5,979 results for Scholarly text

  • A window to a magical world of adventure, secrets and spectacle: Peter Pan [Review]

    Crawford, Terri Ripeka (2009)

    Scholarly text
    University of Waikato

    Choreography: Russell Kerr Music: Philip Norman Design: Kristian Fredrikson Lighting: Jon Buswell ROYAL NEW ZEALAND BALLET at Founders Theatre, Hamilton From 9 Dec 2009 to 10 Dec 2009 Reviewed by Terri Ripeka Crawford, 11 Dec 2009

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  • The immediate threat to our oceans

    Vopel, K (2011-07-13)

    Scholarly text
    Auckland University of Technology

    "We are about to fundamentally change the chemistry of our ocean. The greatest risk to our marine environment is the accelerating enrichment of seawater with anthropogenic CO2. This CO2 pollution results from our ignorance of the fundamental processes that link the marine environment with the atmosphere and the land. The overall human CO2 emissions over the industrial era amount to close to 560 billion tons. A little less than half of this CO2 remains in the atmosphere acting as greenhouse gas leading to climate change. The remainder is, at present, removed in roughly equal parts into the ocean and by land vegetation. We are emitting roughly 10 billion tons of carbon annually, a rate that exceeds the natural emissions by a factor of nearly 100. About 87% of this release originates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production and another 12% from deforestation. The ocean is a complex system well designed for maintaining a balance between inputs and outputs of carbon but the current rapid rise in atmospheric CO2 exceeds its capacity to maintain this balance.

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  • A debt behaviour model

    Zhang, W (2014-02-20)

    Scholarly text
    Auckland University of Technology

    A stochastic model with hidden discrete Markov processes is constructed to understand the behavior of debtors.

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  • Taking quality work to a new brilliance: Tama Ma on tour [Review]

    Crawford, Terri Ripeka (2009)

    Scholarly text
    University of Waikato

    Choreographers: Taiaroa Royal and Taane Mete; Douglas Wright; Michael Parmenter Okareka Dance Company at Telecom Playhouse Theatre, WEL Energy Trust Academy of Performing Arts, Hamilton From 17 Jun 2009 to 20 Jun 2009 Reviewed by Terri Ripeka Crawford, 22 Jun 2009.

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  • The effect of the Canterbury earthquakes on alcohol consumption and motivations for drinking among psychologically resilient individuals

    Marie, Leila Michele Anastasia (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Individual responses to natural disasters are highly variable. The psychological and behavioural response trajectories of those who manage to cope well with adverse life events are in need of further investigation. Increased alcohol use is often observed in communities exposed to mass traumas, particularly among those exposed to severe levels of trauma, with males drinking more than females. The current study examined patterns of alcohol use and motivations for drinking among a sample of psychologically resilient individuals with varying levels of exposure to the Canterbury earthquakes (N = 91) using structured and semi-structured interviews and self-report measures. As hypothesised, there was a significant increase in alcohol consumption since the earthquakes began, and males reported significantly higher levels of pre-earthquake and current alcohol consumption than females. Contrary to expectations, there was no association between traumatic exposure severity and alcohol consumption. While participants reported anxiety-based coping motives for drinking at levels comparable to those reported by other studies, depression-based coping motives were significantly lower, providing partial support for the hypothesis that participants would report coping motives for drinking at levels comparable to those found by other researchers. No gender differences in drinking motives were found. As expected, current alcohol consumption was positively correlated with anxiety and depression-based coping motives for drinking. Psychological resilience was not significantly associated with alcohol use, however resilience was negatively associated with depression-based coping motives for drinking. These findings have inter-generational and international implications for post-traumatic intervention.

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  • "Western thoughts, Eastern feelings": A study of filial piety and elder mistreatment among Korean immigrants in New Zealand

    Park, Hong-Jae (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Thesis available in print.

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  • An Independent Review of Project Management Processes for CERA’s Port Hills Land Clearance Programme

    Patterson, Todd Keith (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This report to RCP Ltd and University of Canterbury summarises the findings of a 5 month secondment to the CERA Port Hills Land Clearance Team. Improvement strategies were initiated and observed. The Port Hills Land Clearance Programme is the undertaking of the demolition of all built structures from the Crown’s compulsory acquired 714 residential red zoned properties. These properties are zoned red due to an elevated life risk as a result of geotechnical land uncertainty following the 2011 Canterbury Earthquakes.

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  • SYNTHESIS AND COMPLEXES OF BRIDGING HETEROCYCLIC LIGANDS

    Rajan, Siji (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Ligand–mediated coupling between metal centres is of fundamental importance in inorganic and materials chemistry. Bridging ligands involving azo groups as coordinating π–acceptors can yield complexes with interesting properties. This thesis describes the synthesis of a series of N–heterocyclic compounds containing the azo functionality, designed for potential coordination to the metal through the azo nitrogen and a N–heterocyclic ring. The azo ligands are divided into four categories; ligands based on azobispyridines, ligands containing pyrimidine and fused aromatic azine groups and ligands capable of coordinating in a bis–tridentate fashion to the metal centre. Ligands containing flexible imine subunits connected directly, or through different spacers, are also discussed. Overall twenty one ligands were synthesised, six of which are new compounds. The coordination and metallosupramolecular chemistry of these ligands with ruthenium(II) and silver(I) metal atoms was investigated. A total of thirty five ruthenium(II) and eleven silver(I) complexes were prepared, of which thirty eight were characterised by X–ray crystallography. Mononuclear and dinuclear ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesised and characterised by a combination of spectroscopic and structural techniques. UV/Visible absorption studies and electrochemical methods were used to investigate the nature of metal–ligand and metal–metal interactions. In the mononuclear Ru(II) complexes, N–heterocyclic azo ligands act as chelating ligands forming five–membered chelate rings involving azo–N and heterocyclic–N atoms. The non–coordinated pyridine ring of the azo ligand is twisted with respect to the azo–N atom and is directed towards the adjacent bipyridine rings. Studies reveal that these azo ligands posses extremely low–lying π*–orbitals and are electron deficient. X–Ray structural analysis of the dinuclear complexes revealed short inter–metal separations of ca. 4.9 Å and electrochemical studies indicate that these ligands mediate very strong interactions between the metal centres , due to the excellent π*–acceptor properties of the azo functionality. Varying the pyridine ring of the azo ligand to pyrimidines and fused N–aromatic rings has a considerable effect on the electronic properties of these complexes. Incorporation of a pyrimidine ring facilitates the stabilisation of azo anion radicals and leads to the formation of diruthenium(II) species, bridged by radical species. The X–ray crystal structures of both these complexes were determined. The use of the hexadentate ligands coordinating in a bis–tridentate manner mediate even stronger communication between the two ruthenium centres. Ligands containing bis–pyridylimines result in weaker coupling between the metal centres in dinuclear ruthenium(II) species. A complete absence in the inter–metal communication was observed with increasing the distance and/or flexibility between the two pyridylimine units, contrary to a previous reported claim. Reaction with different silver(I) salts afforded an array of one–dimensional coordination polymers and a discrete dinuclear complex depending on the coordination strengths of the anions. The metallosupramolecular assemblies obtained were characterised mainly by X–ray crystallography, elemental analysis and mass spectrometry.

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  • Mating strategies and sperm competition in New Zealand geckos (Family Gekkonidae).

    Todd, Amanda Claire (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Most species of reptile studied to date have polygynandrous mating systems and possess specialised sperm storage regions. Consequently, there is a high potential for sperm competition in this group. Using comparative analyses, I examined the level of sperm competition in New Zealand geckos and how this has influenced the evolution of their reproductive morphology. Across lizards and snakes, there was more than a 40-fold variation in relative testis size. New Zealand geckos fell in the middle of this range and lacked sexual dimorphism in head size, suggesting that most species have polygynandrous mating systems. I confirmed this for one species, Hoplodactylus maculatus, which is gregarious, lacks territoriality and has a courtship pattern that suggests a high level of promiscuity for both sexes. I found that hemipenis size in New Zealand geckos was positively correlated with relative testis size, suggesting that sperm competition has resulted in the evolution of larger intromittent organs. However, the surface features of the hemipenis were relatively conservative across species. Although there was no relationship between sperm length or putative sperm storage site (SST) morphology and relative testis size, species with fewer SSTs, and thus more intense sperm competition, had longer sperm. H maculatus males produced two types of sperm which differed not only in length but also in fertilising capacity, the short morph lacking DNA. This is the first known example of such sperm polymorphism in a vertebrate and may have evolved in response to sperm competition, the non-fertilising morph potentially helping to block the sperm of rival males or filling sperm storage sites. The motility of these short sperm was positively correlated with temperature; however, at higher temperatures motility declined with time, suggesting a trade-off between motility and longevity. Such temperature influences on male reproductive physiology have important implications for males of ectothermic species under sperm competition.

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  • Characterisation and Control of 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate Synthase from Geobacillus sp

    Othman, Mohamad (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    3-Deoxy-D-arabino heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAH7PS) catalyses the first step of the shikimate pathway, responsible for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. This pathway is found in microorganisms, plants and apicomplexan parasites and its absence in mammals makes it a viable target for antimicrobial drug design. DAH7PS enzymes differ in the regulatory machinery that decorates the catalytic (β/α)8 barrel. Some DAH7PS enzymes are fused to chorismate mutase (CM), another enzyme in the shikimate pathway. This fusion protein is allosterically regulated by chorismate (CA) or prephenate (PA), the precursor of tyrosine and phenylalanine. It has been suggested that DAH7PS enzymes evolved these extensions to the core barrel for the sole purpose of regulation. Geobacillus sp DAH7PS (GspDAH7PSWT) is a thermophilic type Iβ DAH7PS enzyme with an N-terminal CM domain fused through a linker region. This thesis describes the functional characterisation work carried out on GspDAH7PSWT, in attempt to help determine how DAH7PS enzymes evolved such diverse methods of regulation. Chapter 2 describes the functional characterisation work carried out on the catalytic and regulatory domains of GspDAH7PSWT. The enzyme demonstrated both DAH7PS and CM activities with the DAH7PS domain determined to be metal dependent and most activated by Cd2+. PA completely inhibited the catalytic activity of GspDAH7PSWT, and AUC demonstrated an equilibrium exists between the dimeric and tetrameric quaternary states of the enzyme in solution. Chapter 3 describes the domain truncation of GspDAH7PSWT carried out at the linker region in order to obtain two separate protein domains, the catalytic domain lacking the N-terminal domain (GspDAH7PSDAH7PS) and the regulatory domain without the catalytic domain (GspDAH7PSCM). Both variants were fully characterised, and information obtained from each domain was compared to the respective catalytic and regulatory domains of the wild-type enzyme, which was also characterised. Like GspDAH7PSWT, GspDAH7PSDAH7PS showed greatest activation in the presence of Cd2+, with other metals having varying effects on activation rates and stability of the enzyme. Both truncated variants followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics where GspDAH7PSDAH7PS was found to be more active than GspDAH7PSWT and unaffected by PA, whereas GspDAH7PSCM was a less efficient catalyst than the CM domain of GspDAH7PSWT. AUC demonstrated that in solution an equilibrium occurs between the monomeric and tetrameric oligomeric states of GspDAH7PSDAH7PS. Chapter 4 summarises the findings of the thesis along with future directions of this research, combining the results obtained and expanding upon them. It is concluded that the catalytic regulatory CM domain supports both protein structure and allosteric regulation of GspDAH7PSWT

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  • Novel biomarkers for diabetic patients at risk of developing secondary complications.

    Orban, Thomas (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Diabetes is a chronic, incurable disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Patients who control their diabetes poorly are at risk of developing long-term complications, such as cardiovascular diseases, renal failure and retina damage. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), formed by the reaction of glucose with hemoglobin, is considered the gold standard for the monitoring of glycemic control, but it does not discriminate between the different types of secondary complications associated with diabetes. Diabetes and its complications are linked to oxidative stress and the resulting lipid peroxidation produce reactive aldehydes including acrolein. Acrolein forms adducts with nucleophilic residues of proteins, which can be used as biomarkers of oxidative stress. It is hypothesized in the present study that specific adducts of acrolein with hemoglobin could be used as reliable biomarkers for secondary complications linked with diabetes. In this context, reactions of acrolein with the two nucleophilic amino acids cysteine and lysine have been studied. The formation of adducts was confirmed for both of these amino acids, and lead to the discovery of the novel compound FTT-cysteine. Studies on hemoglobin itself were conducted in order to understand how acrolein influences the structure and function of this protein and where the preferential sites of modification were located. It was concluded that acrolein does not significantly alter the structure of hemoglobin and actually tends to stabilize it due to the formation of internal cross-links. MS studies revealed that both the single addition of acrolein and the formation of the aromatic compound MP-lysine, arising from reaction with two molecules of acrolein, occur in hemoglobin samples. ELISA tests were developed that could successfully determine the presence of naturally forming hemoglobinacrolein adducts in vivo. X-ray crystallography could show the presence of extra electron density in the vicinity of Cys 93 on the β subunit. A proteomics search determined the sites of preferential reaction on hemoglobin, one of which is Cys 93. These results paved the way for the design of two novel synthetic hexapeptides, Ser-Ala-Gln-Val-Lys-Gly and Leu-His-Cys-Asp-Lys-Leu,whose reactivity towards acrolein was then studied. Both peptides were successfully modified by reaction with acrolein: MS studies revealed the formation of MP-lysine for Ser-Ala-Gln-Val-Lys-Gly and of a single cysteine Michael adduct for Leu-His-Cys-Asp-Lys-Leu. Future work will include the synthesis of 16-residue peptide chains as determined by the results from the proteomics search, against which antibodies will be raised. The antibodies will be used to develop highly specific ELISA assays that will hopefully correlate with secondary complications of diabetes. The outcome of this research could lead to the development of a convenient product that could be used to evaluate the risks that diabetic patients have of developing specific secondary complications.

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  • Pandora's box? An exploration of s 81 of the Land Transfer Act 1952 and its effect on the indefeasibility of title

    Roberts, Scarlet Rhiannon (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Section 81 of the Land Transfer Act 1952 has a tumultuous past. It has faced various criticisms surrounding its potential for undermining indefeasibility of title, a key concept under our Torrens system of transfer. This paper addresses some of these criticisms, positing first that s 81 does in fact grant the District Land Registrar a wide discretion to correct or cancel titles which have been gained fraudulently or wrongfully, and secondly that this discretion should be exercised if an appropriate case surfaces. Such an exercise is supported by the approach taken in other Torrens jurisdictions and can be regulated through the adoption of a number of simple guidelines, to be considered during any exercise of discretion under s 81. This will reduce the risk of any uncertainty arising from a wide interpretation of s 81 and ensure that the overall justice of the case is the central consideration of any exercise of discretion.

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  • The Improvisation of Tubby Hayes in 'The New York Sessions'

    Alton-Lee, Amity Rose (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Tubby (Edward Brian) Hayes; prodigious self taught multi-instrumentalist and virtuoso tenor saxophone player has been proclaimed by some to be the best saxophonist that Britain has ever produced: "Indisputably the most accomplished and characterful British jazzman of his generation." His career, although cut short (he died undergoing treatment for a heart condition in June 1973, aged 38) was perpetually intense, incredibly prolific, and non-stop from his debut at the age of fifteen until his premature death. Hayes was proficient on many instruments; all saxophones, clarinet, flute, violin and vibraphone as well as being an accomplished bandleader and arranger. However it was his virtuoso tenor saxophone playing that found him acclaim. Although well known in his time and widely renowned for his ability, Hayes until recently has been little studied. It is only in the last few years that many critics and students of jazz have attempted to gain an understanding of Hayes' improvisational concept, which has been both praised as genius and criticised as directionless: Tubby Hayes has often been lionized as the greatest saxophonist Britain ever produced. He is a fascinating but problematical player. Having put together a big, rumbustious tone and a delivery that features sixteenth notes spilling impetuously out of the horn, Hayes often left a solo full of brilliant loose ends and ingenious runs that led nowhere in particular... However, Hayes, his legacy, and his inimitable style of tenor saxophone playing would truly leave their mark on the British Jazz community for generations to come. Dave Gelly summed up Hayes by saying that Tubby "played Cockney tenor - garrulous, pugnacious, never at a loss for a word and completely unstoppable."

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  • The Way of Steve Lacy: Finding Individuality through Musical Genealogy

    Johnson, Lucien (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research project traces Lacy’s life in music, looking at his long period of apprenticeship, the brief but important period in which he focussed exclusively on free improvisation, and the subsequent years spent formulating and creating his own music. It uses both musical analysis of his improvisations and his compositions and commentary on the path he chose, in an attempt to define his place in 20th century music and the legacy he leaves us. The second part of the project involves my own compositions, which investigate areas similar to those which Lacy explored in his lifetime. These include finding a relationship between composition and improvisation in which both methods are given equal value. Their respective qualities, such as the collective interplay found in improvisation or the structure that composition supplies, are being cultivated. The point of these works is not to investigate methods of composition or conduction in which improvisation or semi-improvisation can be integrated. In this music the improvisers have as few limitations as possible, so that they are free to improvise. The works merely look to find a balance where these two methods can co-exist. The pieces are mostly idiomatic although they use genre as a point of departure rather than a fixed entity. They attempt to transcend, or in some cases to subvert, the idiom to which they are referring. They have been written intuitively and developed and refined through live performance. The compositions for the ensemble, The Troubles, were developed over a year of weekly live performances and there was a degree of autonomy and democracy for all the performers. A score in this music is perhaps akin to many of the practices to be found in the creation of contemporary theatre, where a text can be treated, elaborated upon, toyed with, where there are moments where things have been devised by the ensemble, rather than viewed as a sacred object. It is possible to imagine that Lacy too worked in this manner with his regular group. In these pieces I have tried to heed Braque’s lessons, and to avoid mimicry, yet in this work I hope to capture something of the spirit of Steve Lacy.

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  • Decadal Climate Oscillations, Synoptic Variability, and Ice Core Climate Proxy Records in the Ross Sea Region, Antarctica

    Markle, Bradley Ross (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates synoptic variability in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica and develops geochemical proxies of this variability from an ice core record in Southern Victoria Land. Particular focus is given to the influence of decadal climate oscillations on synoptic conditions and potential records of these oscillations in ice core proxy records as long-­‐term records of these oscillations are important for understanding future climate change. I present an investigation of the joint influence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) on variability in the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL), a dominant climatological feature that strongly influences the weather in the Ross Sea region. It is shown that the positive phase of each oscillation is associated with significant strengthening of the ASL, while negative phases are associated with a weakening. Through regression analysis I show that a simple linear combination of indices representing these oscillations can explain more than 40% of the geopotential height variance in the AS region at a seasonal scale and over 70% of the variance at an annual scale. These results are consistent with the known mechanisms of ENSO and SAM interaction in the region and show that while SAM is dominant hemispherically, ENSO is only influential in the Pacific Sector. Finally it is demonstrated that a simple model of linear reinforcement and interference between the oscillations describes their influence on the variability in the ASL better than models incorporating more complex interactions. Atmospheric back-­‐trajectory modeling and cluster analysis are used to investigate synoptic variability at the Gawn Ice Piedmont (GIP) ice core site in the Ross Sea Region, Antarctica. I identify two dominant air-­‐mass trajectory clusters: oceanic – cyclonic and continental trajectories. My analysis shows that oceanic – cyclonic trajectories peak during April (southern hemisphere winter), while continental trajectories reach their maximum during December (summer). A causal association is demonstrated between ENSO and the frequency of oceanic – cyclonic trajectories originating from the Ross Sea region. In contrast, it is shown that the Southern Annular Mode has little influence on the frequency of cyclonic clusters. I then develop proxy records for the synoptic variability using a shallow firn core from the GIP site containing 8 years of geochemical record. Continental trajectories correlate with concentrations of nitrate (NO3), which is sourced from stratospheric air-­‐masses descending over the Antarctic interior. Oceanic – cyclonic trajectory clusters strongly correlate with deuterium excess at seasonal and inter-­‐annual scales, a proxy sensitive to changes in relative humidity and sea surface temperature (SST) in the in the Ross and Amundsen Seas. Decadal variability in the frequency of oceanic – cyclonic trajectories is discussed with respect to ENSO, SAM, and changes in SST and sea ice extent.

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  • Crustal Structure of Wanganui Basin: Implications for Back-Arc Basin Formation

    Tozer, Brook (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Onshore-offshore and onshore wide-angle reflection and refraction seismic data are analysed in order to constrain the crustal P-wave velocity structure within Wanganui Basin and the southern Hikurangi margin, western North Island, New Zealand. Two, two-dimensional, P-wave velocity models are constructed using reflection and refraction phase travel-times based on forty-four onshore-offshore receiver gathers, twelve onshore shot gathers and two marine multi-channel-seismic reflection profiles collected along two transects within Wanganui Basin. The profiles are orientated both sub-parallel and perpendicular to the strike of the Hikurangi margin. Within Wanganui Basin, a north-south increase in Moho depth is resolved sub-parallel to the strike of the Hikurangi margin from 25 km depth north of Mt Ruapehu to 36.5 km within offshore Wanganui Basin at the latitude of Foxton. This increase is punctuated by an abrupt step in Moho depth of 7±3 km over a lateral distance of < 30 km from 25 km to 32 km depth slightly south of Mt Ruapehu. Perpendicular to the strike of the Hikurangi margin, the Moho is resolved at a depth of 35.5 km near the southern edge of the basin. A comparison between the Moho interpreted on multi-channel-seismic-reflection stacks and wide-angle reflection models suggests that the wider-angle Moho represents the highest amplitude reflector in a band of reflectivity that represents the Moho on the vertical incidence reflection stack. In this case, the Moho may be an extra ~ 5 km thicker than that determined in the wide-angle models. Nonetheless, these models confirm the crust in Wanganui Basin is anomalously thick, yet may be thinner than the previously thought maximum thickness of > 42 km by up to 5 km based on wide-angle data. The Australian/Pacific plate interface is imaged as a relatively smooth surface at depths of 28.15 - 35.6 km between the latitudes of Paekakariki and Foxton with apparent dip to the north-north-east increasing from 2.3 to 9.5°. Perpendicular to the strike of the Hikurangi margin, this interface increases in depth from 16 - 33 km with an increase in dip of 5.4° beneath Featherston to 19° beneath central Wanganui Basin. P-wave velocities range between 5.8 - 6.5 kms-¹ in the upper ~18 km of the crust within Wanganui Basin. These are interpreted to represent mid and lower-crustal rocks that have been emplaced in the upper crust by exhumation during the Miocene. In the lower crust P-wave velocities are inferred as 6.5 - 6.85 kms-1 sub-parallel and 6.5 - 6.65 kms-¹ perpendicular to Hikurangi margin, suggesting a lower crustal P-wave anisotropy of up to ~ 3% This may reflect the preferential alignment of mineral fabrics in the direction of relative transpressive plate motion during the Neogene and/or structural anisotropy parallel to the strike of the Taranaki Fault Zone and Kapiti-Manawatu Fault System. The structure of the Pacific plate crust is resolved as two layers. The top layer is inferred as a low-velocity sediment sheet with a P-wave velocity of 5.00 - 5.20 kms-¹ and thickness of 1.5 - 3.5 km. The second layer is interpreted as 9.5 - 10 km thick oceanic crust with P-wave velocities between 6.7 and 7.2 kms-¹. This confirms that anomalously thick (up to 13.5 km) Hikurangi Plateau crust has subducted at least as far east as the Tararua Ranges. Subducted sediment appears to be pooling beneath the western side of North Island between Featherston and Kapiti Island, reaching a maximum thickness of 3.5 km. Rock uplift driven by the relative buoyancy of this material is capable of explaining the average elevation of the Tararua Ranges and coupled with previous studies from the Raukumara Basin in the north, suggest accretion of subducted sediment to the overlying plate may be characteristic of the entire Hikurangi margin.

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  • Private finance and governance of REDD+ projects in Indonesia

    Dixon, Rowan (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis explores the role of private finance within REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) programmes in Indonesia. Since its debut in 2007 as a potential investment opportunity, enterprising and innovative private sector actors have moved to establish REDD+ projects within a voluntary carbon market, while the United Nations Convention on Climate Change continues negotiations to establish a comprehensive global mechanism. These profit-seeking actors have invested millions of dollars developing REDD+ projects within a rapidly evolving voluntary market that has emerged alongside the turmoil of global climate change negotiations. This dynamic market context brought about a wide variety of expressions of REDD+ in Indonesia, which this research seeks to untangle and illuminate. The thesis yields insights into the workings of market environmentalism, and complicates widespread notions of ‘private finance’ as a homogenous and predictable category of actor. In order to better understand the emergent REDD+ industry in Indonesia, and the role of private finance in shaping it, this research draws on the global value chain (GVC) framework to analyse processes of commodification and governance within REDD+ projects and ‘supply chains’. This approach identifies key private finance actors, and explores why they are involved across motivations for social, environmental and financial outcomes. It also reveals REDD+ projects as a produced commodity and provides insight into the multiple ways they are valued. The research thus highlights how private finance actors evaluate REDD+ commodities as they engage with them. These logics, and the profit-seeking rationale of private finance actors, are seen to have important governance implications in shaping the characteristics of REDD+ projects and the networks of actors involved in them. However, simultaneously, the malleable and selective characteristics of the REDD+ commodity itself shapes certain governing implications of private finance. This thesis contributes to debates concerning the commodification of nature within market environmentalism and the neoliberalisation of nature, providing insights into the nature and agency of private finance.

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  • The Origin and Migration of Proportionality

    McManamon, Jane (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper analyses the origin and migration of proportionality covering the history of proportionality, the development into the Basic Law, its migration and current trends including its presence in international and human rights law.

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  • Damages in lieu of an injunction in New Zealand: Closing your ears to the public interest?

    Blummont, Dion (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    An award of damages in lieu of an injunction can have vast and far-reaching consequences. It can undermine legal rights by permitting an offensive activity.. On the other hand, that activity may benefit society through employment or public utility, and awarding damages in lieu would allow society to be better off than if an injunction was awarded. For over a century, the court's discretion to award damages in lieu was restricted in Shelfer v City of London Electric. The UK Supreme Court in Lawrence v Fen Tigers did away with the restrictions around the discretion, opening up the area to an endless range of considerations. This essay examines the position of damages in lieu in New Zealand. A range of different jurisdictions are examined, leading to the conclusion that New Zealand will adopt that law shift in Fen Tigers. A range of non-exclusive considerations are formulated. Finally, the quantum of a damages in lieu award is examined with reference to 'wrongful use' damages.

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  • A short note on discrimination and favoritism in the labor market

    Salamanca, Nicolas; Feld, Jan (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    We extend Becker’s model of discrimination by allowing firms to have discriminatory and favoring preferences simultaneously. We draw the two-preference parallel for the marginal firm, illustrate the implications for wage differentials, and consider the implied long-run equilibrium. In the short-run, wage differentials depend on relative preferences. However, in the long-run, market forces drive out discriminatory but not favoring firms.

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