6,139 results for Scholarly text

  • Calendar 1942

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1942)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1986

    Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington, N.Z.) (1986)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Leaving a Trail - Revealing heritage in a rural landscape

    Rodgers, Maria (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    ‘Leaving a Trail – revealing heritage in a rural landscape’ investigates how landscape architecture can reveal heritage and connect Māori and Pākehā to the land and to the past in rural Aotearoa New Zealand. Our rural landscapes contain rich and varied stories, which, if interpreted and made stronger by being linked together, have the potential to create cultural and recreational assets as well as tourist drawcards. A starting point for this research based in South Wairarapa was the six sites identified by the Wairarapa Moana Management Team as sites for development. The first design ‘hunch’ remained the touchstone of the project. With the six Wairarapa Moana Wetlands Park sites forming an ‘inner necklace’ the aim of this project became creating an ‘outer necklace’ of revealed heritage sites, a heritage trail. This thesis was inspired by the depth of Māori connection to the land. Māori consider the natural world is able to ‘speak’ to humans. The method chosen for this design research is based on landscape architect Christophe Girot’s ‘Four Trace Concepts in Landscape Architecture’. Girot is interested in methods and techniques that expand landscape projects beyond the amelioration of sites towards the reactivation of the cultural dimensions of sites. As part of this research is to enable connection with the cultural dimensions of sites, or to ‘hear the site speak’, his method was chosen as a starting point. It was adapted and shaped by previous experience and the experience of this research to form a new method, ‘Four Listening Acts in Landscape Architecture’. Through such methods landscape architects can grow their relationship with the land and so better design with the land and for the landscape and its people. After research, the sites were chosen and grouped into four major routes, Māori, Pākehā settlement, natural system and military, so as to appeal to people with a variety of interests. Of the twenty six trail sites most are already marked and eleven are unmarked. Research into how to reveal these unmarked sites saw three different approaches used. Sites with spaces had their essence intensified to become places. Other sites had objects designed for them directly related to the landscape. The significance of the rest is shown with numbered markers. These three different methods of revealing a site’s significance are threaded together into a series, a necklace, creating a trail that contributes a cultural, recreational and tourist resource to South Wairarapa.

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  • Smart Tray: Speculating The Future New Zealand Dining Experience

    Levy, Joe (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research proposes a design solution that embraces New Zealander’s proclivity for pervasive digital technology and that aims to meet the needs and desires of the future Kiwi dining experience. This research proposition is directed by an approach that situates itself between future forecasting and speculative design, whereby the design output is viable while simultaneously capable of provoking critical reflection about the future of design as it relates to domestic dining appliances. The development of a design solution, the Smart Tray, encapsulates these aims and has been guided by a comprehensive investigation into the points of connection that exist between culture, technology, design and social behaviour. The Smart Tray seeks to acknowledge New Zealand’s history while embodying its contemporary domestic dining culture in proposing an appliance-device that embraces digital technology as part of the everyday dining experience. This research has been supported by the application of various methodologies inclusive of the critical review of academic literature that has functioned to frame and support the scope of the research proposition; case studies in which a selection of Kiwi households have been interviewed, observed, and their behaviours analysed in order to gain a greater understanding of contemporary dining habits and their relationship with pervasive digital technologies at home; and iterative design development inclusive of concept sketching, sketch modelling, experience prototyping, and user feedback. Although this research is contextualised within New Zealand, the general research outcomes are applicable to a wide market. The outputs produced as a result of this research, including the exegesis and design of the final Smart Tray, are intended to offer a valuable critical perspective and viable future design solution that will aid in furthering the professional field of dining design.

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  • Renewal of the Abject; Manure-facturing in the Horowhenua District

    Rofe, Rebecca (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Two prominent issues are affecting the vitality of regional settlements in the New Zealand context. Firstly, urbanisation has meant the migration of young workers and professionals to creative and economic urban centres, leaving demographic gaps in the regions and a dwindling population. Secondly, the exploitation of regional landscapes by cities has led to severe degradation of extensive wetland ecosystems. Wetlands drained for farming, large-scale deforestation and industrial settlements established to support agriculture and forestry contribute to the artificial landscape morphology. New Zealand’s waterways and lakes now suffer from eutrophication; an enrichment of nutrients caused by dairy run-off and increased sediments, characterised by a build-up of organic matter producing toxic algae bloom. Titled ‘Renewal of the Abject’, this project is a speculative design that aims to reconcile the problematic relationship between the dairy industry and the environment. Architectural infrastructure and landscape renewal present an opportunity to challenge current urban planning tendencies in the Horowhenua District. The project proposes to reinvigorate small towns with a self-sufficient and forward planning urban framework. Levin, a prominent industrial town at the centre of the Horowhenua District, clings to the vital transport connection between Wellington and Auckland, feeding off the economic lifeline of passing traffic. With the proposed changes by NZTA to create a State Highway One Bypass east of Levin, the CBD may suffer economically leading to population decline. Lake Horowhenua, west of the town centre, was once the heart of the District with an abundance of food and natural resources. It is now considered one of the worst lakes in New Zealand based on its poor condition. Integrating infrastructure and megastructure challenges modernist attempts to zone cities by function and aims to build clean infrastructure integrated into compact urban areas. Architecture as infrastructure challenges the public understanding of production and manufacturing and their natural consequences. A redefinition of industry for the twenty-first century could improve its detrimental relationship with the environment. Clean infrastructure eliminates the need to build industries on remote brown sites, focusing on the prevention of adverse effects on the landscape and the population’s health and wellbeing. The concept of using manure-loam composite as a structural building material provides new opportunities for cost-effective architecture for towns that are economically struggling. The material is renewable and easily accessed in New Zealand, while rammed earth construction enables future growth and expansion. Using an artistic approach in constructing manure-loam buildings has the potential to produce an aesthetic distinctive of rural New Zealand. ‘Renewal of the Abject’ proposes a Megastructure to enforce a powerful urban connection between the hills and the lake with a self-sufficient spine making use of dairy waste and sewage as a building material. The reimagining of this abject materiality forms a critical discourse throughout the project influencing additional design explorations. This thesis explores current thinking around urban planning, Material production and reuse, and architectural detailing through design-led research. Perhaps, presenting an issue of scope where design exploration entered different academic fields, touching upon charged lines of research, rather than solely interrogating the architectural discipline. Proposing a megastructure in the Horowhenua district would seem counterproductive in this degraded landscape. However, compacting urban sprawl into a dense core along the eastwest axis sets out a development framework that conserves land and maximises public activity at the centre of a currently sleepy town. The megastructure can expand along this line, servicing the functions of Levin in a self-sufficient manner, unlike a typical New Zealand strip town that feeds off services along the main highway. Integrating infrastructure and megastructure challenges modernist attempts to zone cities by function and aims to build clean infrastructure integrated into compact urban areas. Architecture as infrastructure challenges the public understanding of production and manufacturing and their natural consequences. A redefinition of industry for the twenty-first century could improve its detrimental relationship with the environment. Clean infrastructure eliminates the need to build industries on remote brown sites, focusing on the prevention of adverse effects on the landscape and the population’s health and wellbeing. The concept of using manure-loam composite as a structural building material provides new opportunities for cost-effective architecture for towns that are economically struggling. The material is renewable and easily accessed in New Zealand, while rammed earth construction enables future growth and expansion. Using an artistic approach in constructing manure-loam buildings has the potential to produce an aesthetic distinctive of rural New Zealand.

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  • Calendar 1981

    Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington, N.Z.) (1981)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Anthropocentric: Real-time data for human centric architecture

    Voss, Timothy (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This is thesis explores applications of Mixed Reality, commonplace technologies and representation techniques in embodied and interactive design, through the development of an airport wayfinding system. The proposition that airports can be difficult to navigate, struggling to foster social connections, along with the challenging notion of providing an interface for Big Data spatially to users, motivates the research. The development of personalised spatial way finding techniques aids methods for the use of location and big data to ergonomically and spatially represent users’ navigation of space. Through methods of connecting people virtually within a single physical location using a unified design language, social implications of space are enhanced and extended. Finally, space which functions efficiency provides real-time feedback. Key theory in Human Computer Interaction and Embodied Design informs the research, through mixed reality, technology and data-form translations. Research is done over two stages, the first explores data inputs from users and represents these in 2D graphics. The second develops three separate design elements to create a spatial way finding system, to allow user engagement. These are a virtual projection, a set of physical forms and a set of wearable device applications. Design development happens through iterations within each experiment, and are always informed by previous work. The result is an inhabitable data space with seamless embodied design exploring the localisation of large sets of data.

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  • Calendar 1975

    Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington, N.Z.) (1975)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Return to Vernacular Origins through Parametric Interpretation

    Zhang, Yunjing (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Without any doubts, China has made a remarkable development in various fields in a last decade, and there are no any signs of that the paces of rapid development happened to China will slow down in the next decades. As a result, every city in China are entering into a boom period in term of urbanization and modernization. No matter it is a super metropolis, for instant, Shanghai, Beijing or it is a small city as Yangzhou, the one chosen for this research thesis, they are all a part of this rapid booming trending and progress. Parametric architecture has been playing a significant role in this booming period: avant-garde forms, incredibly large scale, starchitect such as Zaha Hadid, Rem Koolhaas etc, and extra economic value added, all these features had made parametric architecture to be considered as the symbol of the rapid development. At same time, the voice of critical on this has never stopped: lack of traditions, absence of “Chineseness”, cities identity damaged caused by parametric architecture. Unfortunately, there seems neither nothing going to stop numerous parametric architecture raised up, nor provide a convincible solution to the issues in the contemporary cites in China. This thesis explores the conflict between Chinese vernacular manner and parametric architecture, and investigate how the parametric architecture is able to well fit in the Chinese environment context and express Chinese vernacular ideas which needs to be redefined. It argues the so called ‘Chineseness’ is blur and unclear, or most of people ‘s understanding toward ‘Chineseness’ always stay at the iconic level. It further argue the essences of Chinese vernacular ideas which could be merged into parametric architecture and help to deal with the issues which the contemporary city in China has such as inhumanity scale, lack of green space and public space. The aim is not only to find a way to combine the parametric design and Chinese vernacular ideas harmoniously but also via this combination to solve the issues in Yangzhou which is a representative and typical China contemporary city.

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  • Calendar 1977

    Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington, N.Z.) (1977)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1980

    Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington, N.Z.) (1980)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Chaos Theory Is For Lovers

    Hansell, Jessica (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This portfolio includes creative writing that was undertaken at the International Institute of Modern Letters in 2012. The project also features illustration, photography, cartoons and other graphic work alongside my writing. CHAOS THEORY IS FOR LOVERS subscribes to the DIY aesthetic I employ as a comic and self-published zinemaker. Once I completed this very challenging body of written work, I wanted to give the text a fun and experimental visual life. I hope this portfolio is as rewarding to read as it was to create.

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  • City of Flux: Liberating the Concrete Terrain

    Carden, Tara-Lee (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In recent decades the world has increasingly become aware of our role in the continual degradation of our planet’s natural environment. One of the most influential and controversial issues of the Twenty First Century is climate change and a subsequent rise in global sea-levels. The implications of the most recent scientific predictions will play out over the following century and beyond, significantly affecting millions of people and thousands of coastal cities around the world. Accelerated sea-level rise globally will demand urban, landscape and architectural solutions for low-lying regions to respond over the coming decades to the extensive changes that will occur. New Zealand has a vast coastline and therefore will be particularly vulnerable to the predicted one-half, to two meter rise in sea-level during the following century (Evans, Milfont, and Lawrence 3). As occupants of an island nation, New Zealanders’ share a strong affinity to water. The earliest Maori settlements to the most recent developments in New Zealand have occurred predominantly in coastal regions, taking advantage of both land and marine resources. In order to envision a vital future for New Zealand’s coastal cities, the temporality of the relationship between these urban centres and the sea forces us to confront the transitory quality of our place within it. Simultaneously, the design proposal presented in this thesis recognises that Wellington has historically reclaimed large areas of land to form the majority of the central city seen today, and that in order to flourish in the coming century of climate change will require urban design more responsive than we know today. The imminent threat of the encroaching ocean within the high value precinct of Wellington’s central business district provides an opportunity to engage with the dynamic transition from land based activities to those functions that engage with incremental flooding. Using a critical transect of Wellington’s central city this thesis proposes a system of intervention to modify a section of the existing urban fabric to accommodate, prepare and adapt for flooding. The aim of this design investigation will be to place the programme as a hinge between land and sea.

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  • Calendar 1957

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1957)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • Calendar 1946

    Victoria University College (Wellington, N.Z.) (1946)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

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  • The Role of TGFβ1 and Macrophage Differentiation in MSU Crystal-Induced Inflammation

    Steiger, Stefanie (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Gout is a painful form of inflammatory arthritis that is caused by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the joints. MSU crystals trigger a local inflammatory response initiated by resident macrophages followed by a large infiltration of leukocytes. The spontaneous resolution of acute gout is associated with the production of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1). The overall objectives of this thesis were to investigate mechanisms that lead to TGFβ1 production and contribute to the resolution of acute gout, the effect of TGFβ1 on the functional phenotype of differentiated macrophages, and possible changes in surface marker expression by macrophages in response to MSU crystals. To determine macrophage-independent sources of TGFβ1 during the resolution of acute gout and how TGFβ1 production altered MSU crystal-recruited neutrophil functions, neutrophils were purified from MSU crystal-treated mice when levels of TGFβ1 were high. MSU crystal-recruited neutrophils and circulating blood neutrophils were identified as TGFβ1⁺ cells. The mechanism for TGFβ1 production by neutrophils was associated with their ability to phagocytose apoptotic neutrophils. TGFβ1 produced by canibalising neutrophils inhibited both respiratory burst and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by MSU crystal-activated neutrophils ex vivo. Importantly, neutrophils from MSU crystal-challenged mice treated with TGFβ1 neutralising antibody in vivo produced elevated levels of superoxide but neutrophil IL-1β production was unaffected. These results show that TGFβ1 produced by canibalising neutrophils can actively suppress neutrophil inflammatory functions and therefore make a significant contribution towards the resolution of gouty inflammation. To investigate the effect of TGFβ1 on macrophage differentiation in vitro, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) bone marrow macrophages (GM-BMMs) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) bone marrow macrophages (M-BMMs) were generated in the presence of TGFβ1. TGFβ1 was found to drive a hyper-inflammatory GM-BMM phenotype, while contributing to the differentiation of a hypo-inflammatory M-BMM phenotype specifically in response to MSU crystals. Increased IL-1β production by TGFβ1-differentiated GM-BMMs was associated with enhanced NOD like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) in ammasome activation and caspase 1/caspase 8 interaction, and a down-regulation of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIP3) triggered by MSU crystals. At the same, TGFβ1 inhibited antigen-specific T cell proliferation by GM-BMMs. In contrast, TGFβ1-treated M-BMMs down-regulated the expression of active IL-1β that correlated with decreased IL-1β production, and upregulated RIP3 expression in response to MSU crystals. These data indicate that TGFβ1-treated GM-BMMs exhibited a hyper-inflammatory response to MSU crystal stimulation, whereas M-BMMs were found to be hypo-responsive. Macrophages were found to upregulate the surface marker NK1.1, which is primarily expressed on natural killer (NK) cells, and occured as a consequence of phagocytosis. Following phagocytosis of MSU crystals, activated macrophages produced IL-1β and tumour necrosis factor ⍺ (TNF⍺), which triggered the upregulation of NK1.1 expression. Macrophage NK1.1 expression is an activation-driven event specifc to MSU crystals. However, phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils also triggered the upregulation of NK1.1 by macrophages, a non-inflammatory event that is characteristic for the resolution of acute inflammation. These findings suggest that macrophages may develop NK cell-like properties initiated by an activation-driven or apoptotic cell clearance mechanism. Taken together, the results of this thesis indicate that canibalising neutrophils self-regulate their inflammatory functions via TGFβ1 and that TGFβ1 drives a hyper-inflammatory GM-BMM phenotype, while shutting down inflammatory functions of M-BMMs. These data highlight a regulatory role for TGFβ1 during acute gouty inflammation.

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  • Building a New Zealand Surf Life Saving Club Vernacular

    Keown, Lief Inia (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    New Zealand’s coastal landscape is a desirable position that holds great significance to our country’s culture. Surf Life Saving Clubs are prominent architectural entities that sit proudly upon New Zealand beaches. Surf Life Saving Clubs have a rich history and are representative of the Kiwi lifestyle. Yet, Surf Life Saving Club buildings, as architecture, have received little serious attention. This thesis investigates characteristic features of Surf Life Saving Clubs in their coastal setting and shows how those qualities can be recognised in future club development. A review of existing research indicates a gap in scholarship around the understand of Surf Life Saving Club buildings as a facet of coastal development. In this research an extensive range of Surf Life Saving Clubs are surveyed in order to gain a greater understanding of the building type; siting, form, and orientation. This is then followed by detailed case studies of active Surf Life Saving Clubs. The research deduces patterns in site, placement, orientation, form, function layout, structure and materiality that influence the buildings’ character. Design Guidelines are formulated whilst utilising Critical Regionalism as a lens to reconcile the opposing imperatives that are inherent in creating a building that is both of the vernacular and architecture. Finally, a Design Case Study allows the Design Guidelines to be developed and tested. Based on these investigations a Design Case Study is produced that models the application of a contemporary Surf Life Saving Club vernacular to a considered work of architecture.

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  • Mortality mitigation of a translocated rare New Zealand frog Leiopelma pakeka

    Karst, Tanya M. (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A small population (n=58) of Maud Island frogs, Leiopelma pakeka, was translocated to the Zealandia wildlife sanctuary in Wellington, New Zealand in 2006/2007. The 29 frogs that were released into a predator-proof enclosure, along with some of their progeny, are currently spread over three separate predator-proof enclosures. However, their status has not been assessed since 2011. With the aim of establishing a viable, freeranging population, the remaining 29 frogs were released into forested habitat around the original enclosure. In 2010, the translocation of the free-ranging population was assessed as a failure, citing too few founding individuals, inadequate habitat, predation by little spotted kiwi (LSK), Apteryx owenii, and predation by house mice, Mus musculus, as potential factors. This thesis re-addresses the status of L. pakeka in the three enclosures, as well as the potential predation of these threatened endemic frogs by LSK and mice. Survival of L. pakeka in the three enclosures was estimated by nocturnal emergence over 11 ve-night capture periods from October 2012 - August 2013. Identi cation of individuals was via photography utilizing distinguishable skin patterns and iris vessel (eye venation) patterns. The relocation of six adults after a 2011 census, including one inadvertently missed frog found during this study, left 19 adult frogs in the original enclosure, which continued to survive well, with 18 adults recaptured. In addition, juveniles of varying ages were seen throughout this study. In total, 34 recently metamorphosed froglets were released into a second enclosure over the years of 2008, 2009 and 2011. Night monitoring indicated only 8 individuals had survived, but a full enclosure census on 8 May 2013 revealed 12 of the 34 individuals (35%) had survived. Three of these frogs were then relocated to the Te Mahanga, publicly viewed enclosure. Emergence during the 11-month period indicated that the six frogs relocated to this enclosure from the original enclosure in October 2011 had survived; however, only two out of the three frogs that were relocated there after the May census had emerged. Additionally, two juveniles of unknown age were also seen in this enclosure. Potential predation by LSK was assessed by a ve-night video analysis (23-28 June 2013) of foraging behavior in the presence of mesh-protected L. pakeka. Out of the 668 videos reviewed, only three videos provided foraging behavior that helped ascertain whether LSK exhibited a potential interest in L. pakeka as a prey item. These videos showed that LSK failed to indicate a strong response to the presence of the frog, suggesting that the LSK in Zealandia do not have a strong predatory interest in L. pakeka. To investigate the potential causes of the free-range translocation failure, the habitat was enhanced with more rocks, a kiwi-exclusion fence was erected, and a further 101 L. pakeka were translocated from Maud Island to Zealandia on 2 December 2012. The frogs' survival as well as mouse activity levels (indicated by the presence of mouse prints in tracking tunnels) were monitored over nine ve-night capture periods from 17 December 2012 - 2 August 2013. Eighty-six out of the 101 translocated frogs were recaptured. Identi cation of individuals was via photography utilizing distinguishable skin patterns and iris vessel (eye venation) patterns, or by unique toe-clip combinations. Despite previous assessments, four surviving adults from the 2006/2007 translocation were recaptured as well as 12 of their progeny, resulting in a total of 117 Maud Island frogs for this study. Jolly-Seber analysis indicated high overall survival (0.914, 0.87/0.94, 95%CI), but temporally the population estimates indicated a negative regression starting at the second capture period (slope= -4.69, -6.70/- 2.68, 95%CI). With overall frog emergence, a negative binomial generalized linear model did not show signi cance in mouse activity levels, precipitation during sampling nor precipitation in the previous 24 hours (p>0.05). However, temperature did show a positive correlation to overall frog emergence (p<0.001) while relative humidity approached signi cance (p=0.0517) and indicated a potential positive trend. This study could not conclusively indicate whether A. owenii or M. musculus prey upon L. pakeka. However, it does suggest that the protected predator-proof enclosures may provide appropriate conditions for the ongoing survival and successful breeding of the endemic anuran. The study also suggests that LSK do not have a strong predatory response to the presence of Maud Island frogs, nor did increased levels of mouse activity have a signi cant e ect on the emergence of the 117 Maud Island frogs. Additionally, the discovery of the four survivors and 12 of their o spring indicates that the original translocation did not entirely fail. This newly acquired knowledge suggests that with the current mammal eradication program, Zealandia may continue with the establishment of a viable, free-ranging population of L. pakeka. Continued monitoring of all Maud Island frogs in the Zealandia sanctuary is recommended as a conservation measure, especially as mice have now established on its original island habitat.

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  • Estimating bias of technical progress with a small dataset

    Khaled, Mohammed S (2017)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Economic historians frequently face the challenge of estimation and inference when only a small sample of the relevant data is available. We illustrate solutions to the challenges through a case study analysis of the Uselding and Juba (1973) data. They have only seven observations available to estimate of the bias of technical progress in United States manufacturing in the nineteenth century. They are able to offer estimates of the bias only by assuming that production technology is not Cobb-Douglas, technical progress is non-neutral and that elasticity of substitution between labour and capital is less than 0.9. These assumptions could not be tested owing to the paucity of the required historical data. This case study illustrates the use of both additional theoretical information and appropriate statistical techniques to alleviate problems of estimation and inference with small samples.

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  • Bearings: [Review of "Being here: Selected poems" by Vincent O'Sullivan]

    Houlahan, Mark (2016)

    Scholarly text
    University of Waikato

    Review of "Being here: Selected poems" by Vincent O'Sullivan

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