5,979 results for Scholarly text

  • Should there be a right to be forgotten (the right to make search engines hide information about you) in New Zealand? An analysis of Google v Spain

    Fraser, Anna (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper uses a New Zealand perspective to evaluate the recently established “right to be forgotten” formed by the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case of Google Spain. The right to be forgotten gives individuals the right to have the link to prejudicial personal information deleted from a search engine’s list of results following a search of their name. This paper uses the Google Spain judgment as an avenue to explore how this right was construed based on the European legislation. It then illustrates the current shape of this right by evaluating the principles emerging out of the decisions since its creation. The validity and practicality of the right is then assessed through a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages, which are used to decide that it is desirable to have a right to be forgotten in New Zealand. Finally by analysing the existing legal tools in New Zealand, this paper concludes that there is scope for a right to be forgotten to exist in New Zealand under s 12 of the Harmful Digital Communications Act 2015.

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  • Health Practitioner Notification of Competence Concerns: Career Suicide v Patient Safety?

    Miller, Anita (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers’ Rights 1996 (Code of Rights) confirms that patients are entitled to health services that are provided with reasonable care and skill, and that comply with legal, professional, ethical and other standards.¹ “Reasonable care and skill” signifies the need for competent practice; patients are entitled to trust that their health provider has the necessary skills to safely provide health services. Likewise, a patient can expect a practitioner to practise in a manner that adheres to all relevant ethical duties, whatever those duties might be. Health providers have a corresponding duty to uphold the rights set out in the Code of Rights.² With these patient rights and provider duties in mind, the focus of this paper is on the regulatory framework established by the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act 2003 (the Act) and, in particular, the existence of a discretionary notification regime for health practitioners to report concerns about incompetent colleagues. This paper discusses how the Act came about, how it seeks to assure practitioner competence, the process for notification of competence concerns and the reasons why discretionary notification was adopted for practitioners. Using a patient-centric approach, it then questions whether discretionary notification is appropriate to ensure that the health and safety of the public is protected and whether ethical obligations act to address any possible deficiencies. It is suggested that professional and workplace pressures, and concerns about career advancement, may act to prevent health practitioners from exercising their discretion to notify, creating a risk that incompetent practice will go unreported and expose patients to harm. It is also argued that unless ethical obligations are consistent across the regulated professions and are enforced by relevant agencies they will not provide an effective “back-stop” to discretionary notification. Options for improvement or change are then canvassed, including the need for New Zealand based research into practitioner reporting behaviour and education and consistent guidance on the discretionary reporting threshold. Finally, it is proposed that, subject to research findings and the effect (if any) of suggested improvements, mandatory reporting may need to be reconsidered, and a proposal for amendments to the current statutory regime is set out and discussed. ¹ Rights 4(1) and 4(2). The Code of Rights is a regulation promulgated under the Health and Disability Commissioner Act 1994. ² Clause 2.

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  • Stable investment or stable climate? Would New Zealand be in breach of its investment treat obligations if it phased out fossil fuel extraction?

    Boardman, Claire Charlotte (Lottie) (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper considers the possibility of phasing out fossil fuel extraction in New Zealand. It examines New Zealand’s current relationship with fossil fuels and its legal framework relating to fossil fuel extraction before assessing the remedies available to domestic and foreign investors should fossil fuel extraction be phased out, thereby removing their current rights to extract fossil fuels. The paper concludes that there would no remedy available to domestic investors but there is a possibility that foreign investors could claim compensation pursuant to an investment treaty such as Chapter 9 of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement. It was also argued that New Zealand would have arguments to make that it should not have to compensate those investors, including an argument based on a duty under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for New Zealand to protect its fossil fuel reserves.

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  • The person who really loves me will be the one who helps me die: A critique of Seales v Attorney-General

    Grey, Louise Ellen Sadler (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Euthanasia is a deeply personal and multifaceted topic that has become increasingly relevant in contemporary society. New Zealand’s stance on the practice of assisted dying was unsuccessfully challenged in Seales v Attorney-General. This paper critically evaluates the foundations of that decision, applying the R v Hansen majority test for interpreting legislation that appears inconsistent with the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990. The right to life bears a broad meaning capable of including a right to die; furthermore the rights methodology adopted is out of step with New Zealand case law and commentary. The purpose of criminalising assisted suicide is attainable through regulating euthanasia, and an alternative reading was, at a stretch, tenable. This paper argues that the criminalisation of assisted suicide is inconsistent with the right to life, so a declaration of inconsistency was an appropriate remedy, if not a strained reading of the Crimes Act 1961 excluding euthanasia from the scope of suicide. Although lacking in legal significance, the decision’s enduring importance lies in provoking discussion and potential reform. Future developments in this area will be watched with interest; Seales is undoubtedly not the end of the story but rather the beginning of a wider social conversation.

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  • Too Secret to Scrutinise? Executive accountability in foreign policy

    Bain, Eve (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The scrutiny of Executive action in foreign affairs is a constitutional function for which the Foreign Affairs, Defence and Trade Select Committee is primarily responsible. To this end Parliament has, in principle, unlimited inquiry powers. Yet our foreign affairs select committee, and those in other Anglo-Commonwealth jurisdictions, have in recent years experienced serious and on-going challenges to the fulfilment of their investigatory role. The public interest is being pulled in opposite directions: the Executive relies on national security considerations to justify confidentiality, whereas Parliament can (and should) demand disclosure in order to hold the Government accountable. This tension will be explored through examining if the recent work of FADT achieves the "robust scrutiny" envisaged by the 1985 select committee reforms, followed by a detailed analysis of the validity of one common limitation on inquiry powers, statutory secrecy provisions. Possible options for reform, namely processes for public interest immunity claims, independent arbitration and increased use of secret evidence, will be considered as possible means of strengthening the accountability of the Executive for its foreign policy activities. Political remedies are unsatisfactory to resolve this tension in the context of constitutional obligations and responsibilities.

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  • Creating New Standards: Jazz Arrangements Of Pop Songs

    Lile, Trudy (2009)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This study involves the research, analysis, and performance of existing arrangements of songs that have been played and recorded by jazz musicians, and are identifiable as pop songs of the last thirty years. This project will discuss the development of these songs as new repertoire in the jazz idiom. In particular it will examine transcriptions of arrangements by Herbie Hancock, Dianne Reeves, Brad Meldau, Charlie Hunter, Christian McBride, and Bob Belden. The analysis of these transcriptions will consider the techniques these musicians used in their arrangements including reharmonisation, melodic interpretation, rhythm, and restructuring of the form of the original song. Further, the techniques identified in the analyses will be applied in the creation of new arrangements of similar songs from that era for jazz ensemble of various sizes.

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  • The European Union and the Cotonou Partnership Agreement

    Gallagher, James (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper examines the important relationship that exists between the European Union and the group of countries from the African, Caribbean and Pacific Island regions. By creating preferential trade deals and becoming the major contributor to international development, the European Union has sought to assist poorer states within these regions to develop into wealthier and more advanced economies. The European Union has done this through a series of international agreements, most recently through the Cotonou Partnership Agreement. The Cotonou Partnership Agreement has a number of objectives; not only to provide financial aid and developmental assistance, but also to enhance and promote democracy, the rule of law, and human rights within member countries. Through mechanisms established under Treaty law, the parties to the Cotonou Partnership Agreement have been able to monitor and review the effective provision of development aid during the life of the Agreement. The Cotonou Partnership Agreement is a 20-year agreement that has built in five-yearly review procedures, and 2015 signals the third and final review. This final review will determine where the Agreement has succeeded and where it has failed, and it will identify areas in need of improvement to ensure maximum benefit for all parties during the remainder of its term. By taking a qualitative approach, this paper will argue that the Cotonou Partnership Agreement provides a model for future international relations based on democratic principles such as accountability and transparency.

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  • Tensions and Possibilities. The Interplay of 'Traditional' Cultural Elements and the Creation of 'Contemporary' Rapa Nui, Māori and Samoan Diasporic Theatre

    Fortin Cornejo, Moira (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis focuses on notions of ‘traditional’ and ‘contemporary’ theatre in two Pacific Island contexts, Aotearoa and Rapa Nui. It explores how notions of ‘tradition’ are imagined, recreated, and performed through the ‘contemporary’ creative arts, with a particular focus on theatre. It offers insight about culturally-situated understandings of ‘tradition’, and seeks to acknowledge diverse meanings and perceptions of theatre that exist across diverse Pacific Island cultures, languages, and epistemologies. Ideas about what constitutes ‘tradition’ have been significantly impacted by colonial histories, and that these culturally and historically situated ideas have wide-ranging implications for creative possibilities in the ‘contemporary’ performing arts. ‘Traditional’ performances are often seen as acceptable and relevant to Indigenous communities in Aotearoa and Rapa Nui, contributing to processes of cultural reclaiming and revitalisation. Although cultural continuity is a significant theme in Indigenous theatre in Aotearoa and Rapa Nui, the different emphasis placed upon notions of ‘tradition’ across these comparative contexts has led to very different artistic possibilities being available. In Rapa Nui there is a general reluctance in the performing arts to deviate from ‘tradition’ or to declare work as ‘contemporary.’ The reproduction of ‘traditional’ styles and stories is one response to ongoing colonialism in Rapa Nui, and to the ever present demands of the tourist industry. Māori and Samoan theatre practitioners in Aotearoa have developed theatre forms and processes that are based in cultural values and epistemologies while also being integrated with European theatre techniques, creating innovative approaches to ‘contemporary’ themes and understandings. These developments in the creative arts are supported by the availability of a wide range of theatre education opportunities. Culturally reflective and situated approaches to theatre education have enabled Indigenous theatre practitioners in Aotearoa to use theatre as a forum to express ideas and issues to the community weaving in a variety of different cultural influences, and techniques. This thesis utilised a case-study methodology and open-ended interviews, framed under the research methodology of talanoa, to interact with Māori, Samoan diasporic and Rapanui theatre practitioners, in order to explore their perceptions towards ‘traditional’ and ‘contemporary’ practices. This research focuses on the positives of cultural dialogue, and it emerges from a desire to support intercultural theatre practices in Aotearoa and Rapa Nui.

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  • In defence of direct democracy: The case for binding citizens initiated referenda in New Zealand

    Stallmann, Finn (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    I argue that citizens initiated referenda (CIR) should be legally binding. While referenda are an established part of New Zealand’s constitutional framework, ordinary citizens only have the power to initiate nonbinding CIR. A system of binding CIR (BCIR) would be an improvement. Firstly, BCIR would give greater respect to individual citizens’ rationality, freedom and equality. Secondly, BCIR would make New Zealand more democratic. Thirdly, BCIR would have a number of instrumental benefits. Various arguments can be advanced in defence of the current representative democratic paradigm. They include common arguments such as those regarding voter incompetence, tyranny of the majority, and incompatibility with current governing arrangements. They are all flawed. In short, the people can be trusted to govern themselves. I finish my argument by providing an example of how the process of direct democratic lawmaking might work in New Zealand. It differs significantly from the current CIR process, but I do not mean to set it in stone. I use it to show how proper institutional design can refute some counterarguments. The final form will be decided upon by the people and their representatives.

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  • Settlement payments in Papua New Guinea - Are they Just or Unjust?

    Sukwianomb, Sheila (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This paper discusses and analyses settlement payments paid to customary landowners in Papua New Guinea by the State for the acquisition of their customary land prior to Independence. These payments had been introduced after customary landowners had raised their grievances over the low purchase prices that they had been allegedly paid by the early European settlers and the colonial administration over their customary land. They are statutorily fixed payments provided under the National Land Registration Act 197. However, since the introduction of these payments, the State has encountered a number of problems. The main problems are firstly that customary landowners are still dissatisfied with the amounts paid and therefore continuously demanding further payments. Secondly, the National Land Commission which was established to administer the process of facilitating these payments under the National land Registration Act is not performing its functions effectively. Therefore this paper aims to study the historical reasons behind introducing these payments and argues that based on the current problems that the State is experiencing with paying landowners’ settlement payments it should consider whether or not to continue to pay customary landowners.

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  • Clustering and Classification in Fisheries

    Fujita, Yuki (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This goal of this research is to investigate associations between presences of fish species, space, and time in a selected set of areas in New Zealand waters. In particular we use fish abundance indices on the Chatham Rise from scientific surveys in 2002, 2011, 2012, and 2013. The data are collected in annual bottom trawl surveys carried out by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). This research applies clustering via finite mixture models that gives a likelihood-based foundation for the analysis. We use the methods developed by Pledger and Arnold (2014) to cluster species into common groups, conditional on the measured covariates (body size, depth, and water temperature). The project for the first time applies these methods incorporating covariates, and we use simple binary presence/absence data rather than abundances. The models are fitted using the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The performance of the models is evaluated by a simulation study. We discuss the advantages and the disadvantages of the EM algorithm. We then introduce a newly developed function clustglm (Pledger et al., 2015) in R, which implements this clustering methodology, and perform our analysis using this function on the real-life presence/absence data. The results are analysed and interpreted from a biological point of view. We present a variety of visualisations of the models to assist in their interpretation. We found that depth is the most important factor to explain the data.

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  • Radical Detours: A Situationist Reading of Philip K. Dick

    Raba, Andrew (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In this project I read four Philip K. Dick novels against the writing of the Situationist International (SI). In doing so, I seek to disrupt two critical trends that arguably impede Dick criticism: the depoliticization of Dick and the lack of focus on his style. Through reading his work against the politics of the SI, Dick’s own radical politics can be defined and reaffirmed. I make the case that Dick is a writer predominantly concerned with politics and ideology over and above philosophy and ontology. Secondly, I argue that the political power of Dick’s work is inseparable from his avant-garde style; in particular, his frequent use of what the Situationists termed détournement. With revolutionary politics and avant-garde aesthetics in mind, I re-examine the canonical novels Martian Time-Slip and Ubik, and redeem two of Dick’s neglected novels, The Game-Players of Titan and Galactic Pot-Healer.

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  • Crawling to connectivity? The direct-developing journey of the spotted whelk (Cominella maculosa)

    Dohner, Melanie (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The exchange of individuals between populations influences demographic connectivity on the ecological scale and genetic connectivity on the evolutionary scale. In some circumstances there are similarities between demographic and genetic connectivity, but in others there are differences. Whenever genetic differentiation is found between populations demographic uncoupling can also be inferred, but when gene flow is found there is uncertainty about whether populations are demographically connected or not. Marine invertebrates typically have large population sizes and many opportunities for dispersal. However, species that have limited planktonic dispersal power are often characterized by genetically and demographically discrete populations that exhibit an isolation-by-distance (IBD) pattern of gene distribution. Alternative methods of dispersal, such as rafting or drifting, produce departures from this expected pattern for species lacking planktonic larvae. Examining genetic patterns at fine geographic scales can identify key dispersal barriers and may give clues to alternative dispersal methods influencing large scale processes. The endemic, direct-developing spotted whelk, Cominella maculosa, is found in the intertidal rocky shores throughout most of New Zealand. This distribution makes it ideal for studying a species expected to exhibit low realized dispersal by crawling and is unlikely to experience dispersal by rafting. The first aim of this study was to investigate genetic patterns between two genetically distinct populations along the Wairarapa Coast of the North Island to determine if a barrier to dispersal was present or if the expected IBD pattern was observed. The second aim was to determine the likelihood of individual hatchlings undertaking long distance dispersal by drifting in the water column. The mitochondrial DNA COI gene was sequenced using 324 whelk samples collected at seven sites along 125 km of Wairarapa shoreline. No significant level of genetic isolation-by-distance or discontinuity in haplotype distribution was observed. Instead, two sites in the middle of the region form a contact area where the dominant northern and southern haplotypes coexist. To investigate dispersal by drifting in the water, three experimental trials were conducted with hatchlings obtained from field-collected egg capsules. When subjected to wave forces, or deposited directly in flow, hatchlings remained suspended and were carried a short distance. However, hatchlings circulated in currents and left for a longer period (12 hours) were rarely found drifting after this period. These trials indicate that wave dislodgement and local flow regime may result in small-scale displacement of hatchlings, but long-distance dispersal by drift is unlikely. Plankton sampling was also conducted at two sites with four nearshore traps. The rare capture of a related Cominella virgata hatchling supports the finding that hatchlings can be dislodged, but prolonged drift cannot be inferred. The findings from this study support the assumption that crawling is the dominant dispersal mechanism for C. maculosa. Crawling between sites best explains the blending of haplotypes in the middle of the Wairarapa and the genetic differentiation between populations. Crawling-mediated connectivity is unlikely to occur at the ecological scale; therefore populations are expected to be demographically isolated. The results of this research support the general findings in the literature that populations of direct developing species are often demographically isolated and have low levels of genetic connectivity.

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  • Path to Accessibility: The current state of disability access in Aotearoa New Zealand museums

    King-Wall, Riah (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The New Museology posits museums and galleries as institutions entwined with issues of social justice and political responsibility. The relationship between museums and their communities is the founding aspect of this theoretical and practical framework. ‘Path to Accessibility’ explores the ways museums and galleries around Aotearoa New Zealand are engaging with communities of people with disabilities, consulting both with representatives from the disability sector and cultural organisations from around the country. This dissertation addresses a current gap in the literature available on how New Zealand museums are adapting to the needs of these audiences; a shift that is necessary given one in four New Zealanders identifies as having lived experience of disability. It also forges a valuable contribution to the field of museum studies by drawing on theory such as audience development and visitor research, and utilising emancipatory research frameworks from disability studies, as well as conducting original research on an under-examined topic. The research comprised a multi-method approach to ensure credibility. Focus group and interview stages collected the experiences and viewpoints of existing museum visitors with disabilities. This provided a foundation on which to create a nationwide survey of 41 museums and galleries. The survey explored multiple aspects of disability access, including physical ingress, inclusive exhibition design, tailored public programming, digital accessibility, and levels of disability representation in staff and management positions. The findings of this research project reveal that museums and galleries in Aotearoa New Zealand are for the most part considering disability access in some way. However, actioning related initiatives is often limited to achieving minimum legislative requirements rather than approaching it comprehensively as part of wider audience development strategies. The analysis of data gathered puts forward a number of suggestions around improving practice in New Zealand museums, central to which is establishing relationships with communities of people with disabilities and their advocacy groups to ensure long-term sustainability. These recommendations have global applicability for museum practice as comparative overseas studies demonstrate strong similarities to the New Zealand context.

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  • Dynamic Risk Factors and their Utilisation in Case Formulation: A New Conceptual Framework

    Palmer, Lauren (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The social pressure on policy makers and clinicians working with sexual offenders to reduce recidivism is extreme. A result of this pressure is the amount of research investigating risk-related features that has surged over the last few decades. Risk assessment has progressed from unstructured clinical judgement to development of risk factors that correlate with recidivism to predict levels of risk, and more recently, to forensic case formulation. This thesis concentrates on two key issues with forensic case formulation that has been largely neglected thus far. First, forensic case formulations rely heavily on the use of dynamic risk factors as causes of offending. The concern is that dynamic risk factors are composite constructs not causal mechanisms. Second, forensic case formulation models do not explain how to use an offender’s information and their risk factors to hypothesise about the cause of their offending leading to issues of reliability. To address these issues, the RECFM consists of five phases that guides clinicians on how to appropriately use forensic case formulation. The Risk Etiology Case Formulation Model (RECFM) aims to incorporate a reconceptualised version of dynamic risk factors using an Agency Model to identify the interaction of agent and context that causes offending behaviour. By using the RECFM, treatment can be targeted to the individual and their specific causes of offending, which will lead to better results in reducing recidivism. The aim of this thesis is to provide a forensic case formulation model is comprehensible for clinicians and that targets the causes of offending.

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  • Development of a career and competency framework for Occupational Health Nurses working in New Zealand using participatory action research

    Howard, Stella Mary (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This participatory action research (PAR) study was undertaken to review the New Zealand Competencies for Practising as an Occupational and Environmental Health Nurse (2004) document and develop an integrated career and competency framework for nurses working in the field of occupational health. The 2004 competency document needed to be reviewed to ensure Occupational Health Nurses (OHNs) have up-to-date guidelines for the skills and knowledge required by businesses to support and promote the health and wellbeing of the workforce, as well as enabling OHNs to identify their training requirements and career planning. Eight OHNs (including myself) from Christchurch over a 10-month period applied a PAR approach to this qualitative study. The nurses actively engaged in the project from research design to dissemination so linking theory and practice. Achieving the aims and objectives required collaboration, democratic participation, joint decision making, sharing resources, gaining knowledge, and empowerment. The study had six phases. Recruitment of the OHNs occurred during the first phase and in the second phase information was collected through a questionnaire gaining awareness of the OHNs role within the workplace. This information stimulated the first action cycle inquiry. During the third phase data was collected from transcripts of the PAR group meetings. The fourth phase was reflection of the PAR theoretical process of the study. This reflection included understanding what occurred leading to the turning points and what sustained the PAR group. From this phase, evolved phase five, formation of a sub-PAR group, and phase six of the study when the original PAR group reconvened and four subsequent meetings were held concluding the study in May 2015. The study provides contribution to PAR by showing importance of the time commitment of homogenous co-researchers, and role of primary researcher. A number of areas were identified by the nurses as important skills and knowledge areas for occupational health nursing. Areas include fitness for work, health promotion, risk assessment, legislation and standards, leadership and management skills, research and professionalism. These skills and knowledge topics were then expanded and applied into the career framework from competent to expert nurse. The final participatory cycle involved distributing the framework to the New Zealand Occupational Health Nurses Association to complete the review. The outcome of this research is an integrated occupational health nursing competency and career framework which has been disseminated nationally to New Zealand OHNs waiting for feedback. It is expected that the framework will raise the profile of OHNs within New Zealand, and the vital contribution they make to the public health strategy and supporting businesses to apply employment legislation.

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  • Oocyte-derived forms of ruminant BMP15 and GDF9 and a theoretical model to explain their synergistic response

    Heath, Derek (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Bone morphogenetic factor 15 (BMP15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) are two oocyte-secreted factors with well documented effects on ovarian follicular development and ovulation-rate. The aims of these studies were to: (i) identify the molecular forms of BMP15 and GDF9 that are produced and secreted by both the ovine and bovine oocyte using highly specific monclonal antibodies; (ii) assess the biological activity of some recombinant molecular forms of BMP15 and GDF9; (iii) visualise the various molecular forms using protein modelling techniques and; (iv) provide a hypothetical model of how oocyte-secreted form(s) of BMP15, GDF9 and their cell surface receptors may interact. Using genetic modifications and transformations of HEK293 cells, recombinant forms of ovine (o) BMP15, including a BMP15 (S356C) mutant capable of forming covalent dimers, and oGDF9 were produced. The bioactivity of these proteins was established using a rat granulosa cell proliferation bioassay. The specificity of the monoclonal antibodies MN2-61A (anti-BMP15) and 37A (anti-GDF9) used in these studies, and determination of the forms they recognise, was examined by Western blotting. The recombinant forms of oBMP15 were further interrogated by purification using both immobilised metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and reverse phase HPLC. The BMP15 and GDF9 proteins produced and/or secreted by ovine and bovine oocytes, before and after in vitro incubation, were identified and compared with the molecular forms(s) of recombinant oBMP15 or oGDF9 using Western blotting under non-reducing, reducing and cross-linking conditions. The molecular forms of recombinant oBMP15 and oGDF9 comprise mainly mature monomers with a lesser amount of the uncleaved pro-mature form. Mature domains, in the dimeric mature form, were detected for oGDF9 and oBMP15 (S356C), but not oBMP15. These mature domains were almost entirely located within high molecular weight multimeric complexes, which likely also contain the pro-region. In contrast, BMP15 and GDF9 secreted from ruminant oocytes under in vitro conditions were found mainly in an unprocessed promature form, along with some fully processed mature domains that did not interact to form detectable mature homodimers or heterodimers. Throughout ovarian follicular development, BMP15 and GDF9 are co-expressed and it has been established that these two factors have synergistic effects on granulosa cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo and also on follicular maturation and ovulation-rate in vivo. Moreover, the recombinant proteins oBMP15 and oGDF9 generated for this study, when added together, also demonstrated a synergistic effect in the granulosa cell proliferation assay but this was not observed for oBMP15 (S356C) and oGDF9. Currently, no adequate model has been proposed to explain how interactions between the cell membrane and forms of oocyte-derived BMP15 and GDF9 achieve their synergistic effects. To investigate this, two homology models of the promature BMP15 and GDF9 proteins were generated using promature porcine TGFB1 and human BMP9 as templates. These models, together with the previously determined forms of GDF9 and BMP15 produced by the ruminant oocyte, were used to visualise their potential interactions, both with each other and with their receptors. This report describes a model showing the possible interactions involved in a synergistic response. In this model, the mature domain is presented to the type II receptor by the proregion and heterodimers form at the level of the receptor. Differences, following heterodimerisation in the conformation and orientation between GDF9 and its type I receptor, as well as between type I and type II receptors, relative to that in homodimers, could explain how heterodimerisation leads to increased Smad3 phosphorylation and subsequent down-stream somatic cell responses.

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  • Leaving a Trail - Revealing heritage in a rural landscape

    Rodgers, Maria (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    ‘Leaving a Trail – revealing heritage in a rural landscape’ investigates how landscape architecture can reveal heritage and connect Māori and Pākehā to the land and to the past in rural Aotearoa New Zealand. Our rural landscapes contain rich and varied stories, which, if interpreted and made stronger by being linked together, have the potential to create cultural and recreational assets as well as tourist drawcards. A starting point for this research based in South Wairarapa was the six sites identified by the Wairarapa Moana Management Team as sites for development. The first design ‘hunch’ remained the touchstone of the project. With the six Wairarapa Moana Wetlands Park sites forming an ‘inner necklace’ the aim of this project became creating an ‘outer necklace’ of revealed heritage sites, a heritage trail. This thesis was inspired by the depth of Māori connection to the land. Māori consider the natural world is able to ‘speak’ to humans. The method chosen for this design research is based on landscape architect Christophe Girot’s ‘Four Trace Concepts in Landscape Architecture’. Girot is interested in methods and techniques that expand landscape projects beyond the amelioration of sites towards the reactivation of the cultural dimensions of sites. As part of this research is to enable connection with the cultural dimensions of sites, or to ‘hear the site speak’, his method was chosen as a starting point. It was adapted and shaped by previous experience and the experience of this research to form a new method, ‘Four Listening Acts in Landscape Architecture’. Through such methods landscape architects can grow their relationship with the land and so better design with the land and for the landscape and its people. After research, the sites were chosen and grouped into four major routes, Māori, Pākehā settlement, natural system and military, so as to appeal to people with a variety of interests. Of the twenty six trail sites most are already marked and eleven are unmarked. Research into how to reveal these unmarked sites saw three different approaches used. Sites with spaces had their essence intensified to become places. Other sites had objects designed for them directly related to the landscape. The significance of the rest is shown with numbered markers. These three different methods of revealing a site’s significance are threaded together into a series, a necklace, creating a trail that contributes a cultural, recreational and tourist resource to South Wairarapa.

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  • The Northern Ireland Question: All-Ireland Self-Determination post-Belfast Agreement

    Donohue, Conor (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    By the Belfast Agreement of 1998, the major parties involved in the Northern Ireland conflict agreed that the territorial status of Northern Ireland would be determined by the Northern Irish people, and the people of the island of Ireland collectively. Although this Agreement is significant in shaping the right to self-determination in the all-Irish context, it contains within it many ambiguities. Many questions as to the nature, extent and effects of the right to self-determination in the all-Irish context still remain. These questions and issues which arise within the Agreement are resolvable with recourse to the customary international law of self-determination, particularly the law and practice relating to referenda. The Belfast Agreement is not simply of relevance in the Irish context. Rather, it has the potential to serve as a model to see the resolution of territorial and self-determination conflicts.

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  • Audiovisual and Chill: An Evaluation of Video Digital Libraries and Catalogues

    Gordon, Timothy Dean (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research Problem: This research investigates how well video digital libraries and catalogues used in academic libraries meet user expectations. This is in the context of increasing use and demand for online audiovisual content by the wider community, as well as growing use of audiovisual materials for teaching, learning, and research at academic institutions. It also aims to give an understanding of how well libraries are meeting the challenges of delivering audiovisual materials to users in an on-demand world. Methodology: Twelve platforms—developed between 1996 and 2015—are evaluated against 23 user-centred criteria, divided into four core areas: retrieval functionality, user interface, collection qualities, and user support. Results: The study found that not one of the platforms evaluated met all the evaluation criteria, and identified three key areas in the usability of the video digital libraries and catalogues: search and retrieval, technology, and structure, scope, and strategy. Implications: From this we gain an understanding of performance and usability of video digital libraries and catalogues currently in use by academic libraries. We also learn about the difficulties those working with audiovisual materials are facing, and also of the solutions that are being proposed. Findings of this study could help influence decision making, development of future platforms, and influence policies for delivering audiovisual materials to users.

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