6,210 results for Scholarly text

  • Performance Management in the New Zealand Public Sector

    Bonner, Sarah (2014)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research seeks to understand Performance Management from a New Zealand perspective and answer the question “What are the barriers to the implementation of Organisational Performance Management in the NZ Public Sector”. An extensive literature review was undertaken relating to research on organisational Performance Management. The review identified that there were two key gaps in the research, (1) A contextual gap, and (2) a conceptual gap. Contextually; there is limited research about PM in New Zealand, especially in terms of the New Zealand public sector, and what was available was predominately from a practitioner view (Gill, 2011). Conceptually; the literature reviewed identified four broad barriers to implementation of PM; these were generally discussed in isolation to each other. However, analysis of these barriers suggests that there are inter-related and linked by an over arching barrier related to psychological attitudes, therefore they are co-dependent of each other: (1) organisational and managerial, (2) political, (3) cultural, and (4) psychological. Drawing on the identification of the above mentioned gaps the research sought to further explore theses gaps. From the contextual perspective within the New Zealand public sector, there are two PM frameworks in place The Performance Improvement Framework (PIF) and The Better Administrative Services Framework (BASS). The research used a case study approach to analyse results from both these PM frameworks, and identified that while the performance measurement frameworks where valuable in their own right, they lacked contextual depth, and suffered limitations from duplication and fragmentation. The case study highlighted further emergent themes related to the conceptual perspective, confirming that there were indeed barriers associated with successful implementation of the performance information gained from these frameworks. These barriers aligned with those identified in the literature review; however, additional themes emerged. These were the lack of incentives to drive improvements, the impact of risk taking, fragmentation and duplication and the absence of a holistic system view of agency performance. These emergent themes interlink with the barriers identified and reiterate that psychological perceptions and attitudes are the core resistance to the successful implementation of performance management and should not be viewed in isolation.

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  • Modernizing Childbirth in Colonial Bengal: A History of Institutionalization and Professionalization of Midwifery, c.1860-1947

    Guha, Ambalika (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In colonial India, medicalization of childbirth has been historically perceived as an attempt to ‘sanitise’ the zenana (secluded quarters of a respectable household inhabited by women) as the chief site of birthing practices and to replace the dhais (traditional birth attendants ) with trained midwives and qualified female doctors. This thesis has taken a broader view of the subject but in doing so, focusses on Bengal as the geographical area of study. It has argued that medicalization of childbirth in Bengal was preceded by the reconstitution of midwifery as an academic subject and a medical discipline at the Calcutta Medical College. The consequence was the gradual ascendancy of professionalized obstetrics that prioritised research, surgical intervention and ‘surveillance’ over women’s bodies. The thesis also shows how the medicalization of childbirth was supported by the reformist and nationalist discourses of the middle-class Bengalis in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The thesis begins from the 1860s when the earliest scientific essays on childbirth and pregnancy began to appear in Bengali women’s magazines such as Bamabodhini Patrika. It ends in the 1940s, when nationalism profoundly influenced the professionalization of obstetrics - midwifery being perceived as the keystone in a nation’s progress. Bengal being the earliest seat of British power in India it was also the first to experience contact with the western civilization, culture and thought. It also had the most elaborate medical establishment along western medical lines since the foundation of the Calcutta Medical College in 1835. It is argued in the extant literature that unlike the West where professionalized obstetrics was characterised as essentially a male domain, the evolving professional domain of obstetrics in Bengal was dominated by female doctors alone. Questioning that argument, the thesis demonstrates that the domain of obstetrics in Bengal was since the 1880s shared by both female and male doctors, although the role of the latter was more pedagogic and ideological than being directly interventionist. Together they contributed to the evolution of a new medical discourse on childbirth in colonial Bengal. The thesis shows how the late nineteenth century initiatives to reform birthing practices were essentially a modernist response of the western educated colonized middle class to the colonial critique of Indian socio-cultural codes that also included an explicit reference to the ‘low’ status of Bengali women. Reforming midwifery constituted one of the ways of modernizing the middle class women as mothers. In the twentieth century, the argument for medicalization was further driven by nationalist recognition of family and health as important elements of the nation building process. It also drew sustenance from international movements, such as the global eugenic discourse on the centrality of ‘racial regeneration’ in national development, and the maternal and infant welfare movement in England and elsewhere in the inter-war years. The thesis provides a historical analysis of how institutionalization of midwifery was shaped by the debates on women’s question, nationalism and colonial public health policies, all intersecting with each other in Bengal in the inter-war years. The thesis has drawn upon a number of Bengali women’s magazines, popular health magazines, and professional medical journals in English and Bengali that represent both nationalist and official viewpoints on the medicalization of childbirth and maternal and infant health. It has also used annual reports of the medical institutions to chart the history of institutionalization of midwifery and draws upon archival sources - the medical and educational proceedings in particular - in the West Bengal State Archives and the National Archives of India.

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  • Devils & dust

    Brechin-Smith, David (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A screenplay.

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  • The impact of intellectual capital on firm performance among R&D engaging firms

    Ariff, Arifatul Husna Mohd (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis investigates the impact of aggregate intellectual capital (IC), and its elements, human capital, structural capital and tangible capital, on firm performance. In addition, the study also examines the impact of past research and development (R&D) activity on the relationship between IC and firm performance. The study employs the original and modified Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAICTM) models to measure IC. Firm performance is measured from two different perspectives: market and financial. The study uses a sample of 1,328 firm-year observations drawn from multinational firms which engaged in R&D activity over the period 2006-2013 and were listed on the U.S. stock exchanges. Using ordinary least squares regression, the study confirms that aggregate IC has a significant positive impact on both the market and financial performance of firms. Human capital has no significant impact on market performance, but it has a significant positive impact on financial performance. Structural capital and tangible capital each have a significant positive influence on both the market and financial performance of firms. In addition, the study finds that past R&D activity has a significant positive impact on the relationship between aggregate IC and both market and financial performance. However, the study finds mixed results for the role of past R&D activity on the relationship between the IC elements and firm performance. The study contributes to the existing literature by providing empirical evidence on the impact of IC on firm performance among multinational R&D engaging firms. The study also adds to the literature by providing empirical evidence on the role of R&D activity in influencing the relationship between IC and firm performance and thus enhances the current understanding of the role of IC and R&D. In addition, the study contributes to the methodology by proposing a modification to the original VAIC model and empirically tests the resulting modified VAIC model. The study thus provides empirical evidence of the impact of IC on the market performance and financial performance of firms. This evidence should be useful to firms in developing their IC and R&D policies, to users of financial statements in evaluating the benefits from IC among R&D engaging firms, and also to accounting standard setters in identifying the information on IC that should be included in financial reports.

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  • Ranking Sound Insulation Regulations: Giving New Zealand an International Context

    Merwood, Yasmin (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Sufficient sound insulation is required between tenancies to provide protection from noise intrusion which otherwise can be a major source of suffering for building occupants. Sound insulation of residential buildings has a key role in providing building occupant satisfaction and health. In New Zealand (NZ), sound insulation regulations dictate the minimum airborne and impact sound insulation performance between abutting tenancies. These requirements are currently specified in Clause G6 of the NZ Building Code (published in 1992, amended 1995). In 2010, it was proposed that that the performance requirements be changed. These changes included increased sound insulation, different measurement methods, different sound insulation descriptors (unit) and including a wider scope of building elements, e.g. including services, between common spaces, doorways etc. Part of the justification for these changes was that they would enable NZ to catch up with ‘international practice’ (2010). However, there is limited information regarding the performance required by sound insulation regulations internationally, other than a small number of studies-based on European regulations. This research investigates how ‘international practice’ might be established. The research develops a methodology, which enables a comparison of the performance requirements of residential airborne sound insulation regulations. As a proof of concept, this research then pilot tests the methodology, focussing on testing how regulations from around the world would compare if applied in NZ. Six regulations were selected for the pilot test; The Building Code of Australian; the National Building Code of Canada; the New York City Building Code; the Republic of Ireland Technical Document E and the two versions of the NZ Building Code (1992, amended 1995 and the 2010 proposed changes). The sampled regulations encompass four descriptors and the use of two different organisational bodies from countries across three continents. The regulations were assessed for their airborne sound insulation performance requirements between abutting tenancies. These requirements were then compared to determine which required a greater or lesser sound insulation performance. Due to the range of descriptors and performance levels of the various regulations the comparison was not a straightforward mathematical one. Instead, computer simulation was used to convert the various performance requirements into the all the descriptors used by the regulations. This was done using construction-based tests. The comparison was based on the regulations being applied in New Zealand. This was carried out using ten different NZ-based construction-types; e.g. double timber stud and concrete pre-cast panel systems. The comparative regulation performance requirements for each of these constructions were ranked from highest to lowest (with 1st Rank being the highest performance required and the ranking number increasing as the performance requirement decreases). The transmission loss result from each of tests was then used to quantify the difference between the ranks found. It was found the Australian Building Code required the highest airborne sound insulation of any of the regulations for abutting tenancies (1st rank). This was more than double Ireland’s required performance. This was followed by the proposed changes to the NZ Building Code (2nd), then the current version of the NZ Building Code (3rd); the National Canadian Building Code and the New York codes were ranked 4th equal and finally Ireland ranked last (6th). The research found NZ (Proposed) requirements were not consistently higher than that already specified in NZ (Current). In some cases e.g. double timber stud construction, NZ (Current) actually requires a higher airborne sound insulation performance. The evidence in this research suggests that the performance requirements of NZ (Proposed) would need to be increased to improve on NZ (Current) across all constructions-types. However, it was the found the findings of the pilot test may be confined only to the elements tested. A full expansion of testing into the comparisons of field units may yield further interesting results and contrast the results found through the design units (laboratory-based descriptors).

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  • Shifting Downtown

    Dewhirst, Winston (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Tendency: Haphazard development consumes the landscape stripping it of character and disrupting natural processes. Development of this type is prevalent in small growing rural towns featuring foreign urban designs transposed over the land which create a conflict between permanent urban infrastructure and the transient landscape. Natural processes have become ‘natural hazards’, and the landscape has become ‘green spaces’ which are completely indifferent to the original landscape character. The Thesis looks at the possibility of settlement patterns which retrofit the natural systems into an urban framework. This forms a symbiotic relationship between movement patterns of natural processes and the urban development patterns, aiming to keep the original character of the landscape as the urban centres identity and give space for natural systems to function. The town of Paraparaumu is used as a case study.

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  • Milk price cuts reflect the reality of sweeping changes in global dairy market

    Lockhart, J; Donaghy, DJ; Gow, H (2016-05-12)

    Scholarly text
    Massey University

    Published

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  • Murray Goulburn and Fonterra are playing chicken with dairy farmers

    Lockhart, J; Donaghy, DJ; Gow, H (2016-05-23)

    Scholarly text
    Massey University

    Published

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  • Guardians of the Park: Intensifying development along the edge of urban green space within Christchurch.

    Willis, James (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    On February 22 2011 a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck the Canterbury region causing widespread damage to both Christchurch city and surrounding areas. The quake devastated the city taking lives and causing significant damage to building and land infrastructure both in the inner city and the eastern suburbs. Whilst there has been significant investment and re-development within the central city much of the eastern areas have been neglected. Over 7000 homes have been demolished in the eastern residential red zone leaving a large swathe of land which stretches from the edge of the city centre to New Brighton. With such significant infrastructure being lost much of the city has shifted west with further developments being planned on the outskirts of the city adding to the existing problem of planned urban sprawl that had begun long before 2011. This thesis explores opinions for the eastern residential red zone, building upon existing proposals to turn the area into an urban forest – letting the area return to nature and transforming it into a place where the city celebrates the environment rather than fighting against it. What happens on the edge of this emerging green space will be key to how the eastern suburbs begin to recover post-earthquake and also how successfully this space is integrated into a city with a changing identity. At the urban scale, the proposal explores opinions for the edge of this developing green space through the development of 6 nodes or ‘Guardians of the Park’. These nodes draw from Peter Calthorpe’s theory of the pedestrian pocket, creating a series of interconnected areas of intensification that stretch from the edge of the CBD following the Avon River to New Brighton. Each node is walking distance from significant transport infrastructure and intended to reinforce the city’s connection with the green space through a form of mixed use development with housing, light retail and a number of recreational facilities. Through these nodes the design case study explores the potential for architecture on the edge of this green corridor to be increased in density and stimulate more significant redevelopment in the east though providing access to this new amenity. It explores access to and connection with both open space and recreational activity incorporating theories of increased density housing development and public transport.

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  • Nanoparticle Charge and Shape Measurements using Tuneable Resistive Pulse Sensing

    Eldridge, James (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Accurate characterisation of micro- and nanoparticles is of key importance in a variety of scientific fields from colloidal chemistry to medicine. Tuneable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) has been shown to be effective in determining the size and concentration of nanoparticles in solution. Detection is achieved using the Coulter principle, in which each particle passing through a pore in an insulating membrane generates a resistive pulse in the ionic current passing through the pore. The distinctive feature of TRPS relative to other RPS systems is that the membrane material is thermoplastic polyurethane, which can be actuated on macroscopic scales in order to tune the pore geometry. In this thesis we attempt to extend existing TRPS techniques to enable the characterisation of nanoparticle charge and shape. For the prediction of resistive pulses produced in a conical pore we characterise the electrolyte solutions, pore geometry and pore zeta-potential and use known volume calibration particles. The first major investigation used TRPS to quantitatively measure the zeta-potential of carboxylate polystyrene particles in solution. We find that zeta-potential measurements made using pulse full width half maximum data are more reproducible than those from pulse rate data. We show that particle zeta-potentials produced using TRPS are consistent with literature and those measured using dynamic light scattering techniques. The next major task was investigating the relationship between pulse shape and particle shape. TRPS was used to compare PEGylated gold nanorods with spherical carboxylate polystyrene particles. We determine common levels of variation across the metrics of pulse magnitude, duration and pulse asymmetry. The rise and fall gradients of resistive pulses may enable differentiation of spherical and non-spherical particles. Finally, using the metrics and techniques developed during charge and shape investigations, TRPS was applied to Rattus rattus red blood cells, Shewanella marintestina bacteria and bacterially-produced polyhydroxyalkanoate particles. We find that TRPS is capable of producing accurate size distributions of all these particle sets, even though they represent nonspherical or highly disperse particle sets. TRPS produces particle volume measurements that are consistent with either literature values or electron microscopy measurements of the dominant species of these particle sets. We also find some evidence that TRPS is able to differentiate between spherical and non-spherical particles using pulse rise and fall gradients in Shewanella and Rattus rattus red blood cells. We expect TRPS to continue to find application in quantitative measurements across a variety of particles and applications in the future.

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  • The Rights We Won At Runnymede: An Argument for the Repeal of Magna Carta

    Heesterman, Katja (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Much has been written about Magna Carta, particularly given its recent 800th birthday. Yet few are prepared to speak against this ancient document for fear that the rule of law, liberty, and even democracy might crumble if Magna Carta no longer stands. This paper argues that Magna Carta should be repealed. First, by studying both Magna Carta’s history and the relevant New Zealand case law, this paper establishes that Magna Carta no longer has any discernible practical use. Though it once represented rights against the monarch, it is now out of date, predominantly misused and is therefore obsolete. Building upon this conclusion the paper argues that little of what Magna Carta supposedly stands for can in fact be justified by legitimate statutory interpretation approaches. Even a generous, purposive approach is not enough to transform Magna Carta from a feudal document signed to end a civil war into a sure guarantee of rights and principles in modern New Zealand. Furthermore, Magna Carta does not live up to the rule of law it supposedly epitomises. It is an unnecessary, overly detailed and inaccessible piece of legislation. Finally, it is argued that New Zealand’s constitutional framework would be better off without Magna Carta. New Zealand’s ability to provide effective rights protection and adhere to the rule of law does not depend on the charter signed at Runnymede. Excessive reverence for the past robs New Zealanders of a constitutional framework that suits our unique nation. On this basis, the paper concludes that Magna Carta should be repealed.

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  • Using BIM to calculate accurate building material quantities for early design phase Life Cycle Assessment

    Berg, Brian (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This research simplifies the calculation of the Initial Embodied Energy (iEE) for commercial office buildings. The result is the improved integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) assessments of building materials into the early stages of the building design process (sketch design). This maximises the effectiveness of implementing design solutions to lower a building’s environmental impact. This thesis research proposes that building Information Models (BIM) will make calculating building material quantities easier, to simplify LCA calculations, all to improve their integration into existing sketch design phase practices, and building design decisions. This is achieved by developing a methodology for using BIM LCA tools to calculate highly detailed material quantities from a simple BIM model of sketch design phase building information. This is methodology is called an Initial Embodied Energy Building Information Model Life Cycle Assessment Building Performance Sketch (iEE BIM LCA BPS). Using this methodology calculates iEE results that are accurate, and represent a sufficient proportion (complete) of a building’s total iEE consumption, making them useful for iEE decision-making. iEE is one example of a LCA-based indicator that was used to test, and prove the feasibility of the iEE BIM LCA BPS methodology. Proving this, the research method tests the accuracy that a BIM model can calculate case study building’s building material quantities. This included developing; a methodology for how to use the BIM tool Revit to calculate iEE; a functional definition of an iEE BIM LCA BPS based on the environmental impact, and sketch design decisions effecting building materials, and elements; and an EE simulation calibration accuracy assessment methodology, complete with a function definition of the accuracy required of an iEE simulation to ensure it’s useful for sketch design decision-making. Two main tests were conducted as part of proving the iEE BIM LCA BPS’ feasibility. Test one assessed and proved that the iEE BIM LCA BPS model based on sketch design information does represent a sufficient proportion (complete) of a building’s total iEE consumption, so that are useful for iEE decision-making. This was tested by comparing the building material quantities from a SOQ (SOQ) produced to a sketch design level of detail (truth model 3), to an as-built level of detail, defined as current iEE best practices (truth model 1). Subsequent to proving that the iEE BIM LCA BPS is sufficiently complete, test two assessed if a BIM model and tool could calculate building material quantities accurately compared to truth model 3. The outcome was answering the research question of, how detailed does a BIM model need to be to calculate accurate building material quantities for a building material LCA (LCA) assessment? The inference of this thesis research is a methodology for using BIM models to calculate the iEE of New Zealand commercial office buildings in the early phases of the design process. The outcome was that a building design team’s current level of sketch design phase information is sufficiently detailed for sketch design phase iEE assessment. This means, that iEE and other LCA-based assessment indicators can be integrated into a design team’s existing design process, practices, and decisions, with no restructuring required.

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  • Social Labs in Community Libraries

    Lindop, Hamish (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research problem: Governments are looking for ways to empower communities to create desired change for themselves. Social Labs empower diverse groups to tackle complex social challenges effectively. Community libraries, as a central social space in the community, have the power to bridge gaps between people, and build social capital. The study explored how Social Labs might be effectively designed to operate in community libraries, in order to empower the communities that they serve. Methodology: Four different qualitative methodologies were employed: “The Art of Social Labs” online course was attended to gather data on Social Labs principles and practice, Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Labs practitioners and experts, a case study was conducted on Tamaki Mental Health and Wellbeing Lab, and the Design for Social Innovation Symposium was attended. Results: Two paths for community libraries wishing to implement Social Labs emerged: gradual ground-up development, and partnering with existing Lab teams. A number of useful approaches and considerations for Social Labs design for community libraries were also captured. Implications: Community Libraries wishing to empower their communities to tackle complex social challenges will find this a useful guide to principles and design considerations of Social Labs in community libraries. Other useful design tools and approaches to community empowerment are also discussed. Researchers and practitioners from other disciplines may also find the study useful, considering the current derth of literature on Social Labs.

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  • Geographic Information Systems and Geospatial Data in New Zealand and Australian Academic Libraries

    Smith, Michael (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Research problem: Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a means of gathering, viewing, managing and analysing spatial information. Technological changes are making GIS more widely accessible to researchers in many disciplines. Academic libraries have responded to growing demand by implementing GIS support services. Little research has been undertaken regarding GIS services provided by academic libraries in New Zealand and Australia. This research project aimed to discover the extent and nature of GIS services offered and librarians’ perceptions regarding factors influencing implementation of library GIS services. Methodology: A quantitative study was carried out of tertiary academic libraries in New Zealand and Australia. 78 academic libraries or library networks were invited to complete an online questionnaire regarding GIS services in their library and wider institution. Results: 17 libraries (22%) completed the survey. 59% of surveyed academic libraries offer one or more GIS services. These are primarily university libraries at larger institutions. Non-university libraries offer few GIS services. Services relating to geospatial data management and information literacy are the most frequently offered. The implementation of new GIS services is driven primarily by stakeholder demand, while lack of demand, library staff knowledge of GIS and funding are the main barriers to implementation of new GIS services. Implications: Academic libraries in the region need to be aware of the growth of GIS in academia and responsive to the needs of GIS users by monitoring demand for GIS services and introducing tailored, relevant and sustainable GIS services.

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  • Intersections between Pacific leadership and international development

    Fernandez, Sean (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    As part of the Millennium Development Goals, the United Nations has a long-held commitment to universal primary education for all children. Aid donors in wealthy nations have taken up this call and international development programmes have subsequently been set up in recipient countries where education is not available to everyone. Despite this, an estimated 1.6 million school-aged children in the Pacific region do not currently have access to formal primary schooling. As the timeframe for achieving the Millennium Development Goals draws to a close it is now clear that this aspiration will not be realised in many parts of the Pacific and a generation of children will grow up without a primary education. This raises questions about the design, delivery and management of international aid programmes in the education sector that are often led by people who are not members of the Pacific communities that they seek to assist. This research explores the frustrations felt by recipients of education development programmes in two nations in the Pacific, Tonga and Fiji focusing on the relationship between international development in the Pacific and leadership styles and cultures in the education sector. A key problem that was articulated by aid recipients is that international aid relationships in the Pacific continue to be dominated by the discourses and priorities of donor nations and important opportunities to develop grassroots and local forms of leadership that respond directly and knowledgeably to the rapidly changing needs of Pacific communities have yet to be fully realised. At the same time, new forms of Pacific leadership are emerging as global economies increasingly affect the lives of people living in remote communities and there is a need to respond to these changes because they have a direct impact on schooling for children who live in those areas. Donor nations have not contributed significantly to local leadership development in the education domain and this is an ongoing source of tension for many people because there are so few formally trained indigenous leaders in the education field. The lack of local leaders in this area has an impact of the level of buy-in that Pacific communities give to educational aid projects. This thesis argues that if donor nations are serious about providing universal primary education, leadership development needs to be supported more comprehensively.

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  • Exploring opportunities for developing intercultural competence through intercultural communicative language teaching (ICLT): A case study in a Chinese as a foreign language classroom in a New Zealand high school

    Kennedy, Juliet Vicary (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This qualitative case study explores naturally arising opportunities for developing intercultural competence through intercultural communicative language teaching (ICLT) in a New Zealand high school Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) classroom. Although developing intercultural competence is a goal of many school curriculums, teacher awareness and implementation of effective intercultural pedagogies is not yet wellestablished. Exploring the naturally arising occurrences of intercultural teaching practices and behaviours in one classroom with no formal knowledge of ICLT provides evidence of how culture may be currently understood and approached in comparative settings. Existing views on culture provide a starting point for further developing ICLT. Data collection methods included classroom observations, stimulated recall, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, and written reflections. One teacher and three students from an intermediate level CFL class participated in the study from June to September 2015. The findings show that while some intercultural pedagogies and behaviours occurred naturally, without an explicit focus on developing intercultural competence students are unlikely to develop the skills, attitudes, and traits which make up intercultural competence in the language classroom. This study suggests that the current cultural activities in class could be transformed into opportunities for developing intercultural competence by adding a regular comparative, connective, and reflective dimension, incorporating the students’ linguistic and cultural experiences. The results of this study illustrate the necessity of expanding teacher awareness and skills in practising ICLT to promote the development of intercultural competence and to increase students’ interest in learning languages in New Zealand.

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  • Achieving Accountability: Prosecuting the Denial of Humanitarian Assistance in Non-International Armed Conflict

    Farquhar, Harriet (2016)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Over the past decade, the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance as a result of armed conflict has grown to unprecedented levels. The rapid and effective provision of such assistance constitutes one of the greatest challenges faced by the international community in protecting civilians and other protected persons in times of conflict. While international humanitarian law imposes extensive obligations on the parties to a conflict to grant access to humanitarian actors and facilitate the provision of relief assistance, these rules are routinely violated. This results in significant and prolonged suffering of civilian populations. If the law governing humanitarian assistance is to be better respected, those who act unlawfully must be held accountable. One of the most effective mechanisms for ensuring such accountability is prosecution of international crimes at the International Criminal Court. In its present form, however, there is no provision in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which provides specifically for the prosecution of the unlawful denial of humanitarian assistance in non-international armed conflict. This paper argues that this leaves a significant gap in the accountability framework, and examines possibilities for reform.

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  • Scavenging amphipods of the Tonga Trench: an analysis of community assemblage and population structure

    Wilson, James Peter Ashley (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The hadal zone is the common name for the deepest section of the ocean (6,000-11,000 m depth). It encompasses 45 % of the ocean’s depth range, and is mostly represented by oceanic trenches. Trench habitats lack sufficient sampling and the communities within are not well understood. Often, samples are derived from a single depth and thus the population dynamics of trench communities have not been analysed comprehensively. Scavenging amphipods are abundant and diverse taxa in the trench environment, and have been found in every trench sampled to date. They rapidly intercept and consume carrion falls at the deepest trench depths, and act as key prey items to predators in the shallower depths of the hadal zone. There appears to be a relationship of increasing abundance and decreasing diversity of scavenging amphipods with depth. However in the Tonga Trench, sampling of hadal amphipods has been limited, and these patterns remain unclear. The QUELLE (Quest for the Limit of Life) project in 2013 was led by The Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC). As part of this project, the YOK 13-10 voyage examined scavenging amphipods in the Tonga Trench. The voyage used baited traps to sample depths of ˜6,250 m and ˜10,800 m from October 6 – October 21 in 2013. The main objectives of the present study were to: identify scavenging amphipod assemblages within the Tonga Trench and compare them to other trenches of the South Pacific; analyse the population structure of Hirondellea dubia between depths in the Tonga Trench; and identify a suitable total length proxy for H. dubia. Six species of amphipods were identified from depths of ˜6,250 m and ˜10,800 m in the Tonga Trench. At ˜6,250 m Alicella gigantea, Eurythenes gryllus, H. dubia, Bathycallisoma schellenbergi, an alicellid species, and a gammarid species were recovered. In contrast, H. dubia was the only species recovered from ˜10,800 m. The abundance of amphipods was higher at the ˜10,800 m site while the diversity was much lower. The assemblage of scavenging amphipods in the Tonga Trench was similar to those from past sampling efforts in the same trench. There were also similarities to the assemblages in the adjacent Kermadec Trench, and together these observations support the classification of these two trenches as a single biogeographic province. The assemblages in the Peru-Chile Trench in the South East Pacific were more dissimilar sharing only a few species. The present study provides new Tonga Trench records of the vertical ranges of A. gigantea, E. gryllus, and H. dubia. It also extends the maximum known depth of H. dubia to 10,807 m. This thesis expanded our current knowledge of A. gigantea, by reporting the first instance of this large amphipod in the Tonga Trench, and the second known instance of the species at hadal depths. An analysis of Hirondellea dubia population structure revealed ontogenetic vertical structuring in the Tonga Trench. Juveniles dominated the composition in the shallow end of the H. dubia vertical range, while very few juveniles were found at the deepest site. Juveniles were substantially smaller at ˜6,250 m compared to ˜10,800 m, and this may suggest that juveniles migrate down the trench slope with increasing age. The most likely mechanism for distributing juveniles to the shallower depths is the ascending migration of brooding females. However, this is still not certain as no brooding females were captured. The shallower depth provides a higher quality of food source and the reduced hydrostatic pressure allows for a faster metabolic rate. Thus, this distribution is likely driven by the distribution of food sources throughout the trench in combination with hydrostatic pressure. The dimensions of several established proxies for total length were evaluated for H. dubia. Pereonite 2-7 had the strongest correlation to total length, however it was highly distorted by dorsal curvature. Both the pereonite 2-7 and the pleosome were considered inaccurate due to sexual dimorphism making them inappropriate as proxies. Pereonite 1 was proportionately larger in juvenile lifestages. However, overall pereonite 1 was considered the strongest candidate for a proxy, this is because it was the least influenced by dorsal curvature and was a conspicuous segment that was easy to measure.

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  • User adaptations to system implementation in a mining company in Laos - A case study of organisational change

    Singthilath, Aliyakone (2015)

    Scholarly text
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The purpose of this case study was to assess post–project implementation acceptance by users of new IS/IT systems in a mining company in Laos. The report investigated how the new system changed organisational working cultures and what avoidance or acceptance factors appeared. Also, it looked at how the new implemented systems contributed to the changes in business process and working procedures within Lane Xang Mineral Limited Company (LXML), which is a Lao subsidiary of a mining company from Australia. The change implementation was a strategic business integration of MMG, a Chinese-owned global mining company, headquartered in Melbourne that operated several mining subsidiaries in Australia, Africa, Latin America, and in Laos. In 2013, LXML went through a big change implementation in terms of IS/IT systems consisting of the upgraded computing facilities, I.T. services outsourcing, communication systems, and the introduction of the new Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. Those changes inevitably brought about change in the company’s business processes and working procedures. As a result, it shifted LXML’s way of working from the conventional paper-based system to a more systematic and electronic approach. Following the change, the organisation as well as its staff were faced with cultural issues and mismatch business processes. To gain an understanding of the factors that impacted on the IS/IT implementation within Lane Xang Mineral Limited, this paper applied two analytical frameworks to the study of user acceptance and organisational cultural differences. Data gathering was conducted by an online survey and semi-structure online interviews with staff at different levels from within the organisation. The findings were then divided into enablers and barriers to user’s adaptation to the new systems implementation on individual and organisational level. The findings were also used to compare deductively with the analytical frameworks to verify their influencing categories. This paper is organised in three main sections, the first section introduces the case background and description of the issues from the case study. The second section is a justification of the significance of issues identified, and of the selected conceptual frames that were applied in the study. The third section is the analysis section, which explains data collection methodologies and the analytical details. Findings on the study will also be found within this section. At the end of the paper, the study is concluded by giving recommendations as a guide to I.T. Managers at the MMG headquarters in Australia and the LXML office in Laos, on transnational I.T. implementation within MMG. The recommendations could be taken as a guide for any other organisation (not only limited to the mining industry) to explore in order to plan for an effective I.T. implementation within their firms in the future.

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  • New Methods for Studying Materials Under Shear with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Brox, Timothy Ian (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    For over 30 years, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been used to study materials under shear. Collectively referred to as Rheo-NMR, these methods measure material behaviour due to external stimuli and provide spatially and temporally resolved maps of NMR spectra, intrinsic NMR parameters (e.g. relaxation times) or motion (e.g. diffusion or flow). As a consequence, Rheo-NMR has been established as a complementary technique to conventional rheological measurements. In this thesis, new hardware and experimental methods are presented with the goal of advancing this exciting field through further integration of traditional rheometry techniques with NMR experiments. Three key areas of hardware development have been addressed, including: 1) integrating torque sensing into the Rheo-NMR experiment for simultaneous bulk shear stress measurements, 2) constructing shear devices with geometric parameters closer to those used on commercial rheometers and 3) implementing an advanced drive system which allows for new shear profiles including oscillatory shear. In addition to presenting the design and construction of various prototype instruments, results from validation and proof of concept studies are discussed. This information demonstrates that the hardware operates as expected and establishes an experimental parameter space for these new techniques. Furthermore, these methods have been applied to open questions in various physical systems. This includes exploring the influence of shear geometry curvature on the onset of shear banding in a wormlike micelle surfactant system, observing shear induced structural changes in a lyotropic nonionic surfactant simultaneously via deuterium spectroscopy and bulk viscosity as well as studying interactions of flowing granular materials. The interpretation and implication of these observations are discussed in addition to motivating further studies.

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