643 results for Thesis, 1970

  • A city in transition : diversification in the social life of Dunedin, 1860-1864.

    McCarthy, M. P. (1977)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    iii, 133 leaves :ill., facsim. ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 128-133.

    View record details
  • The repudiation movement : a study of the Maori land protest movement in Hawkes Bay in the 1870's : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University.

    Cole, Sharron Mary (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Repudiation Movement was a Maori land protest organization that aroused suspicion and fear in the minds of Europeans in Hawkes Bay in the 1870's. It was a movement that adopted European methods and institutions as its means for solving land grievances and was led by influential Chiefs and by some Europeans. This adoption of the movement by these Europeans led to much animosity and conflict and accentuated the polarization of European political factions at provincial and national level. Despite its evident uniqueness when compared with other Maori protest movements, the Repudiation Movement has yet to become the object of an historical analysis that poses the obvious questions - how and why? M.P.K. Sorrenson, M.D.N. Campbell and Alan Ward have mentioned it briefly in their historical studies of broader issues and have made a number of fairly general observations about its causes and methods. The only detailed study that has been aimed specifically at Maori land protest in Hawkes Bay is P.J. Coleman's M.A. thesis in 1949.(1) (1) P.J. Coleman, 'The Native Lands Act and Hawkes Bay: Some Considerations on the Alienation of Maori Land in the Provincial Period of Hawkes Bay Government', Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Victoria University, 1949. Coleman's work concentrated mainly on the period of the 1860's following the Native Land Act and examined in depth the Hawkes Bay Native Lands Alienation Commission of 1873 largely ignoring the protest after 1873. Coleman's analysis was somewhat restricted by his lack of sources and his undue reliance on the Hawkes Bay Herald which research has shown must be used with great caution as it was an instrument of propaganda against the movement.

    View record details
  • Land purchases by missionaries of the Church Missionary Society before 1840: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Kenyon, Thomas (1970)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The missionaries of the Church Missionary Society in New Zealand were subjected to criticism as a result of their private land dealings. one critic in 1839, after a brief visit to the Bay of Islands claimed that they had been in the vanguard of a European conspiracy to rob the Maori of their lands. This was neither the first nor the last of such criticisms. This work will deal solely with the purchases made by members of the Church Missionary Society. only two Wesleyans are known to have purchased land on their own account whilst there is no evidence that the Roman Catholic missionaries bought land for private purposes in the short time which elapsed between their arrival in 1838 and the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. The representatives of the three missionary bodies operating in New Zealand before 1840 also bought land for the purpose of establishing mission sites, but since there was no criticism or dispute arising from these purchases it is not proposed to include them in the scope of this work.

    View record details
  • Studies on the foaming properties of proteins : the role of soluble leaf proteins and other surfactants in the persistence of bloat foams : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Jones, William Thomas (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Methods were developed for the isolation of the soluble leaf proteins in as pure a form as possible and free of any phenoloxidase products. This protein material was separated into two fractions (Fraction 1 and Fraction 2 proteins). A detailed study of the foaming properties of these soluble protein fractions was made so that the conditions necessary for the production of stable foams from these solutions could be evaluated. The nature of the foams derived from bovine salivary secretions and the soluble proteins of the holotrich protozoa were also examined. The foams derived from the leaf and protozoal proteins were rigid and of high stability only when the foams were of high compressive strength. In contrast the salivary secretions produced foams of low compressive strength but high persistence. For protozoal proteins and Fraction 1 protein of white clover and red clover the optimum pH for foam production was close to pH 5.8 to 5.9 and for the plant Fraction 2 proteins in the range 5.1 to 5.4. The foams derived from bovine salivary mucoprotein was unaffected by changes in pH over the range 3.5 to 7.5. The foams generated in vitro from rumen liquor were of low compressive strength but extremely high persistence, and their properties were very different from those of the foams generated from either the plant or protozoal proteins except that they showed maximum foam persistence in a similar pH range. The concentration of Fraction 1 protein in the rumen liquor was below the minimum concentration required to produce stable Fraction 1 protein foams. Of this low concentration only 24% was surface denatured in production of these very stable rumen foams. The significance of this result is discussed. Apart from the low level of Fraction 1 protein, other low molecular weight proteins together with a major component containing carbohydrate as well as protein, were observed on analysing the rumen liquor by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and cellulose acetate electrophoresis. This major component resembled salivary mucoprotein in its schlieren profile in an analytical ultracentrifuge. This material was isolated by preparative ultracentrifugation and some of its properties examined. It was not precipitated by trichloracetic acid, unlike the protozoal and plant proteins, but was precipitated by 60% ammonium sulphate, 80% ethanol, and an equal volume of 1% cetavlon. The antibody to this material gave a positive precipitin reaction with the salivary mucoprotein, the sensitivity of which could be increased by incubating the salivary mucoprotein with neuraminidase, an enzyme which removes the sialic acid from the mucoprotein. molecule. The significance of these findings in relation to other work is discussed. The action of various surfactants that have been implicated in the bloat syndrome on the foaming properties of Fraction 1 protein foams was examined. Thus calcium was found to increase the rigidity of Fraction 1 protein foams, slightly increase the rigidity of Fraction 2 protein foams at high calcium concentrations only, but was without effect on salivary mucoprotein foams. Sodium polygalacturonate increased the persistence of Fraction 1 protein foams at concentration greater than 0.04% w/v. Two salivary secretions were examined for their effect on Fraction 1 protein foams. The first of these was bovine salivary mucoprotein, which whilst increasing the persistence of the foam, decreased its rigidity. Foams of maximum persistence were produced from solutions containing Fraction 1 protein/mucoprotein in the ratio 2/1 , w/w. The second salivary secretion examined was the oesophageal mucin. This material did not produce stable foams by itself, but was an extremely effective stabilizing agent of Fraction 1 protein foams. The most effective antifoaming agent of the polar lipids of red clover examined in this thesis, was phosphatydyl choline which at a concentration of 50 µg ml-1 completely inhibited the production of Fraction 1 protein foams. Addition of mucoprotein to lipid/Fraction 1 protein mixtures which would not support stable foams, resulted in production of extremely persistent foams. Both Fraction 1 protein and mucoprotein were essential for the formation of these foams which resembled the properties of the foams generated in vitro from rumen liquor. From this study it appeared that neither the plant nor the protozoal proteins by themselves could account for the properties of the rumen foams. The properties of the rumen foams could be reproduced by generating foams from mixtures of Fraction 1 protein/plant lipid and salivary mucoprotein. The soluble proteins and the foaming properties of extracts of bloat and non-bloat provoking legume pastures were examined. It was found that the temperate non-bloating legumes contained condensed tannins which precipitated the soluble leaf proteins and thus by removing the plant foaming agents from solution inhibited foam production from these extracts. These tannins were isolated from Lotus pedunculatus Cav., and were shown to form insoluble complexes, not only with the soluble leaf proteins, but with protozoal proteins, salivary mucoprotein, and the protein present in rumen liquor. Tannins were common in the Lotus species, but of the Trifolium species examined, they were found only in Trifolium arvense L.. The significance of incorporation of tannins into bloating pastures in an attempt to eliminate bloat is discussed. The non-bloating tropical legumes, apart from the Desmodium species, did not contain tannins but were lower in soluble leaf protein, and the bloat potential could be correlated with the compressive strength of the foams derived from extracts of these plants.

    View record details
  • The complexing of calcium and magnesium by organic plant constituents : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Chemistry/Biochemistry Department, Massey University

    Molloy, Leslie Francis (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The definition, occurrence and aetiology of hypomagnesaemic tetany is discussed as an introduction to the practical implications of the present investigation. The current hypotheses, involving an unfavourable pasture chemical composition, accounting for the binding of Ca++ and Mg++ in the intestinal tract of ruminants are reviewed. The role of undigested or partly-digested plant cell wall materials is advanced as another such hypothesis, and the present investigation of the cell wall polymers of a typical pasture grass is outlined. The comprehensive analysis of the grass Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus) involves, initially, the extraction and purification of pectic substances, lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose. The non-volatile organic acid content of the grass is also determined. Analytical methods are developed and evaluated in order to assess the homogeneity of these isolated cell wall fractions, and their chemical constitution investigated to aid in determining any possible relationship between cation complexing and polymer (or monomer) structure. The pectic fraction isolated from Yorkshire fog is approximately 90% polygalacturonic acid while the hemicelluloses are basically arabinoxylans with varying hexose and uronic acid content. Attempts tofractionate the predominant hemicellulose, hemicellulose B, into homogenous arabinoxylans gives inconclusive results. Most of the chemical evidence, however, indicates the presence of three discreet polysaccharides in this fraction - a simple arabinoxylan, an acidic galactoarabinoxylan and a neutral glucan. Infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy is utilised to determine the purity of the isolated lignin as well as the presence of typical lignin functional groups. Yorkshire fog lignin has a moderate phenolic hydroxyl and -OMe content and, like most other monocotyledonous lignins, gives yields of syringaldehyde, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde on alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. The outstanding feature of the lignin is its appreciable content of etherified hydroxyl groups in the 4-position of the aromatic ring and the low yield of syringaldehyde. The water-soluble, non-volatile organic acids are quantitatively determined by anion-exchange resin chromatography and their identity confirmed by paper chromatography. The major acid is the tricarboxylic acid, trans-aconitic acid, which is determined spectrophotometrically. The normal plant acids, citric and malic, are present in moderate quantities while the alicyclic acids, quinic anc shikimic, are only present in minor amounts. A limited amount of data on the seasonal fluctuation of these organic fractions in Yorkshire fog is presented. Electrolytes and the concept of ionic activity are discussed in the introduction to the study of the ability of these plant fractions to bind Ca++ and Mg++ in an aqueous salt solution of cationic composition similar to that of the intestine of a ruminant. A cation exchange method is developed whereby changes in the activity of Ca++ or Mg++ on the introduction of a plant fraction into the salt solution are reflected in the cationic composition of the equilibrium resin. An investigation is undertaken of a large number of calibration solutions varying in [ca++] and[Mg++], but constant in [Na+], [K+] and [NH4+], the latter cations being present in excess as 'swamping' cations. Regression expressions relating solution cation concentration to the equilibrium resin cation concentrations are derived and used as calibration equations to determine the amounts of bound and ionic Ca++ and Mg++ in solutions in equilibrium with the plant fractions. The pectic substances, lignin and the organic acids are effective in complexing a large proportion of the solution Ca in a non-ionic form but only lignin and the organic acids display a significant complexing of solution Mg++. Except for hemicellulose B (branched) at a slightly alkaline pH, the hemicelluloses and cellulose have little ability to complex either Ca++ or Mg++. The complexing results are discussed in terms of the relationship of polymer structure to observed cation affinity. Factors involved in cation binding are: - the charge and degree of hydration of the cation itself; - distribution and degree of esterification of carboxyl groups in the polymer; - monomer conformation; - type of glycosidic linkage in the polymer; - the possibility of hydrogen-bonding and non-bonded interactions between substituents on the polymers; - solution pH. The in vivo implications of the results are finally discussed in the context of general ruminant nutrition and alkaline-earth metal absorption discussed in the introduction.

    View record details
  • Biogeochemical studies of nickel and copper in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Timperley, Michael Horace (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The accumulations of various metals by some indigenous trees growing on the Riwaka Basic Complex, North-west Nelson, New Zealand, were investigated by the application of statistical techniques to biogeochemical data. Particular reference was given to nickel and copper to evaluate the usefulness of plant analysis as a prospecting tool. Preliminary investigations showed that serious errors could result from the methods of sampling plants and soils and sampling procedures were adopted to minimise these errors. In addition, errors arising from atomic absorption analysis were found to be significant for some metals. Leaves and twigs from three Nothofagus species, W.racemosa and Q.acutifolia as well as their associated soils, were collected and analysed for nickel, cobalt, copper, zinc, chromium, calcium, magnesium, manganese and potassium. The plants were also analysed for iron. These results showed that each species accumulated different, but related, amounts of various metals and that they distributed these metals in different ways between their leaves and twigs. N.truncata and N.fusca which are closely related genetically, accumulated metals to similar degrees, while N.menziesii which is not closely related to the other Nothofagus species accumulated metals to differing degrees. Relationships between the metal concentrations in the plants and in the soils were evaluated by computing correlation coefficients. The best correlations for nickel were obtained for the Nothofagus genus although the other species also showed highly significant correlations. The Nothofagus genus also showed the best correlation for copper. In view of the above results, a more extensive study of the Nothofagus genus was carried out. A second survey was undertaken in the same area in which leaf samples of this genus as well as their associated soils were collected. While the metal concentrations in the soils collected in this survey compared well to those collected previously, the metal concentrations in the plants, in general, did not show good agreement. Trend analysis was used to compare in detail the nickel and copper contents in the leaves of the Nothofagus genus with the concentrations of those metals in the soils. It was shown by comparison of the trend surfaces and residuals that the accumulation of nickel was determined primarily by the concentration of nickel in the soil, whereas for copper the accumulation by the plant was a function primarily of the specific requirement of the plant for this metal. Multiple regression analysis was used to improve the prediction of the copper and nickel concentrations in the soil from the concentrations of these metals in the leaves of the Nothofagus species, by making quantitative allowance for the processes influencing the accumulation of these metals by the plants. Improvements of between 25% and 35% were obtained at the 90% confidence level. Inter-metal ratios in the leaves were considered as possible indicators of nickel and copper concentrations in the soil but the results were discouraging. Studies were made of the locations and chemical forms of nickel, copper, zinc and iron in both freeze-dried and fresh leaves from some trees growing on the Complex. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure the concentrations of these metals in both plant extracts and on the electrophoresis and chromatography papers used to separate the metal complexes in the extracts. Results indicated that the major part of the nickel present in the leaves was not contained in cell organelles nor was it bound to cell walls, but existed as a positively charged complex in either the cytoplasm and/ or the vacuole. Copper, zinc and iron were distributed differently with varying fractions, depending on the metal, existing predominately as anionic complexes. It was concluded that the research embodied in this thesis had illustrated the application of statistical techniques to biogeochemical studies, showed that biogeochemical prospecting for nickel in New Zealand was feasible and that methods of total analysis for metals could be applied to the study of microgram amounts of metals in biological systems.

    View record details
  • Studies on Cooperia curticei (Ransom 1907) a nematode parasite of sheep : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    Ahluwalia, Jagjit Singh (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis records in part I studies on the ecology of the free living stages of Cooperia curticei , both under controlled and natural conditions. At constant temperatures free living stages developed throughout the temperature range of 10-37c. At all temperatures each larval stage occupied the same proportion of the total developmental time to reach the infective stage. The relationship between the rate of development in log days and temperature was found to be linear. Under natural conditions the rate of development was most strongly correlated with mean maximum air temperature and was not significantly different to that observed under controlled conditions. When faecal cultures were kept at 10°C, 27°C and 37°C a higher proportion of eggs completed development to the infective stage at 27°C than at the other temperatures. Under natural conditions the percentage recovery was influenced by weather conditions particularly rainfall. Submergence of the free living stages in water inhibited their further development. First and second stage larvae survived longest at temperatures between 5°C and 15°C but for a much-shorter time than infective larvae. Between the extremes of -6 and 52°C, the longest survival of infective larvae was 312 days at 10°C. Techniques are described for the recovery of Cooperia curticei larvae from sample units of pasture, soil and faecal pellets. Under natural conditions the maximum survival of larvae from monthly experiments ranged from 9 - 26 weeks. Maximum survival was particularly influenced by temperature. Infective larvae survived through the winter. There was an exponential relationship between the percentage survival and percentage of larvae recovered from the herbage. Vertical migration of larvae appeared to be primarily affected by rainfall and evaporation. It is concluded that infective larvae of Cooperia curticei are available to grazing sheep throughout the year. Theoretically the nematode can complete from 9 - 11 generations in each year. Part II of this thesis records experiments on the relationship between Cooperia curticei and the host sheep. Experiments carried out in vivo and in vitro demonstrated that infective larvae of C. curticei exsheath under conditions provided by the rumen. The process of exsheathment was similar to that described for H. contortus. A series of experimental observations were made on the effect of Cooperia curticei infection in sheep using animals of differing ages, on different diets and with various sizes of infection. The prepatent period of infection was 14- 16 days. Peak egg counts were recorded 5 - 7 days after infection became patent . There after they declined gradually in sheep given 10,000 larvae but in sheep given 50,000 to 100,000 larvae the decline was more abrupt. The egg output per female worm was found to range up to 1,958 eggs per day. No clinical sign of infection was observed from any experimental animal. Body weights, wool growth and blood analyses showed no significant changes and no gross lesions or significant histopathological changes were observed. The results indicate a well balanced relationship between C. curticei and the sheep. The distribution of the C. curticei in the small intestine was skewed, and most of the worms were recovered from 5- 10 feet from the gastric pylorus. A predominance of female worms was observed at all levels of the small intestine. Maximum percentage recovery of C. curticei was observed in sheep given 10,000 larvae. Experimental animals with higher doses besides giving a lower rate of recovery showed inhibition of development and stunted growth of worms. Serum and intestinal mucus samples from infected animals were tested for precipitating antibodies by gel diffusion against five antigens. Antigens were prepared from first stage, second stage, ensheathed third stage, exsheathed third stage larvae and exsheathing fluid. Variable numbers of precipitin lines were obtained with serum and mucus from infected sheep more than 6-7 months old. Sheep 2-3 months old showed no such response but did show evidence of an acquired resistance to infection.

    View record details
  • Malignant lymphomas in sheep : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Johnstone, Alastair Campbell (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Malignant lymphoma is the general term applied to any neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue, including Hodgkin's disease and reticulum cell sarcoma. This group of neoplasms are among the most commonly occurring spontaneous neoplasms of sheep in New Zealand, being exceeded in frequency only by carcinomas of the small intestine and primary neoplasms of the liver. It has not been established whether malignant lymphoma is of sporadic or enzootic occurrence in this country, but from limited epidemiological observations in which on two occasions the disease was seen in two animals from the same property, it is possible that the latter distribution occurs. This and most other series indicate that mature sheep are most frequently affected but the disease does occur in younger sheep and lambs. A study has been made of the pathology of ovine malignant lymphoma, based on 22 cases, most of which were collected from slaughter-houses and histological material from a further 18 cases filed previously at this laboratory. In nearly all cases nodular or diffuse lesions, consisting of accumulations of invasive neoplastic cells of lymphoid origin, were distributed widely throughout the body. Gross evidence of tumour in the lymph nodes was present in all except three cases of the disease. This involvement was usually multiple, with many of the carcass and visceral lymph nodes containing tumours. The spleen contained neoplastic lesions in 73 per cent. of the cases examined. Of the non-lymphoid organs affected by malignant lymphoma, the liver, kidney, bone marrow, heart, small intestine and abomasum predominated. Of the 40 cases examined, 37 were classified as lymphosarcomas and three as reticulum cell sarcomas. The degree of cellular differentiation in the lymphosarcomas varied from primitive lymphoblastoid to well differentiated lymphocytic cell types, with the less differentiated forms being more common. Some nuclear and cytoplasmic abnormalities which have previously been described as being non-specific in other types of neoplasms were seen in specimens from 10 cases which were examined with an electron microscope. Support for the hypothesis that "malignant lymphoma of sheep is transmissible" was sought by attempts to experimentally transmit this disease to lambs using intraperitoneal injections of cell-free tumour extracts during gestation or within 12 hr of birth. To date none of these sheep, which are only three years old, have developed overt neoplasia but 20 of them have developed elevated numbers of circulating lymphocytes. This has persisted for periods of two years or more and there is evidence to indicate that this should be interpreted as a preclinical phase of malignant lymphoma. To investigate an hypothesis that malignant lymphoma of sheep is due to infection by an oncorna virus, electron microscopic examinations were made on specimens from fresh tumour as well as on preparations from tissue cultures which had been inoculated with various ovine lymphoid tumour homogenates. These studies were inconclusive and it was not until cultures of phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes derived from the sheep with experimentally transmitted lymphocytosis were examined that virus-like particles, consistent with the morphology of "type-A" oncorna viruses could be demonstrated. They were present in membrane-limited vacuoles and cytoplasm of these cells and less frequently extra-cellularly in the five experimentally inoculated sheep examined but were not present in any of the lymphocytes from an equal number of control sheep. Lymphocyte cultures from 15 of the experimentally inoculated sheep showed sensitization to antigens in ovine malignant lymphoma homogenates when tested by a macrophage migration inhibition test. This test also demonstrated the presence of common tumour specific antigens in five of the six tumour extracts used either for sheep inoculations or in testing for macrophage inhibitory factor production. In an attempt to accelerate the development of overt neoplasia in three of the experimentally inoculated animals showing a persistent lymphocytosis, they were given a combined course of the immunosuppressive agents azathioprine and horse anti-sheep lymphocyte globulin. This resulted in a profound fall in circulating lymphocytes and while the cell mediated immunity was suppressed, as judged by the survival of skin allografts, macrophage migration inhibition in response to tumour antigens was not significantly altered in two of the three animals under treatment. A close relationship was demonstrated in the experimentally inoculated sheep between the occurrence of lymphocytosis, the development of tumour specific cell mediated immunity and the presence of virus-like particles in phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes. This evidence combined with the demonstration of common apparently tumour specific antigens in malignant lymphoma extracts used in these studies provides strong support for the hypothesis"that this disease of sheep is transmissible and is most probably due to an infection with an oncogenic virus". The exploitation of the sheep model described is of potential value for the comparative study of preneoplastic events in the general field of cancer research.

    View record details
  • An appraisal of water use management in New Zealand : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Philosophy at Massey University

    Walker, Evan Andrew (1975)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Water use management is defined in the context of the New Zealand law and overall water resource management. A simple descriptive model is then introduced as a theoretical framework for examination of the management structures and procedures which are shown as links between the social and biophysical systems. A brief history of the evolution of water use management in New Zealand is outlined, using the development of legal controls as an index. The provisions of the principal enabling law, the 1967 water and Soil Conservation Act, and its subsequent amendments are detailed, and present the management regime discussed in terms of the general model. Problems and Issues with the present management framework are described. The Water Rights system and Water Quality Management (in particular - Classification) are dealt with in detail as the two major procedures, and other technical, administrative and legal issues are identified. The appropriateness of the present Water Rights and controlling agencies (the Regional Water Boards) for water use management is discussed. The topical subjects of land use planning and regional reorganisation are included. An attempt is made to place the New Zealand management in perspective, particularly in terms of overseas experience, and the study is concluded with a view of the prospects for the future.

    View record details
  • The design of nutritional food products for a developing country : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Ph.D. in Product Development

    Edwardson, William (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    A systematic methodology was developed for designing food products for the Philippines. This was the initial stage of an investigation at Massey University into the application of quantitative product development techniques to the food industry in developing countries. A study of economic, nutritional and food industry conditions indicated that Taiwan, Korea and the Philippines best satisfied the conditions necessary for the use of product development in the food industry. The Philippines was chosen for this first investigation and the quantitative study was on the selection of raw materials in formulation according to their nutritional properties. The selection of raw materials in the product development was made quantitative by use of linear programming. A linear programming model was developed to select, from a list of one hundred and seventy raw materials indigenous to the Philippines, a raw material mixture capable of satisfying twenty-six nutrient requirements as well as several interrelationships between nutrients, at a minimum cost. In the development of this model, investigations were made on the effects of altering nutritional requirements, raw material costs and compositional data and also the variety of raw materials. The linear programming model was found particularly useful for investigating the effects of changes in the nutritional requirements and in raw material costs, but rather unpredictable for changes in raw materials. The precision of the model was much greater than could be expected of the nutritional composition data. The mixture of raw materials selected to meet the Philippine nutritional requirements was developed, using the product development system, to an acceptable canned meat-loaf-type product. This product was selected, from a number of systematically generated product ideas, by a critical evaluation method, based on information on processed food eating patterns, food processing facilities and processed food distribution systems, obtained during a visit to the Philippines in 1973. This product was designed to be manufactured in large meat processing plants in the Philippines and distributed to the small stores throughout the country. The linear programming model was also used to guide the design of a food product enriched with chemical nutrients and capable of rapid introduction to Philippine diets to supplement the basic rice meal. The linear programming technique provided quantitative data for evaluation of the feasibility of enrichment with various types of food materials and chemical nutrients for the cost of various levels of enrichment and for design of product formulations, allowing for nutrient losses during processing. A coconut bun with nutrient enriched filling was developed. This product could be manufactured in the many bakeries scattered throughout the Philippines. Chemical analysis of the two products showed reasonable agreement with calculated nutrient levels, but generally nutrient levels were below calculated levels, implying that some scaling up of nutrient requirements may be necessary for this model. The real value of the systematic methodology cannot be finally assessed until an attempt is made to implement the industrial production in the Philippines and introduce the products into the diets. This first stage, of the development of the raw material selection model has provided a basis for further work on inclusion of the other properties of the raw materials such as eating quality, so that a comprehensive model for the quantitative design of foods can be finally achieved.

    View record details
  • Some aspects of meiosis in normal and Robertsonian translocation-carrying rams : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University

    Chapman, Helen Margaret (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    SOME ASPECTS OF MEIOSIS IN NORMAL AND ROBERTSONIAN TRANSLOCATION-CARRYING RAMS A study was made of the meiotic chromosomes in air-dried preparations from 35 genitally sound rams (Ovis aries). The quantity and quality of dividing cells were best when testicular material was obtained by castration under local anaesthesia from rams during their breeding season. Sodium tri-citrate solution was used as hypotonic treatment and the cells were fixed in suspension with glacial acetic acid and absolute alcohel plus a trace of chloreform. Slides were stained either with aceto-orcein or with Giemsa for a "C-banding" technique. Fourteen of the rams bad a normal mitotie karyetype (54,xy) and the remainder were heterozygous or homozygous carriers of a Massey I, Massey II or Massey III Robertsonian translocation and had the following mitotic karyotypes: 53,xy,t(5q26q); 52,xy, t(5q26q) t(5q26q); 53,xy,t(8q11q); 53,xy,t(7q25q); 52,xy, t(7q25q) t (7q25q). One ram was heterozygous for both the Massey I and Massey III Robertsonian translocations. Analysis of primary spermatocyte cells showed that a modal number of 27 chromosomal elements was present in normal rams, while in both heterozygous and homozygous Robertsonian translocation-carriers, a modal number of 26 chromosomal elements was recorded. Heterozygous carriers of the three types of Robertsonian translocations, which involved non-homologous chromosomes, were characterized by the presence of a trivalent in cells at the diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I stages. The modal number of chromosomal elements was recorded in over 80 per cent of the cells at diakinesis and metaphase I in the heterozygous and normal rams while over 77 per cent of the cells in the Massey I homozygote and 90 per cent of the cells in the Massey III homozygote had modal counts. An association between the sex bivalent and a small autosomal bivalent was recorded in 7.5 per cent of the diakinesis-metaphase I cells from normal rams and in between 3.4 and 4.7 per cent of the cells from the translocation-carrying rams. Separation of the sex chromosomes was observed in 0.5 to 1.5 per cent of the diakinesis-metaphase I cells in both Robertsonian translocation-carrying and normal rams. However no evidence at metaphase II of the sex chromosome aneuploidy expected if the two univalents disjoined at random at first anaphase whs observed. Eighty seven metaphase II figures from normal rams and 1,146 metaphase II figures from Robertsonian translocation-carrying rams were recorded. Detailed analysis of 1,131 cells showed that over 80 per cent of the non-polyploid metaphase II figures from the normal and homozygous rams had euploid chromosome arm counts. In contrast between 54 and 67 per cent of the metaphase II figures from the heterozygous rams were euploid. No hypermodal cells were recorded at metaphase II in either the normal or homozygous rams but from 4.5 to 9.2 per cent of the metaphase II cells in the three types of heterozygous ram were hypermodal. The results obtained in this thesis showed that the proportion of cells with chromosome arm counts of 29 was higher in the heterozygotes than in the normal or homozygous Robertsonian translocation-carrying rams. There were significantly greater numbers of cells with 29 chromosome arms than with 31 chromosome arms in the three heterozygote classes which suggested that chromosome loss due to lagging at first anaphase or technical manipulation, must have occurred in addition to non-disjunction. Statistically significant differences in chromosome arm distributions were shown to exist between rams which were heterozygous for a particular translocation and rams which were homozygous for the same translocation or normal rams. In addition to differences between individual rams, a significant difference between the Massey II Robertsonian translocation and the Massey I and III Robertsonian translocations occurred. Fewer balanced translocation X-bearing metaphase II cells were recorded than expected in three of the four Massey II Robertsonian translocation heterozygotes. Non-translocation bearing X and Y cells predominated at metaphase II in the three translocation types when total metaphase II counts were considered, and greater than expected numbers of X-bearing cells were found in both the euploid and aneuploid classes in the Massey III Robertsonian translocation heterozygotes. Since the majority of normal ewes mated with Robertsonian translocation heterozygous rams conceived to their first service, and because no lambs with unbalanced karyotypes associated with a Robertsonian translocation have been recorded, it is suggested that only chromosomally balanced (euploid) spermatozoa are involved in fertilization. It is further suggested that the absence of unbalanced karyotypes in progeny is explicable on the basis of a degeneration of aneuploid spermatocytes occurring prior to their maturation. The three translocations in the homozygous state behaved as normal autosomal bivalents at meiosis with regular segregation at anaphase I. It is suggested that the lowered fertility seen in matings involving heterozygous rams and heterozygous ewes cannot be attributed to any deficiencies in the spermatogenic function of the ram.

    View record details
  • Educational turbulence and New Zealand Army children : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Kewin, Daniel Arthur (1978)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Military employment involves a high rate of geographic mobility which, it is often presumed, disadvantages service children educationally. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to empirically evaluate this presumption by comparing, in relation to educational turbulence, the academic achievement and personalities of 84 army and 130 civilian children. Relationships between parental attitudes to military and itinerant employment and the children's academic achievement were also investigated. The Form II subjects of both sexes attended six selected schools; three predominently populated by army children and three predominently populated by civilian children. The civilian and army groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, socio-economic status, ethnicity and school environment. Official school records provided biographic and mobility (number of schools attended) data as well as Progressive Achievement Test raw scores on the Reading Comprehension, Reading Vocabulary, Listening Comprehension and Mathematic tests. The Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory was used to measure the children's degree of extraversion-introversion and neuroticism-stability. A self administered Parent Questionnaire, collected educational turbulence data in terms of mobility and the amount of short and long term absence of the father from home. Four attitude scales were constructed within the Parent Questionnaire to measure parental attitudes towards: (a) The effects of mobility on education (b) The effect of the service environment on the family (c) Involvement in their children's education and (d) Shifting the family home. Army children were found to have experienced more than twice as much educational turbulence as the civilian children. There was no evidence however that they achieved less academically than comparable civilian children; nor did the groups differ on the personality dimensions of extraversion-introversion and neuroticism-stability. Furthermore, no strong and consistent relationships between parental attitudes measured and the children's academic achievement were found. There is however some evidence that army children whose parents believe the military environment detrimentally effects [i.e. affects] the family achieve higher academic results, most apparent in Mathematics Test performance, than those army children whose parents do not. It is suggested that compensatory efforts may be made by some army parents for the perceived deleterious effects of the service environment. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research and the New Zealand context.

    View record details
  • Maoritanga : a study of teacher sensitivity : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts at Massey University

    Nightingale, Michael Dries (1976)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    For many years it has been recognised, both by official and unofficial sources, that as a group, Maori children do less well in school than Pakeha children. The major explanations for this have usually involved reference to lower socio-economic status or linguistic variables. While not denying that these variables are important, this study has attempted to place much greater emphasis on variables related to the discontinuity between the teachers' background and the sub-cultural and minority group status of their Maori pupils. Ranginui Walker's statement that teachers are predominantly monocultural and not sensitised to react to biculturalism or the minority group needs of Maori pupils, was taken as a hypothesis. A Questionnaire was designed and circulated amongst groups of Pakeha teachers and psychologists. A group of Maoris was also selected to complete part of this Questionnaire. The results suggest that by and large Pakeha teachers seek few experiences which would lead them to a greater understanding of the "Maori side" of their Maori pupils' lives. Furthermore they appear to have a poor knowledge of Maoritanga. This conclusion was found to be true of teachers in areas where there was a relatively high percentage of Maori pupils, as well as their counterparts in areas where relatively few Maori pupils are on school rolls.

    View record details
  • The exporting behaviour of manufacturing firms : a thesis ... for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Addis, Ngaire Margaret (1979)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Increasing emphasis has been placed on the need for manufactured exports to make a more important contribution to the New Zealand economy, due to declining demand for agricultural produce and a growing balance of trade deficit. The New Zealand government, over the past twenty years, has introduced a variety of export incentives to encourage manufacturing firms to export. The aim of this thesis is to examine what happens to manufacturing firms when they expand their operations to international markets. The adoption of the export function has implications for growth and survival of firms, especially for small firms which predominate in the New Zealand manufacturing sector. Firms can be classified according to their different stages of organisational growth. Thresholds must be overcome if a firm is to develop and expand its operation space. The stages theory of firm growth is analogous to the stages theory of exporting behaviour - a firm increases its international orientation and foreign market commitment in incremental stages as it acquires knowledge and experience in the exporting field. Discussion centres on describing the actual exporting activity of manufacturers at a macro level. This discussion then provides a platform for analysing the exporting behaviour within the individual firms and finally leads to an examination of how exporting firms have contributed to the peripheral urban economies to which they belong.

    View record details
  • Unemployment in New Zealand, 1875-1914 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Economics at Massey University

    Campbell, Robert James (1976)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Unemployment, although a common feature of economic and social life in colonial New Zealand, has received little attention from historians or economists for the period before 1920. While construction of a reliable index of unemployment is not possible from available data, an intensive analysis of published and other official sources establishes the significance of unemployment. The decade of the 1880's, following as it did years of large scale immigration and marked as it was by little overall economic growth, drew attention to the insecurity of employment for many skilled and unskilled workmen. Agitation, though evidenced frequently enough was not sufficient in the absence of an organised labour movement, to move policy. Nevertheless as part of an overall move towards a regulative role in many economic and social spheres, Government formalised procedures for coping with unemployment. The activities of the Labour Bureaux in assisting unemployed to find jobs became an important part of the labour market, and assisted the co-operative works scheme of completing necessary public works. The thesis suggests that it is this regulative approach of Government which is the significant feature. Other periods and societies have had a more welfare-oriented approach to unemployment. The ideology of work in a growing colonial economy was fiercely against any form of pauperisation, or even long term support. Unemployment, apart from apparent cyclical influences in the 1880's and less certainly 1903-1907, was largely of a seasonal or frictional variety. Availability of seasonal work in areas surrounding most towns absorbed even skilled workmen who lacked employment for summer months. However, winter and any slackening of public construction works, brought high levels of unemployment to many towns. Often, these problems were exacerbated by new immigrants entering the job market. Because the fluctuations in employment were so localised, the efforts of the Labour Department in developing a national labour market were appropriate though not uniformly successful. These efforts were not geared to find skilled employment where this was desired in many cases, nor was female unemployment adequately catered for. Assisting mobility and identifying employment opportunities were important contributions of the Department of Labour. Government also played a limited role as an employer of unemployment workers. No government of the period, central or local, was clearly and unambiguously in favour of providing work as a means of combatting unemployment. Although the co-operative works system had as one of its functions the provision of a "buffer" for male unemployment, the system cannot be considered purely as a relief work mechanism. The last two decades of the period are marked by the articulation and implementation of the problems and policies identified during the 1880's.

    View record details
  • A description and evaluation of special education for backward pupils at primary and intermediate schools in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Applied Psychology at Massey University

    Glass, Marjorie (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The thesis begins with a brief account of why and how special classes for backward children were instituted in New Zealand schools. There follows an outline of how special classes are currently organized: policies and procedures for the admission of pupils to special classes: goals of special education for backward children: the recruitment and training of special class teachers: the special class curriculum: specialist services available to special class teachers and children. The literature survey focuses initially on early studies comparing academic achievement and social/emotional adjustment in mildly mentally retarded children assigned to special classes and those retained in regular classes, studies which, because of inadequate and inappropriate assessment methods and a variety of uncontrolled variables, show conflicting results. The writer then reviews more recent studies which have been concerned with two main issues: societal and educational inequalities which influence the selection of pupils for special class placement and the extent to which special education merits the description "special". These two themes underlie the series of questions compiled by the writer for distribution to a 20% random sample of special class teachers at primary and intermediate schools throughout New Zealand as described in the third segment of the thesis. The questionnaire is concerned with demographic data on special class teachers and pupils and a variety of data on curricula, parent/school relations and specialist services available to special class teachers and pupils. 96% of the teachers surveyed returned completed questionnaires. Analysis of the data thus collected leads the writer to the following conclusions: disproportionate numbers of special class children are male, Maori and/or of low socio-economic status: for the majority of pupils special class placement is permanent: the average special class teacher is a woman, under 36, trained and experienced in regular class teaching but with little training and relatively brief experience in teaching backward children: since there is no curriculum designed specifically for backward children at primary and intermediate schools, teachers must rely primarily on their own resources in adapting regular curricula to the special needs of their pupils with limited assistance from organisers of special classes and educational psychologists and virtually none from the advisory service: the integration of special and regular class children, as endorsed by the Department of Education, occurs primarily in the non-academic areas of the curriculum: special class teachers succeed in meeting most of their pupils' parents for the purpose of discussing the progress of individual pupils but opportunities for parental participation in school life are apparently limited: organisers of special classes constitute the major source of professional assistance for special class teachers however the demands made of them appear to be excessive in view of their limited training and numbers. In the final segment of the thesis the writer returns to the two issues which motivated her survey and concludes that, for many New Zealand children, special class placement represents confirmation of their inferior status within the larger society and that special education for backward children at primary and intermediate levels in New Zealand schools does not appear to merit the description "special".

    View record details
  • Divorced and separated families : some mothers' views of cause and effect : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Wilson, Ormond Munro (1972)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Forty divorced or separated women receiving either a domestic purposes benefit or a deserted wives benefit participated in an interview to determine some of the important issues facing their families. The results of these interviews were not intended to represent a total view of divorced and separated families but rather a tentative understanding of them so that guidelines on community action might be formulated with more insight. The information gained was supplemented by the views expressed in the preliminary survey and the representations in the reviewed literature. This was then used in the formulation of ideas for further research. The women defined four major causes of marriage failure all of which were attributable to their (ex) husbands' behaviour; excessive drinking, physical violence, financial irresponsibility and adultery. The provisions of the June 1972 budget had improved incomes but saving for the replacement of the more expensive household items was difficult. However, the security of a regular income since separation meant a marked improvement for most of the women. The monetary advantage accruing to those who rented houses or units as opposed to those in privately rented houses or flats, was quite marked. The women currently employed showed an above-average morale and seemed generally satisfied with this aspect of their lives. The strongest features of the examination of health were the 60% of mothers who noted an improvement in health since their separation, the fact that birth order was a much more important independent variable than sex when considering the children's health, and the general conclusion that the health of both mothers and children is likely to be better under the conditions of single parenthood rather than in an 'unhappy' but 'unbroken' home. The generally low level of educational achievement for both the mothers and fathers contrasted with the mothers' generally high expectations for their children's educational achievement. This was consistent with the mothers' expressed satisfaction with the schools' performance. About half of the mothers tended towards an introverted social attitude whilst the other half felt the desire to expand their social contacts. There was a generally low level of neighbour-contact but this could be partly explained by the high mobility of this group-just under half had moved house within the previous two years. The wider kinship group emerged as the strongest single source of assistance for the families studied. There was no clear emergence of one single type desired assistance and it was found that for the majority of the women their needs could be defined as non-material. For 45% of the group leisure activity outside the home was almost non-existent. A little under a half of the mothers found the effect of fatherlessness to be harmful to their children, but a majority considered that the father's absence had benefited the children. Both could be indicative of the damaging effects of the more extreme kinds of pre-separation tension. This was further manifested by the kinds of emotional disturbance reported among the children and their difficulties over social contacts. As might be expected, the older children were regarded as being much less willing to accept a step-father than the younger ones. For a large majority of mothers, the area of mother-child relations posed no unusual problems. Over half of the mothers could be described as being well-adjusted to their single parenthood or that their adjustment was improving but 30% continued to be adversely affected by the separation. Only a quarter of the sample considered that remarriage would be undesirable under any circumstance, and one in ten professed to a lingering affection for their (ex) husband. It was demonstrated that the offspring of unhappy marriages were in turn more likely to experience unhappy marriages than the population at large. Responses to the 'Cantril' questions showed the various differences among sub-groups of the sample particularly differences between the older women. Perhaps the most important single feature to emerge from this part of the study was the fact that the burdens of single-parenthood tended to fall most heavily on the shoulders of the women separated for two years or less. The findings of this study left one impression more strongly than any others, that whilst difficulties and hardships persisted among divorced and separated mothers, these were a preferable alternative to the deprivations and indignities that prevailed for most of them before their husbands left home.

    View record details
  • Access to continuing education : a clientele analysis of the Hawkes Bay Community College : a thesis for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Benseman, John (1979)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Access to Continuing Education is largely confined to a small section of the adult population. Clientele analysis of Continuing Education institutions throughout the world have shown participants in Continuing Education to be consistently similar in terms of their social and demographic characteristics. Most participants are already advantaged in terms of their life-style - a narrow 'creme de la creme' sector of the population. Few Continuing Education institutions have set out to cater for the educational needs of all persons in an area - including the disadvantaged. This thesis presents the findings of a clientele survey of the Hawkes Bay Community College. From the beginning, College administrators were committed to catering for all groups within the Hawkes Bay population. This study analyses the characteristics of all persons attending College programmes in September 1978 and assesses their representativeness of the region's population. In brief, it describes the social and demographic characteristics of persons for whom the College provided access to Continuing Education. A self-administering questionnaire was completed by 1849 College clients and the results were compiled using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences on a Burroughs 6700. Questionnaire items covered the respondent's age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, place of residence, occupation, income, present and past education. Analysis of the participants in terms of these factors shows that the College has succeeded in attracting a number of persons from groups which have previously been under-represented in Continuing Education. Increased rates of participation are found among members of ethnic minorities, persons with low-status occupations and persons with low levels of educational attainment and consumption. Within the College itself, the Community Education department attracts a more heterogeneous clientele than the Vocational Education department. Much of the latter group's homogeneity stems from its youthful age structure. Most prominent among non participants at the College are older men, older members of ethnic minorities, semi - and unskilled workers and residents of small towns and rural areas. Although the College has been successful in attracting numbers of people from groups not usually involved in Continuing Education, these groups are still under-represented at the College on a proportional basis. The College clientele is still dominated overall by groups who have always had high participation rates in Continuing Education. The Hawkes Bay Community College has, however, been successful in making headway towards opening up access to Continuing Education for all groups, including the disadvantaged.

    View record details
  • A study of a silver beech stand in the Silver Peaks State Forest

    Armstrong, Patricia (1979)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    20 leaves : ill., map ; 32 cm. Unpublished material. Research paper (B. Sc. (Hons.)) -- University of Otago, 1979.

    View record details
  • Milton, the rural depression experience

    Panjabi, Jayashree (1979)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: iv, 65 leaves : photo (fold.) ; 30 cm. Notes: Tapes of the interviews accompany this thesis. Not to be quoted without the author's permission. Bibliography: leaves 61-65.

    View record details