users. How to improve the performance of these small and medium-sized public squares is therefore a critical issue faced by the city planners and designers. However, to dates, academic studies of public space in China are primarily focused on the architectural expression of the space or the development of the ‘public sphere’ in China. Hence, information about the actual use of small and medium-sized public squares in China is virtually absent. In order to fill this gap in knowledge on how these new public space are designed and used, this thesis examines 13 small and medium-sized public squares that have been (re)developed over the last 15 years in Guangzhou and Shenzhen using primarily the space syntax methodology, including direct (non-participant) observations and space syntax analysis techniques. The thesis focuses on the examination of three aspects: static occupancy and its relation to actual physical settings, transient use of the space and its relation to urban configuration, and the location preferences by Chinese users and the underlying visual logic. The findings from this thesis document a significantly different way of using public squares in China, as compared to their Western counterparts. Specifically, these spaces are used primarily by the elderly and organised activity groups. This collective way of using public space in China in combination with a wide range of cultural specific activities such as “exercising”, “babysitting”, “playing chess/cards” and “group-singing” has resulted in different spatial use patterns. In particular, this thesis has documented a strong preference for visually exposed locations, with much activity occurring at the centre rather than at the edges of public space, which are the most popular locations in public space in the West. Apart from providing valuable insights about the use and design patterns of small and medium-sized public squares, this research also proposes a number of spatial principles that could provide some guidance for designers and policy makers in the making of more user friendly public space in China in the future. Last but not least, findings of this thesis also hope to stimulate further studies of public space in China, especially those using Space Syntax methods.

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  • Chalkle: The case study of an edtech social enterprise aspiring to transform Adult and Community Education in Aotearoa, New Zealand

    Stewart, Carine (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis examines Chalkle, an edtech social enterprise, through an exploratory case study which offers an in-depth analysis of its operations, policies, procedures, and practices in the period between July 2012 and December 2015. The study of Chalkle explores the company’s aspirations to transform the field of Adult and Community Education (ACE) in Aotearoa, New Zealand. This thesis examines the motivations, challenges, and opportunities presented by Chalkle from the perspective of various stakeholders: learners, teachers, providers, Champions, as well as the organisation’s co-founders. The study of Chalkle offers insights into an alternative model of ACE, which harnessed the power of a technology platform and utilised a social enterprise business model to encourage greater connectivity within the ACE sector. An analysis of Chalkle is important in order to explore and understand how collaboration across and beyond the ACE sector, in this case through a mix of education, technology, and business, could offer insights into sustainable solutions to withstand changes in government policy and funding.

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  • A Deleuze Theory of Urban Morphology: Brunei Water City

    Leblanc, Rémy (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The impetus for this thesis was the theoretical shortcomings uncovered in the field of urban morphology and its French branch, IPRAUS, when the researcher first attempted to account for the form of the architecture in the case study of Brunei’s water city. In this thesis’ first part, this field of study is critiqued, and a series of gaps in its theoretical framework are found. This thesis contests the main assumption of the field that there is a relation between the social and the production of architecture. The questions this thesis aims to understand are: how and why do people build their space the way they do? How do we think about the social and ecological relations that create subjects and bodies? How do we think about how the society is organized and organizes subject? How do we theorise and explore how society produces architecture and subjects? How do we conceive how subjects produce architecture and societies? This leads to call for the establishment of a new philosophical base for urban morphology. The thesis then argues that work in other disciplines points toward Deleuze’s philosophy as a means through which to understand the reasons for the production of space. This philosopher provides ways to engage with a site, to create new research methodologies and to analyse and report findings. However, study with Deleuze, in the field of architecture, is still very much in its infancy. As such, this thesis offers an experimental, original work that explores how we might think about Deleuze, how we might bring Deleuze from philosophy to architecture and how we might convey Deleuze’s philosophical thinking through an application in a particular site. The two sets of critiques, of urban morphology and of Deleuze studies in architecture, establish the two goals of this research: one theoretical, the other practical. The first goal is to develop the means to provide a better account of architectural and urban form. More specifically, this thesis investigates how Deleuzian theory might be suitable for urban morphology studies. The second goal is to experiment with the proposed theory in the study of an actual site, the water city of Brunei Darussalam. The intention of the second goal is to explore the effectiveness of the first. The second part of the thesis aims to ground the understanding of a series of elements of Deleuze’s philosophical system chosen for their relevance to study the production of architecture in relation to the social. The methodology of study follows Anne Sauvagnargue’s proposed process of understanding Deleuze’s philosophy. It is a step by step work that uncovers the fundamental elements of this philosophy in his early works. These are little known to the architecture field. These findings then ground the philosophy of Deleuze and Guattari which has created an ontology and concepts which may be applied to the analysis of concrete social formations and their production. In this ontology, put simply, the world is understood as composed of forces. This thesis put forth that these are social, cultural, political forces—what is term power and desire forces, and ecological forces—that relate to organic and non-organic, human and non-human forces. A first major contribution to this thesis is Deleuze and Guattari’s proposal of the concept of assemblage as the fundamental element of analysis. Assemblages are composed of forces; they have a certain power—an intensity and an ability to do, and a sense that comes with this power—an ‘incorporeal transformation’. An incorporeal transformation is ‘attributed to bodies’. The second contribution is Deleuze’s philosophy of immanence and its related philosophy of time. These allow researchers to conceive how assemblages are composed, formed and dissolved, and how they function. Assemblages are not fixed in time; as forces they assemble, produce, but also always look for better opportunities. They always become; and at a point in time, they disassemble and recompose into different assemblages; that is life. From this work on Deleuze’s philosophy, this thesis proposes an ontology and a research design to study architecture in relationship to what we tend to understand as social, cultural, political, and ecological forces. It is defined that the form of architecture is part of assemblages, form-as-part-of-assemblage, in relationship with other assemblages. This thesis proposes to understand architecture-as-part-of-life. And a major shift that this thesis proposes for within urban morphology is not to give meaning to the form, but to give sense to it. To give sense is to find a series of expressions that relate to these social and ecological forces. Another outcome of this thesis is a research methodology termed a genealogical inquiry. It is a way of researching in time and space, transversally, the assembling and disassembling of all these forces which-architecture-is-part-of. The aim of this methodology is to understand and explain the form, process of formation, of architecture, and to give sense to these by describing a series of expression to forces. The third part of this thesis experiments with this research framework in the site of Brunei’s water city. The genealogical inquiry defines three main eras of the relationship between the forces of interest. The first era concerns the period before the arrival of European powers in Southeast Asia. In this period, this thesis established two elements of importance. First, there is a significant impact of the political and the religious forces in the formation of the social organisation. If was found that there is an emphasis on the politic of the family group, the close and extended family. Also, there is the discovery that the social is organised in a strict hierarchy of ‘social assemblages’ following a nobility system, with at the top a Raja/Sultan. Second, there is a great importance of the relationship of the social with the water. This relationship shapes the economy, the relation to other cultures, and social formations. Having given expressions to all these forces, the thesis argues that these as they are shaped, in parallel shape the form, process of formation, of the diversity of architecture. Brunei is built in the water, and the forms of the diversity of urban area reflects the powers and the opportunities that are acting in the social field in relation to ecological forces. What is associated to social and environmental forces shapes the built environment. The second era happened when European powers took over the region. As they did so, they transformed the political system at the top only, and changed fundamentally the economic system. The thesis proposes that even if the form and diversity of architecture seem to remain the same as the previous era, a different sense to the form has arisen. This thesis’ description of the new composition of all the forces at play revealed this new sense. The third era came forth with two factors. First, the colonial power gave back to the head of Brunei’s social system, the Sultan, all the country’s powers: political, economic and religious. The second factor was the change in the world economic system and its dependence on oil. Within an IPRAUS urban morphology framework, the meaning of Brunei water city’s current diversity of architecture would be given as follows: it is a form that is a modern vernacular form with the basis of that form being the form of the past, actualised by modern practices. This thesis, however, proposes different findings: The diversity of architecture carries a different sense that reflects the struggles between political powers and subjects taking opportunities that are present. There is more than the form. The forces at play reflect the Sultan’s will to rectify the water city because the city is dying, slowly disappearing. The social fabric of the villages is dissolving, and so is its architectural fabric. Once only comprising only financially-independent Bruneian families, the water city now houses only poor Bruneians that cannot access the mainland or its economy, and immigrants that have found cheap accommodation and an entry into that economy. The sense of the water city’s diversity of architecture is thus better understood by giving expression to the interplay of all these different forces: the form of architectures—built in the past, along with that lived by the lives of today. This thesis conclusion theorises how the philosophical and experimental findings of this research might open a different approach to discussing and studying architecture than the current approaches offered in urban morphology and through IPRAUS. By returning to a discussion of the questions: How do we “explain the form, process of formation and diversity of urban areas [?]” (Kropf, 1993, 3), and ‘how do we theorise the relationship between the social and the architectural in urban morphology?’ the thesis identifies an ecology of problems, concepts and presumptions. It proposes that Deleuzian philosophical concepts allow the limitations of current approaches to be transcended. Finally, by drawing on examples of the analysis of Brunei’s water city, the thesis emphasises a shift in ontology and method, which may be of use to others in broader efforts to work transversally within urban morphology in the future.

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  • Empirical Determination of Sieve Size Statistics from Grain Measurement

    Adams, John Edward (1974)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Relationships between sieve grain size and thin section grain size have been determined empirically from the study of 72 artificially created sendstone samples. Modern sands were sieved into size fractions, which were recombined in a log normal distribution to give samples with a range of means and standard deviations, but with similar individual grain properties. Sample splits of these were impregnated with resin, and the size distribution of grain long axes selected by point counter in thin section was compared with that found by sieving the remaining sample. This method attempts to minimise the effects of factors that influence apparent size in thin section. The results have been compared with those of (1958, 1962) who studied the same size relationships in 38 natural sandstones, e.g. This work: Sieve size from Folk = 1.078(thin section mean) + 0.200 phi graphical mean 1/3(Ø16+Ø50+Ø84) Friedman (1958): Sieve size mean from = 0.903(thin section mean) + 0.381 phi combined quartile measures Ø25, Ø50,Ø75 The regression coefficients differ from those of Friedman, probably because of the range of mean sizes investigated in the present work was twice as large (5.7 phi units vs. 2.6 phi units). The correlation coefficient relating sieve to thin section analysis decreases progressively, as Friedman found, from mean (0.992) to standard deviation (0.958), skewness (O.536), and kurtosis (0.249). The correlation for skewness and kurtosis is not significant. The size range was extended to -3.5 phi by the study of the mean size of selected gravel samples measured in sawn slabs. The resulting regression line has a slope of one and an intercept of 0.4 phi and is close to that found for the sands. Grain size in grain mount is also closely related to sieve and thin section size, and a preliminary study of pebble size measured from photographs suggests that this may also be converted to an equivalent sieve size. On qualitative grounds the relationships between the various mean size statistics should involve the simple addition of a constant phi value. However the slopes of the regression equations found in the present work differ slightly from a slope of one. This difference is shown to represent a progressive shape change with size. For a constant b/a ratio of 0.73 or 0.70 conversion of thin section mean size (in phi units) to an equivalent sieve value should therefore be made by the simple addition of a 0.33 or 0.40 phi constant respectively.

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  • Testing the Asymmetric Inhibition Model: Frontal EEG Asymmetry Does Not Predict Inhibitory Control of Emotional Distractors

    Moody, Rosanna (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry is a reliable marker of psychopathology vulnerability, yet the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. There is accumulating evidence that frontal asymmetry reflects individual differences in ability to use cognitive control to regulate emotional processing. This thesis provides the first test of the asymmetric inhibition model (Grimshaw & Carmel, 2014), which holds that frontal asymmetry reflects ability to engage valence-specific inhibitory control mechanisms supported by dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC): left dlPFC inhibits negative distractors and right dlPFC inhibits positive distractors. Frontal asymmetry was tested as a predictor of ability to inhibit distracting emotional images. Frontal asymmetry was measured at rest and during emotional challenge, which is argued to provide a more powerful measure of individual differences (capability model; Coan, Allen, & McKnight, 2006). Emotional challenge was induced using a stressful serial subtraction task, verified to be effective in Study 1, followed by a silent speech preparation task, during which EEG was recorded. An irrelevant distractor paradigm measured ability to inhibit emotional distraction; participants identified a target letter within a central symbol array while attempting to inhibit positive, negative and neutral peripheral images (Study 2). Overall, positive and negative images were more distracting than neutral images. Critically, neither resting nor emotional challenge frontal asymmetry predicted distraction by positive, negative or neutral images, suggesting that frontal asymmetry does not reflect ability to inhibit irrelevant emotional distractors. Thus, the asymmetric inhibition model was not supported. This thesis provides the first direct test of the relationship between frontal EEG asymmetry and inhibitory control of emotion, paving the way for future explorations into this relationship. These findings add to a growing literature attempting to elucidate the cognitive mechanisms underlying frontal asymmetry in order to better understand the etiology of psychopathology.

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  • An Archaeomagnetic Study of Hangi Stones in New Zealand

    Kinger, Rimpy (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Burnt or fired archaeological artefacts often retain a record of the magnetic field in which they were last heated and cooled. Over the past four years we have collected oriented hangi stones from 10 archaeological sites spread across the North and South Islands of New Zealand. The stones vary in lithology from andesites, originating from the central North Island volcanoes, favoured by Maori for their durability and with remanent magnetization up to 30 A/m, to sandstones and schists from the main axial ranges, with magnetizations as weak as 10-4 A/m. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments retrieved from amongst the stones indicates that the sites span from ca. 1400 AD to the present. In all cases, we have independently oriented and retrieved several stones, and we have made several samples from each stone, either by drilling (standard cylindrical samples) or sawing (pseudo-cubes) in the laboratory. We have calculated site mean palaeomagnetic directions (Dec between 1.5o and 19.6o and Inc between -52.2o and -68.3o) from principal component analysis of thermal demagnetization and alternating field demagnetization data, discarding the data of stones that show evidence of disturbance after cooling. The directions are in good agreement with recently published palaeosecular variation records from lake sediments. We have carried out palaeointensity experiments using the Coe/Thellier method with pTRM and tail checks, and with selection criteria modified to the situation. Palaeointensities range from 50μT to 77μT. Rock magnetic experiments contribute to our understanding of the mineralogy, domain state and blocking temperature spectra. We compare our data with predictions of the global field models ARCH3k and gufm1, and suggest that the addition of our new data will improve these models for the SW Pacific region for the most recent time period. Archaeomagnetic measurements are also used to date hangi sites by matching the palaeo-direction to an established archaeomagnetic dating model, NZPSV1k. Archaeomagnetic dating is used to resolve ambiguities in the calibration of radiocarbon dates, and shows up inconsistencies due to unreliable source material for radiocarbon dating. Archaeomagnetic dating and radiocarbon dating results are combined to give the best estimates of the best age of the hangi sites.

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  • Applying Formal Modelling to the Specification and Testing of SDN Network Functionality

    Stevens, Matt (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Software Defined Networks offers a new paradigm to manage networks, one that favors centralised control over the distributed control used in legacy networks. This brings network operators potential efficiencies in capital investment, operating costs and wider choice in network appliance providers. We explore in this research whether these efficiencies apply to all network functionality by applying formal modelling to create a mathematically rigourous model of a service, a firewall, and using that model to derive tests that are ultimately applied to two SDN firewalls and a legacy stateful firewall. In the process we discover the only publicly available examples of SDN firewalls are not equivalent to legacy stateful firewalls and in fact create a security flaw that may be exploited by an attacker.

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  • Synthesis and Reactivity of Group 12 β-Diketiminate Coordination Complexes

    Webb, Dylan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The variable β-diketiminate ligand poses as a suitable chemical environment to explore unknown reactivity and functionality of metal centres. Variants on the β-diketiminate ligand can provide appropriate steric and electronic stabilization to synthesize a range of β-diketiminate group 12 metal complexes. This project aimed to explore various β-diketiminate ligands as appropriate ancillary ligands to derivatise group 12 element complexes and investigate their reactivity. A β-diketiminato-mercury(II) chloride, [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]HgCl, was synthesized by addition of [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]Li to mercury dichloride. Attempts to derivatise the β-diketiminato-mercury(II) chloride using salt metathesis reactions were unsuccessful with only β-diketiminate ligand degradation products being observed in the ¹H NMR. A β-diketiminato-cadmium chloride, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂]CdCl, was derivatized to a β-diketiminato-cadmium phosphanide, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂]Cd P(C₆H₁₁)₂, via a lithium dicyclohexyl phosphanide and a novel β-diketiminato-cadmium hydride, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂]CdH, via Super Hydride. Initial reactivity studies of the novel cadmium hydride with various carbodiimides yielded a β-diketiminato-homonuclear cadmium-cadmium dimer, [CH{(CH₃)CN-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}₂Cd]₂, which formed via catalytic reduction of the cadmium hydride. Attempts to synthesize an amidinate insertion product via a salt metathesis reaction or a ligand exchange reaction proved unsuccessful but a novel cadmium amidinate, [{CH(N-C₆H₁₁)₂}₂{CH(N-C₆H₁₁)(N(H)-C₆H₁₁)}Cd], was synthesized from addition of dicyclohexyl formamidine to bis-hexamethyldisilazane cadmium. A β-diketiminato-zinc(II) bromide, [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]ZnBr, was synthesized by addition of [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6- iPr₂C₆H₃)}]Li to zinc dibromide. The β-diketiminato-zinc(II) bromide was derivatized to a variety of complexes (including amides and phosphanides) by a salt metathesis reaction. Chalcogen addition reactions were performed from [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃)}ZnP(C₆H₁₁)₂] to produce double addition products from sulfur, selenium and tellurium. Chalcogen addition reactions from [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃)}ZnP(C₆H₅)₂] produced a double addition product for selenium and a β-diketiminato-zinc(II) tellunoite bridged dimer, [o-C₆H₄{C(CH₃)=N-2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃}{NH(2,6-iPr₂C₆H₃)}Zn]Te, from tellurium. A total of 14 compounds were characterized via X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence studies of the β-diketiminato-zinc(II) compounds were conducted where it was proposed that an electron transfer from the lone pair on the hetero-atom influenced the quantum yield and fluorescence intensities.

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  • Genetic Programming for Automatically Synthesising Robust Image Descriptors with A Small Number of Instances

    Al-Sahaf, Harith (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Image classification is a core task in many applications of computer vision, including object detection and recognition. It aims at analysing the visual content and automatically categorising a set of images into different groups. Performing image classification can largely be affected by the features used to perform this task. Extracting features from images is a challenging task due to the large search space size and practical requirements such as domain knowledge and human intervention. Human intervention is usually needed to identify a good set of keypoints (regions of interest), design a set of features to be extracted from those keypoints such as lines and corners, and develop a way to extract those features. Automating these tasks has great potential to dramatically decrease the time and cost, and may potentially improve the performance of the classification task. There are two well-recognised approaches in the literature to automate the processes of identifying keypoints and extracting image features. Designing a set of domain-independent features is the first approach, where the focus is on dividing the image into a number of predefined regions and extracting features from those regions. The second approach is synthesising a function or a set of functions to form an image descriptor that aims at automatically detecting a set of keypoints such as lines and corners, and performing feature extraction. Although employing image descriptors is more effective and very popular in the literature, designing those descriptors is a difficult task that in most cases requires domain-expert intervention. The overall goal of this thesis is to develop a new domain independent Genetic Programming (GP) approach to image classification by utilising GP to evolve programs that are capable of automatically detecting diverse and informative keypoints, designing a set of features, and performing feature extraction using only a small number of training instances to facilitate image classification, and are robust to different image changes such as illumination and rotation. This thesis focuses on incorporating a variety of simple arithmetic operators and first-order statistics (mid-level features) into the evolutionary process and on representation of GP to evolve programs that are robust to image changes for image classification. This thesis proposes methods for domain-independent binary classification in images using GP to automatically identify regions within an image that have the potential to improve classification while considering the limitation of having a small training set. Experimental results show that in over 67% of cases the new methods significantly outperform the use of existing hand-crafted features and features automatically detected by other methods. This thesis proposes the first GP approach for automatically evolving an illumination-invariant dense image descriptor that detects automatically designed keypoints, and performs feature extraction using only a few instances of each class. The experimental results show improvement of 86% on average compared to two GP-based methods, and can significantly outperform domain-expert hand-crafted descriptors in more than 89% of the cases. This thesis also considers rotation variation of images and proposes a method for automatically evolving rotation-invariant image descriptors through integrating a set of first-order statistics as terminals. Compared to hand-crafted descriptors, the experimental results reveal that the proposed method has significantly better performance in more than 83% of the cases. This thesis proposes a new GP representation that allows the system to automatically choose the length of the feature vector side-by-side with evolving an image descriptor. Automatically determining the length of the feature vector helps to reduce the number of the parameters to be set. The results show that this method has evolved descriptors with a very small feature vector which yet still significantly outperform the competitive methods in more than 91% of the cases. This thesis proposes a method for transfer learning by model in GP, where an image descriptor evolved on instances of a related problem (source domain) is applied directly to solve a problem being tackled (target domain). The results show that the new method evolves image descriptors that have better generalisability compared to hand-crafted image descriptors. Those automatically evolved descriptors show positive influence on classifying the target domain datasets in more than 56% of the cases.

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  • Holocene sediment transport and climate variability of offshore Adélie Land, East Antarctica

    Albot, Anna Borisovna (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Grain size analysis of the terrigenous fraction of a laminated diatom ooze dating back to 11.4 kyr recovered offshore Adélie Land, East Antarctic margin was used to examine variations in sediment transport, depositional environments and Holocene climate variability at the location. Interpretations were assisted by additional proxies of primary productivity (δ¹³CFA, BSi%), glacial meltwater input (δDFA) and subsurface temperature (TEXL₈₆). Three lithologic intervals with distinct grain size distributions were identified. At ~11.4 ka the diatom ooze has a clear glacimarine influence which gradually decreases until ~8.2 ka. During this time interval, coincident with the early Holocene warm period, sediment is inferred to have been delivered by glacial meltwater plumes and ice-bergs in a calving bay environment. It is suggested that the glaciers in Adélie Land had retreated to their present day grounding lines by 8.2 ka, and from then on sediment was delivered to the site primarily via the Antarctic Coastal and Slope Front Currents, largely through a suspended sediment load and erosion of the surrounding banks. Enhanced biogenic mass accumulation rates and primary production at 8.2 ka suggest onset of warmer climatic conditions, coincident with the mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum. At ~4.5 ka, grain size distributions show a rapid increase in mud content coincident with a transient pulse of glacial meltwater and a sudden decrease in biogenic and terrigenous mass accumulation rates. The increased mud content is inferred to have been deposited under a reduced flow regime of the Antarctic Coastal and Slope Front Currents during the Neoglacial period that followed the final stages of deglaciation in the Ross Sea. It is hypothesised here that cessation of glacial retreat in the Ross Sea and the development of the modern day Ross Sea polynya resulted in enhanced Antarctic Surface Water production which led to increased sea ice growth in the Adélie Land region. The presence of sea ice led to reduced primary production and a decrease in the maximum current strength acting to advect coarser-sized terrigenous sediment to the core site during this time. Sedimentation rates appear to have a strong correlation with the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the last 8.2 kyr, and are inferred to be related to changing sea ice extent and zonal wind strength. Light laminae counts (biogenic bloom events) appear to decrease in frequency during time intervals dominated by El Niño events. Spectral analysis of the greyscale values of core photographs reveals peaks in the 2-7 year band, known ENSO periods, which increase in frequency in the mid-and-late Holocene. Spectral analyses of the sand percent and natural gamma ray (NGR, a measure of clay mineral input) content of the core reveal peaks in the ~40-60, 200-300, 600, 1200-1600 and 2200-2400 year bands. The most significant of these cycles in the NGR data is in 40-60 year band may be related to internal mass balance dynamics of the Mertz Glacier or to the expansion and contraction of the Antarctic circumpolar vortex. Cycles in the 200-300 and 2200-2400 year bands are related to known periods of solar variability, which have previously been found to regulate primary productivity in Antarctic coastal waters. Cycles in the 590-625 and 1200-1600 year bands have a strong signal through the entire record and are common features of Holocene climatic records, however the origin of these cycles is still under debate between solar forcing and an independent mode of internal ocean oscillation.

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  • High Ground, Low Ground: Explorations in Topography and Neighbourliness in Coastal Dune Settlement.

    Wallis, Stephanie (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The desire to live close to the ocean often brings about settlement that sprawls along the beachfront, parallel to the coastline. This settlement structure is problematic as it diminishes the importance of community while exposing beachfront housing to coastal hazards. The coastal dune settlements of Waikanae and Paraparaumu, where this research has been undertaken, exhibits this problematic settlement structure. Using these sites as a case study, the research seeks to re-examine the New Zealand coastal land settlement formation. It explores what could happen if the current coastal settlement pattern re-organised as a more social structure? The research is investigating an approach to settlement through re-examining the idea of neighbourhood by looking at its whole relation to the coastal dune topography, ecology, and wider landscape relations. However, not only does this research look at the social potentials of coastal settlement but how disaster planning can become a device to achieve this outcome. Essentially, it aligns itself with the attitude that flooding and coastal hazards should not just be looked at as an engineering problem but an opportunity to alter the way in which we settle coastlines in a way that builds community.

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  • Estimating the relationship between skill and overconfidence

    Feld, Jan; Sauermann, Jan; De Grip, Andries (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Dunning–Kruger effect states that low performers vastly overestimate their performance while high performers more accurately assess their performance. Researchers usually interpret this empirical pattern as evidence that the low skilled are vastly overconfident while the high skilled are more accurate in assessing their skill. However, measurement error alone can lead to a negative relationship between performance and overestimation, even if skill and overconfidence are unrelated. To clarify the role of measurement error, we restate the Dunning–Kruger effect in terms of skill and overconfidence. We show that we can correct for bias caused by measurement error with an instrumental variable approach that uses a second performance as instrument. We then estimate the Dunning–Kruger effect in the context of the exam grade predictions of economics students, using their grade point average as an instrument for their exam grade. Our results show that the unskilled are more overconfident than the skilled. However, as we predict in our methodological discussion, this relationship is significantly weaker than ordinary least squares estimates suggest.

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  • Business Value of ICT for Small Tourism Enterprises: The Case of Sri Lanka

    Abeysekara, U.G.D Lakshila Dilhani Perera (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Researchers and practitioners believe that Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) create business value in organisations. However in practice, organisations often struggle to demonstrate the benefits of ICTs. This difficulty in demonstrating the value of ICTs to organisations is not related to the technology itself, but rather the ways in which technology is used, and how it creates business value. There is an extensive body of literature which focuses on these issues. However, it is predominantly centred on large organisations in the context of developed countries. There is a lack of research on how ICTs create business value in small enterprises particularly in relation to developing countries. Hence, the business value of ICTs remains an important research topic for information systems researchers. The tourism industry is highly information intensive and the use of ICTs in tourism has become so widespread it is almost obligatory. While the benefits that larger tourism organisations gain from ICTs have been well researched, little is known about how ICTs can be utilised to maximise the business value of Small Tourism Enterprises (STEs). Understanding the value of ICTs for STEs is important as they have gained widespread recognition as a major source of employment, income generation and poverty alleviation in developing countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore how ICTs can contribute to the business value of STEs. Using a combination of Barney’s Resource Based View of the firm (RBV) and an integrated model developed by combining the Business value of IT framework by Melville et al. and the tourism production system by Poon and Alford, this study examines how ICTs contribute to the business value of STEs. A post-positivist qualitative multi-case study was carried out using 35 STEs which represent the major tourist regions of Sri Lanka. Semi-structured interviews were the main method of data collection supported by document and website analysis. Data analysis was guided by template coding. The initial template developed using the dimensions identified from the literature was further analysed by integrating the themes which emerged from the research data. Data was analysed across cases, using a cross tabular design to compare categories and analyse within-group similarities and inter-group differences. The use of technological and human ICT resources alongside complementary resources in key business processes was examined in order to identify how ICTs were being utilised to gain business value for STEs in Sri Lanka. The combination of internal and external factors derived from the focal firm and the external environment proved to have a significant role in determining STEs’ ability to gain business value from ICTs. Further analysis of cases across four major tourism clusters revealed that business motives, strategies, and location were the main reasons for the varying levels of business value gained by small businesses in the country. The findings of this study indicated that ICTs do contribute to the business value of STEs in Sri Lanka by improving organisational performance in terms of both financial and non-financial gains. In accordance with the claims of RBV, the findings further confirmed that in order to gain business value, ICT resources need to be combined with complementary resources. The findings also identified the significance of strategic integration of online travel agents’ resources in order for STEs to gain the optimum business value from their own ICT resources. A key outcome of this study is the development of an integrated model of the business value of ICTs for STEs. In addition, this study contributes to the theoretical understanding of IT business value research in the context of small tourism businesses, particularly in developing countries. It also has implications for business owners and governments in terms of effective utilisation of firm resources, prioritization and allocation of resources to key projects and processes.

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  • Tiền là Tiên là Phật: Investigating the persistence of corruption in Vietnam

    Vu, Anh Dao (2017)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research aims to examine the persistence of corruption in the public sector in Vietnam and explain why anti-corruption measures have been unsuccessful. It seeks to capture people’s lived experience of corruption in Vietnamese society and their perception of the failure of anti-corruption measures. It demonstrates what government officials and ordinary citizens think about corrupt practices and how they explain corrupt behaviour. The research also draws a clearer picture of Vietnam’s anti-corruption system, the weaknesses of the Anti-Corruption Law (ACL) and its implementation, from insiders’ perspectives. The research illuminates some factors identified in the literature that need to be better understood when dealing with corruption: historical, cultural, economic, administrative and political factors. This project situated Vietnam’s anti-corruption strategy within Jon Quah’s analytical framework, which identifies elements he argues are needed for an effective anti-corruption strategy in any country. Those elements include a set of formal, legal, and institutional instruments, and the need for political will, especially from governmental leaders. A qualitative approach is applied to examine corruption in the public sector in Vietnam. The main data was gathered by in-depth, semi-structured interviews and from official documents. Different groups of participants - specialists in the anti-corruption field including politicians, high-ranking government officials, journalists, academics, international organisations, and NGOs - were interviewed. Vietnamese citizens also were interviewed; all had experienced corruption in their daily life. The findings suggest an institutional anti-corruption framework, while necessary, cannot adequately deal with the multi-factor causes of corruption in Vietnam. Moreover, “political will” is not only about providing Anti-Corruption Agencies with enough resources, nor about their institutional arrangements, but also about politicians being willing to support the institutions they have created and to reinforce their effectiveness by making hard political decisions. The essential elements of political will in fighting corruption involve not only the institutional framework (the top-down approach) but also society as a whole (the bottom-up approach). The thesis concludes that corruption in the public sector in Vietnam is the product of a complex mix of state institutions, elite political behaviour, social, cultural, economic and management factors. These are at the root of the corruption problem in the country, but they have not been seriously addressed. The current anti-corruption system needs to be reformed if it is to become more effective. Policy attention also needs to shift to the design of effective incentives for the populace to resist succumbing to bribe demands. This “citizen resistance” will, in fact, make governments more accountable for taking effective action against both grand and petty corruption.

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