6,210 results for Scholarly text

  • Estimating bias of technical progress with a small dataset

    Khaled, Mohammed S (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Economic historians frequently face the challenge of estimation and inference when only a small sample of the relevant data is available. We illustrate solutions to the challenges through a case study analysis of the Uselding and Juba (1973) data. They have only seven observations available to estimate of the bias of technical progress in United States manufacturing in the nineteenth century. They are able to offer estimates of the bias only by assuming that production technology is not Cobb-Douglas, technical progress is non-neutral and that elasticity of substitution between labour and capital is less than 0.9. These assumptions could not be tested owing to the paucity of the required historical data. This case study illustrates the use of both additional theoretical information and appropriate statistical techniques to alleviate problems of estimation and inference with small samples.

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  • Climate change and national security: Analysis of the New Zealand Defence White Paper 2016 and the effect climate change will have on New Zealand's national security

    James, Joshua (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Climate change is going to be a driver of regional instability and conflict, and the New Zealand Government needs to take this into account when preparing its national security plan. The New Zealand Defence White Paper 2016 has omitted any mention of climate change and this thesis has addressed the ramifications of this, as well as providing policy recommendations where the Defence White Paper 2016 could be strengthened. There are five areas in which it can be strengthened: the strategic outlook, Antarctica, the South Pacific, Humanitarian Work, and a domestic focus. Through using the Copenhagen School of Security we can identify that by naming climate change as a threat to national security, it enables us to address these threats through a securitisation of climate change. This securitisation involves, but is not limited to, reducing carbon emissions, increasing humanitarian aid, and purchasing more off-shore patrol vessels.

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  • Assessing the Impact of Section 75 of the Northern Ireland Act 1998 on Individuals

    Reeves, Dorothy (2007-02)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Repository as a Service Bibliography

    Zhao, Yanan (2013)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Repository as a Service Bibliography includes selected English-language journal articles, conference papers and technical reports that are useful in understanding the concept of repository as a service in academic and research institutions.

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  • How Climate Change is Dividing the Global Environmental Community (Invited Contribution to the Routledge Sustainability Hub)

    Neef, Andreas (2014)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Theory in Improvement and Evaluation

    Beaver, Peter; Jowsey, Tanisha (2016-06-03)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    This short document is a resource for postgraduate students and researchers in medical and health sciences who want to apply theory to research projects about improvement programmes.

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  • Rethinking the Suburban Shopping Centre

    Green, Anthony (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Auckland city is New Zealand’s fastest growing city which continues to sprawl outwards degrading the biodiversity of the natural systems. The population’s culture of the ‘quarter-acre dream’ opposes intensification in low rise suburbia. While suburban shopping centres are the product of urban sprawl they are now situated in central areas relative to the growing city. Their land is now more valuable than the surface car parking that occupies the majority of the site and has the opportunity to foster intensification. In addition, these centres no longer provide a new exciting retail experience and the retail environments lack any point of difference between suburb to suburb, city to city and country to country. The research explores three bodies of work; new urbanists Jan Gehl and Peter Calthorpe; retail theory on theatrical experience from the architect Jon Jerde, and eco-master planning of Ken Yeang. Forming the hypothesis that ecology has the ability to facilitate the hybridisation of new urbanism and retail environments creating identity and sense of place for an intensified suburban-centre. Ecology has the capacity to create a theatrical experience to re-image the retail environments towards environmental conscious consumption. The inquiry contends that urban planning and development has fragmented the regions natural systems degrading the biodiversity of species that once occupied the built area. As we continue to consume more land and more commodities, we become removed from the environment, the thing that gives us life. The outcome of this investigation is an urban masterplan and framework for Highland Park Shopping Centre, accommodating commercial, retail, recreational and residential activities in the form of a new suburban centre that reconnects and enhances the region’s natural systems. The centre becomes a catalyst for further intensification in its surrounding context. The strategies employed for the design case study can be replicated at other suburban centres allowing intensification to be enriched from the sites ecology.

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  • Sociolinguistic Variation in Hong Kong Sign Language

    Siu, Wai Yan Rebecca (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Internal lexical variation appears to be a prominent feature within signed languages; it is perhaps a result of their distinctive acquisition patterns and fragile transmission. Recent research in different signed languages indicates that sociolinguistic variation within signed languages parallels some patterns found in spoken languages, though with some factors distinct to the former. This research examines sociolinguistic variation in a regional sign language, Hong Kong Sign Language (HKSL), “spoken” by deaf people in Hong Kong. The focus of this dissertation is lexical variation and two phonological variations in the signs DEAF/HEARING, and ‘location drop’ in articulation of signs made at the forehead. This research project is a modified replication of the earlier studies in American Sign Language, Australian Sign Language, and New Zealand Sign Language (Lucas, Bayley, & Valli, 2001; Schembri, McKee, McKee, Pivac, Johnston, & Goswell, 2009; McKee & McKee, 2011). The data of 65 participants recruited from the researcher’s networks in the HKSL community using the friend-of-a-friend method was analyzed. Three types of data were collected: free conversation, picture naming and interview. A set of 120 pictures (with/without Chinese characters) was used to elicit signs for the concepts represented. Fifty-one out of these 120 concepts were analyzed from the semantic domains of colour, kinship, number, and country/region. Results show that school attended and age of signer play a prominent role in lexical variation. A gender effect is also found in several concepts. In addition to individual lexical items, the use of compound signs, ‘citation forms’ and handedness in number signs were also examined. Various social factors including school, age, gender, education, and work environment, interact with each other to constrain the variant choices. While numbers over ten can be produced either one-handed or two-handed, signs for hundred and tens highly favour the latter. Regarding phonological variation, conversation videos of 40 participants were annotated for the DEAF/HEARING and location drop variables. For the DEAF/HEARING variables, preliminary investigation of the movement pattern demonstrates that there may be two different types of change going on: linguistically driven (originated from compounds) and socially driven (motivated by redefining deaf identity). It also suggests that DEAF is in a further stage of development than HEARING. For the location variable, twenty tokens from each participant were coded, producing 800 tokens for multivariate analysis. Again, complex correlations between social factors are found to constrain the lowering of signs. The findings further indicate that this change has originated in the deaf school name signs due to their salience, and signers from these schools have led the change. In addition, the results in both phonological variables show that grammatical constraints play an essential role in conditioning variant choices, which parallels results of the previous studies. In sum, the lexical analysis results affirm the crucial role of school in shaping a signer’s lexicon. The findings of the phonological variables confirm the role of grammatical function. Also, there is evidence of language change in progress in this young sign language.

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  • Reclaiming Social Space: Adapting Neighbourhoods to Support an Ageing Population

    McClintock, Lisa (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The age structure of New Zealand’s population is expected to undergo a dramatic change in the next few decades. By 2050, it is thought that approximately one quarter of the population will be aged 65+. Research indicates that the overwhelming preference of older adults is to age in their own homes and communities if possible. However, loneliness among community-dwelling older adults is widespread. Architecture as a discipline has unique potential to critique existing neighbourhood design and generate creative solutions to provide a more socially fulfilling environment for residents to age in place. Architecture for ageing must combat loneliness and enable continued contact in later life. This research explores the sensitive adaptation of inner suburban Wellington neighbourhoods with the aim of empowering inhabitants to age positively in the community.

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  • What is the impact of the South Auckland Geek Camps in developing young people's confidence in the application of their digital competencies?

    Munro, Sonia Fay (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Auckland Libraries is the largest public library system in Australasia. Mangere Town Centre Library, a community library located in South Auckland, embarked on a journey to reposition itself as an innovative digital space in 2015, working collaboratively with NGO Accelerating Aotearoa to deliver a series of community digital events called Park Jams and Geek Camps. NGO Accelerating Aotearoa has delivered Geek Camps in Mangere, Otara, Manukau, and Clendon over the past four years. "Geek camps," are essentially makerspace sessions where young people have the opportunity to engage with digital technology and are inspired to think about the possibility of a future career in the digital field. This qualitative research examines the impact of these South Auckland Geek Camps in developing young people's confidence in the application of their digital competencies. Research methodology consisted of two semi-structured interviews conducted with six purposefully selected intermediate-aged students before and after a Geek Camp, together with observations of the participants at the "Geek Camp" and the "Celebration of Learning" event. A content and thematic analysis of the interview transcripts, and responses from a Likert Scale questionnaire, supported by student observations, confirmed that students' digital confidence levels grew, as a result of attending a Geek Camp, and the newly acquired digital skills were likely to be applied in the future.

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  • In defence of the 'school' in MLES

    Locke, Kirsten (2016-04-20)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    The notion of school as a place of learning that is time-bound and situated in a geographically defined space is challenged by virtual learning spaces that can be accessed anywhere, at any time, on a device that can be carried anywhere. If schools are to prepare our young people for the realities of the hyper-digital context of 21st Century society, the logic goes then that they must be fit for purpose in a way that enables and empowers students to enter into and engage in this digital/societal context.

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  • Artefacts of Encounter: a collaborative project at Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology

    Hogsden, C; Lythberg, Billie (2013)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    Artefacts of Encounter was a 3-year project (April 2010 – March 2013) that located and examined artefacts collected on more than 40 voyages that entered Polynesia between 1765-1840, and used these artefacts as primary evidence of the nature and legacy of encounters between European explorers and Pacific islanders. A key project aim was to develop a way to collaborate with institutions holding artefacts, and the communities from whom these originated, via a digital platform. Our collaboration with Maori arts group Toi Hauiti was intended to initiate a reciprocal platform for co-creation around objects, providing access and authorship at a local level whilst simultaneously sharing information amongst project partners.

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  • Generic Purpose Thematic Data Analysis Made Easy

    Jowsey, Tanisha (2016-04-27)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    This resource provides a practical step-by-step guide towards undertaking thematic analysis of health-related qualitative material.

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  • Identifying and referencing images

    Jowsey, Tanisha (2016-10-11)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    This resource provides information about identifying and referencing images from the internet using Creative Commons.

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  • Qualitative methodology made easy

    Jowsey, Tanisha; Desborough, J (2016-08-12)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    This resource provides an outline of main philosophical paradigms (constructionism, constructivism, and phenomenology) and qualitative research methods.

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  • Valuing practical work

    Burchill, Denis (2013-10-30)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    Would you do more or less practical work if assessment constraints were removed, asks DENIS BURCHILL.

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  • Review – Final Rule for FSMA Intentional Adulteration (Food Defense) Regarding Food Fraud and EMA

    Spink, JW; Moyer, D; Huff, A; Evans, Bradley (2016-06-22)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) Intentional Adulteration Rule (FSMA-IA) draft was published in December 2013, public meetings started in February 2014 and the final rule was published May 27, 2016. The effective date is in 60 days but “[FDA] are providing for a longer timeline for facilities to come into compliance” in at least three years, or May 2019. Economically Motivated Adulteration (EMA) – and Food Fraud (FF) – is in the FSMA law due to the text “…intentional adulteration, including acts of terrorism.” FDA announced their scope narrowed to “wide scale [human] public health harms” and removed from this rule the concepts of EMA, disgruntled employees, tampering, etc. The FSMA compliance requirements for FF & EMA are in the Preventive Controls Rule (FSMA-PC). FSMA-IA also continually confirms many times that the Food, Drug & Cosmetics Act (FDCA) is still in effect, which includes all types of Food Fraud, even without a health hazard (“Adulterated Foods” and “Misbranded Foods”). CONCLUSION Even though Food Fraud (FF) and Economically Motivated Adulteration (EMA) are not a compliance requirement for FSMA-IA, this final rule provides important insight into FSMA and assessments: Addressing all types of Food Fraud is a requirement – and subject to a recall – under the Food, Drug & Cosmetics Act (FDCA). FDA specifically reiterated the FDCA compliance requirement in sections on “Adulterated Foods” and “Misbranded Foods.” FSMA-IA stated that stolen goods (various types of theft) that lead to a public health hazard are clearly defined and expected to be covered under FSMA-PC. There were no more clarifications of key terms such as reasonably foreseeable hazard, significant vulnerability, rare occurrence, credible threat, or the threshold of acceptable or unacceptable. The compliance requirement for Food Fraud is addressed in FSMA-PC, not in this FSMA-IA. Other FSMA final rules provide some insight on FDA’s thinking regarding assessments, thresholds of acceptable /unacceptable, and the compliance priorities (see appendix of full report regarding the May 26, 2016 FDA public call). Reviewing FSMA compliance is exhausting. There are seven long Final Rules that impact all aspects of a food company. There are minute details that can lead to a recall or regulatory penalties. We have focused on the Food Fraud aspects – and tried to provide as brief and concise insight as possible – so hopefully this one part of FSMA you can quickly address. We have been continually adjusting our research focus to provide academic theory, in the form of scholarly publications, to support your countermeasures and control systems. There are many resources that are available for assisting your FSMA compliance. Find trusted resources and rely on them.

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  • When relationships at work, work (and don't work!)

    Morrison, RL; Cooper Thomas, Helena; Geertshuis, S (2013-09-08)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Developing communities of mathematical inquiry: BES Exemplar 1

    Alton-Lee, A; Hunter, R; Sinnema, Claire; Pulegatoa Diggins, C (2012)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    This is the first of a series of exemplars being prepared for Quality Teaching for Diverse (All) Learners in Schooling: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration [BES]

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  • Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full Coalescent Analysis

    Bryant, D; Bouckaert, Remco; Felsenstein, J; Rosenberg, N; RoyChoudhury, A (2011-09-16)

    Scholarly text
    The University of Auckland Library

    The multi-species coalescent provides an elegant theoretical framework for estimating species trees and species demographics from genetic markers. Practical applications of the multi-species coalescent model are, however, limited by the need to integrate or sample over all gene trees possible for each genetic marker. Here we describe a polynomial-time algorithm that computes the likelihood of a species tree directly from the markers under a finite-sites model of mutation, effectively integrating over all possible gene trees. The method applies to independent (unlinked) biallelic markers such as well-spaced single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and we have implemented it in SNAPP, a Markov chain Monte-Carlo sampler for inferring species trees, divergence dates, and population sizes. We report results from simulation experiments and from an analysis of 1997 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci in 69 individuals sampled from six species of {\em Ourisia} (New Zealand native foxglove).

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