2,120 results for Thesis, 1990

  • Principal appraisal : fluxion and abatement : a grounded theory of principal appraisal in a small selection of New Zealand schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Strong, Neville G. L (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the circumstances in and around the principal appraisal process in five New Zealand primary schools. An outcome of this investigation was to generate a theoretical explanation of what was happening in this appraisal process. Data were gathered from five principals and their appraisers through a questionnaire and an interview. Through a constant comparative analysis of the data, a basic social process was discovered that consisted of four conceptual categories labelled as metamorphosis, metamorphic reaction, adaptation and palatableness. These categories were linked into a core category labelled fluxion and abatement. Fluxion and abatement is a conceptual statement of a continually changing appraisal process that has been grappled with and abated in a meaningful way by the appraisal participants. That no school site, of principal appraisal development and implementation, closely resembles another, is testimony of the fluxion and abatement theory. That schools are still talking of adaptation to the latest metamorphosis of professional standards and that a palatableness state is some time, even years, away, strengthens the theory produced in this study. These findings have important implications for a number of areas of school operation. The first is leadership. Will the school site strengthen or move away from a collaborative model of leadership? The study argues for a supportive board of trustees to the principal, who should engender a transformational leadership style. These collaborative approaches will see schools as educative communities rather than managed organisations. The second implication is in teaching and learning. Principals, working with their staff, need to have refined the meaningful data on what is happening in teaching and learning within their schools. The third implication is the principal appraisal process. This process should be used as a purposeful tool to achieve and produce evidence of the other stated implications. The last implication, school effectiveness, is the prospective outcome of such a principal appraisal process.

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  • The production and consumption of history : a discourse on heritage and nostalgia in the 1990s : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Brown, Annette Margaret (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The dialectic of history as an ideology and history as a commodity can underpin a discourse on the production and consumption of history as heritage and nostalgia in the 1990s. History as an ideology is erased from the dominant space of representation, by history as a commodiy; therefore, history as an ideology needs to be discussed separately from history as a commodity even though they are not independent categories; this is because they are mutually constitutive of each other. The processes and structures that underwrite this dialectic, Capitalism and Modernity, produce different outcomes in different places and at different times; outcomes such as the cabinets of curiosity during early modernity, modernist and postmodernist museums, heritage sites such as country houses, a shopping mall and a disneyfied theme park arranged around a historic locale and the gentrification of some parts of the inner City of London. These objects of history are produced, reproduced and consumed by social actors in different places and at different times. The production and consumption of history as an object does not explain why these particular outcomes exist in the places and the times that they do. These outcomes need to be explained, and can be explained, by using a dialectical methodology. Such an explanation would look at the underlying processes and structures of Capitalism and modernity.

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  • He kupu tuku iho mo tenei reanga : Te ahua o te tuku korero

    Higgins, Rawinia Ruth (1999)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    170 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Māori, Pacific and Indigenous Studies. "March 1999."

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  • Late Quaternary geology of Glenorchy district, Upper Lake Wakatipu

    Kober, Florian (1999)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    vii, 127 leaves :ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Geology.

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  • Haematology and inflammation in infections of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus)

    Cross, John Philip (1991)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiii, 180, i, 39 leaves, [1] folded leaf :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department : Microbiology

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  • Conservation genetics of island takahe (Porphyrio mantelli)

    Lettink, Marieke (1999)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    ii, 66 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm. A research report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Diploma in Wildlife Management. University of Otago department: Zoology. University of Otago Wildlife Management Report; no. 96.

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  • "Too much 'yellow' in the melting pot?" : perceptions of the New Zealand Chinese, 1930-1960.

    Law, Penelope (1994)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    i, 65 leaves ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 61-65). Typescript (photocopied)

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  • Malagan ritual art on Tabar, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea

    Gunn, Michael J (1992)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Malagan ritual art traditions of New Ireland have long been of interest to Western anthropologists, but have not before been considered in terms relevant to the New Irelanders themselves. This thesis documents the malagan ritual art traditions of Tabar, a group of three islands off the coast of New Ireland which is acknowledged as the traditional source of malagan, and analyses malagan through the terms of reference which were specified by the Tabar Islanders as part of condition for undertaking fieldwork. Two series of ritual ceremonies are described, a mortuary series and a commemorative series. Over 450 malagan descriptions within twenty two subtraditions have been recorded and are documented in an accompanying appendix. The social and cultural connections of malagan are described and analysed, then the indigenous taxonomic structure malagan is described and analysed. A new understanding of the nature of these subtraditions has resulted from this study.

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  • Public perceptions, gang "reality" and the influence of the media : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology

    Green, Alexandra (1997)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research was designed to address the hypothesis that there is a wide disparity between how the public perceive gangs and the 'reality' from the gang's perspective and; that in part, the New Zealand media are responsible for this difference, portraying a negative image of gang members. Sixty members of the Horowhenua public and seven gang respondents were interviewed. The small sample size of the gang respondents made it impossible to statistically compare the two groups. Analysis was carried out on the spoken discourse of the public and gang respondents and the printed discourse of the news media. Chi square analysis was used on the public respondent sample. Demographic characteristics of the public respondents such as gender, ethnicity and employment status resulted in observable differences in the public's perceptions of gangs. In particular, feelings of having a gang resident in their neighbourhood, estimates on the number of people involved with gangs in New Zealand and perceptions of the media accuracy in reporting about gangs. Previous contact with a member of a gang was also found to influence respondents' perceptions of media accuracy. Increasing the sample size is likely to clarify these findings. Ethical and practical implications in conducting research on gangs are discussed and suggestions for future research are identified. Some practical implications of the present findings are mentioned.

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  • Te mahi kaipaipa i waenganui i nga tamahine Maori : nga ahuatanga e pa ana ki enei tawaitanga = Young Maori women and smoking : knowledge, attitudes, initiation and maintenance : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Orbell, Claire Rachel (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Cigarette smoking leads to many of the most harmful diseases of our time. The prevalence of smoking is excessively high amongst young Maori women. Most research has focused on knowledge of the health consequences associated with smoking, and attitudes toward cigarette smoking. Teaching individuals of the health consequences of smoking and attempting to change individuals' assumed positive attitudes toward smoking have been the basis for smoking prevention and cessation programmes Recent research suggests these programmes are ineffective in preventing or eliminating smoking. The process of initiation into cigarette smoking is not well understood. Also, the maintenance of cigarette smoking after initiation is not well understood. This is a mixed method study with young Maori women participants. The study includes both smokers and non-smokers. Non-smokers are almost always excluded from research into smoking but are a valuable source of information on smoking. A quantitative methodology was employed and a questionnaire developed to investigate young Maori women's knowledge and attitudes toward cigarette smoking. A qualitative methodology was used and a semi-structured interview developed to explore young Maori women's thoughts, feelings and experiences of initiation and maintenance of cigarette smoking. The aims of this study are to assess participants' knowledge of the health consequences of smoking and participants' attitudes toward smoking. The study also explores participants thoughts, feelings and experiences of smoking with an emphasis on the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviour. Results indicate participants possess good knowledge of the health consequences of smoking. Participants were found to possess negative attitudes toward smoking. However, smokers were found to have more positive attitudes toward smoking than non-smokers. These findings are consistent with previous research. Results also indicate that social factors play the greatest role in both initiation and maintenance of smoking in young Maori women. Recommendations for future research and practical suggestions for prevention and cessation programmes are made.

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  • New Zealand television : what are the benefits of state ownership of television in a commercial world? : the public service broadcasting debate continues -- : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts (Social Sciences) in Media Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wyatt, John (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Faced with the possible sale of our free-to-air state broadcaster Television New Zealand to overseas media interests, this thesis argues a firm case against sale, and sets out to create further public interest and comment. Television is valuable more for its programme content than its ability to raise revenue. Starting with the premise that television has a unique role as a mass communications medium in creating social reality, discussion centres on how ideas of cultural identity, democracy, sovereignty, and national identity are articulated and supported through locally-made, creative and diverse programming; and how this is strengthened in having the state broadcaster take a leading part in setting a high standard in the service provided. The tensions created by economic globalisation of media products are examined, especially in relation to how small nation-states such as New Zealand encounter a deterritorialisation of social identity arising through rapid technological advances and media processes which ignore national state and cultural boundaries. The origin of state television in New Zealand is documented, particular emphasis being given to legislative control, financial performance and the effect that organisational structure has on the content, diversity and standard of programmes scheduled. Maximising the financial performance of TVNZ through saturation advertising is questioned, and the recent polarising debate by politicians, commentators, and the public on the merits or otherwise of state ownership of TVNZ is covered in detail. A comprehensive study of the ABC and SBS in Australia is included, which informs an alternative proposal for TVNZ based on significant restructuring. This thesis concludes TVNZ should be retained in government ownership, but with TV1 guided by a charter which moves its prime function away from commercial imperatives. TV1 should concentrate on developing a broadcasting service dedicated to programmes which contribute a sense of national identity, and which reflect the cultural diversity and aspirations of all New Zealanders. To assist in these goals TV1 would be publicly funded to provide daily primetime ad-free 'windows' used to schedule programmes in line with its charter. TV2, and a range of industry mechanisms, would be used to ameliorate the ratio of tax-payer funding.

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  • Healthful housing : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Sociology at Massey University

    Lynch, Kathleen (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study researched the housing needs of incipiently homeless low-income households in Auckland. In particular it examined how the compromises and sacrifices low-income households must make to procure housing jeopardises their ability to promote and maintain health. Health within this study was defined holisticly including physical, mental, spiritual and family aspects as well as the dimension of ontological security. The participants were comprised of three groups: housing workers, community health workers, and most importantly the households in housing need. All participants were or had been connected with Monte Cecilia Emergency House. The role of the state, past and present, in assisting low-income households to obtain accommodation was examined. Particular consideration was given to changes which have occurred in the lost-cost rental sector through the move to market-level rents for state housing, and the introduction of a targeted, abatable accommodation allowance. The participants' stories demonstrated an increasing and serious level of unaffordability of rental housing. This had brought about both immediate and long-term detriments to health due to living in over-crowded accommodation and / or a residual post-rent income insufficient to maintain an adequate standard of living. Tangata Whenua and Tagata Pasifika were disproportionately affected by unaffordable housing. The need for a return to income-related state housing was high-lighted. Recommendation was also made regarding the urgent need of a comprehensive survey of housing need, both urban and rural.

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  • Feed value of tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis) for goats and preferential browsing activities by goats and sheep in multi-species shrub/pasture conditions : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in agronomy

    Pande, Rameshwar Singh (1990)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The objective of the thesis work was to investigate the feed value and diet selection of tagasaste foliage vs lucerne hay chaff; browsing activities in mixed conditions of tagasaste shrub/pasture; and the preference ranking for forage shmbs species including tagasaste in multi-shmb/pasture conditions by goats as well as sheep. 1. Two eiperiments were carried out in The Animal Physiology Unit, Massey University and Grassland Division DSIR, Palmerston North. A) Indoor experiment: to evaluate DM intake, feed selection, digestibility, chemical compositions of tagasate foliage and lucerne hay. B) Outdoor experiment: to evaluate browsing activities of goats on mixed conditions of tagasaste shmb and pasture and goat behaviour. 1.1 DM intake, in- vivo OMD, in- vitro OMD and body weight change were similar for both tagasaste foliage and lucerne hay groups. DM intakes were 33.37 ± 1.64 (g/kg BW/day) for tagasaste foliage and 26.49 ± 2.22 (g/kg BW/day) for lucerne hay. In - vivo DMD were 70.42 ± 1.35 % and 66.94 ± 1.35 % for tagasaste and lucerne hay chaff respectively. Similarly, in- vitro DMD were 62.48 % vs 66.63 % for tagasaste and lucerne hay group. Tagasaste leaves only were higher in in - vitro DMD compared to stems only. In- vitro DMD of leaves were 69.29 % whereas for stems were 47.45 %. Tagasaste foliage and lucerne hay chaff were similar in Nitrogen (3.16 vs 3.21 % DM); NDF (45.89 vs 45.39% DM); ADL (7.10 vs 6.76% DM). But ash content in tagasaste foliage was less than half that of lucerne hay (5.18 vs 11.92 % DM). Goats selected most leafy parts of the tagasaste foliage, which were high in Nitrogen content and digestibility but lower in NDF and lignin than the feed offored. In the feed refusal of tagasaste foliage Nitrogen content was 2.52 % DM; and NDF and ADL were 55.1% and 9.0% respectively. However, such type of selectivity were not distinct while feeding on lucerne hay chaff, possibly due to its homogeneou$· nature. During the indoor measurement periods body weight change were 0.026 ± 0.008 (kg/day/kg BW) and 0.036 ± 0.008 (kg/day/kg BW) for tagasaste foliage and lucerne hay group respectively. 1.2 Goats spent more time on browsing on tagasaste foliage than grazing on pasture. Percentage of activities on browsing observations were 36.0 ± 2.08 % compared to 22.2 ± 2.08% for grazing and 41.7 ± 2.08% on idling. Goats browsed tagasaste foliage up to 1.5 m height. Bipedal stance was frequently observed. Goats ate dead bark of tagasaste branches particularly towards the end of the experiment period when there was no more foliage to browse. The use of artificial shelter was rare, instead of that they selected open and relatively dry places for night camping. Overgrazing might be harmful for better performance of tagasaste plants. Body weight changes in mixed conditions of tagasaste shrub /pasture conditions were higher than in indoor conditions while feeding either on tagasaste foliage or lucerne hay chaff as a sole diet. In shrub/pasture conditions body weight change was 0.133 ± 0.02 (kg/day/kg BW) and 0.122 ± 0.02 (kg/day/kg BW) for the two groups. 2. In the second trial preference for browsing by goats and sheep in multi-shrub species and pasture conditions including tagasaste, preference ranking for shrub species, and overlap of browsing activities between goats and sheep were evaluated in DSIR, Ballantrae Hill Station. The tested species were six leguminou~ shrubs includii:ig tagasaste, three non leguminous shrubs and two erect grass species. Leguminous species: tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis (Christ) Hutch.), broom (Cytisus scorparius (L)Link.), tree medic (Medicago arborea L.), black locust (Robinia pseudocacia L.), gorse (Ulex europaeus L.), short spine gorse (Ulex europaeusL.). Non leguminous species: tauhinu (Cassinia leptophylla (Frost.F.)R.Br.), ceanothus (Ceanothus griseus (Trel.) Me Minn.), and manuka (Leptospermum scorparium J.R.et, G.Frost.). Erect grass species: toetoe (Cortaderiafulvida (Buchan) Zotov.), pampas (Cortaderia selloana Schult) Asch.& Graeb.). 2.1 The browsing activities of goats were high compared to sheep. Goats and sheep ranked shrub species differently, but the differences were not extreme. Similarly, proportional utilizations of shrubs were higher in goats compared to sheep. Overlap of browsing activities for shrub species was higher in summer and autumn than in winter. Goats spent 44.67 ± 1.3 % of activities on browsing compared to 11.56 ± 1.3 % of sheep. Grazing activities between goats and sheep were 48.57 vs 80.49 ± 1.3 %of total observation respectively. Similarly idling activities were 6.76 vs 7.95 ± 1.3 %for goats and sheep respectively. Low idling activities during the two hours record period might be due to the overnight fasting of the animals. 2.2 The most intensively browsed species were tree medic, tagasqste and ceanotlius by goats as well as sheep. Among the other species goats preferred gorse and short spine gorse compared to other shrub species while sheep preferred black locust and broom. Less preferred species were pampas, tauhinu, toetoe and manuka. Utilization of these species was higher by goats than by sheep. A comperison between these results and those of Lambert et al., (1989) indicated that there were some difference in estimates of preference made under indoor and outdoor conditions. The results indicate the potential of common grazing with goats and sheep especially in shrub/pasture conditions, in the absence of shrubs incorporation of tagasaste in goat farming systems could be useful .

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  • The computer as an agent of inclusion : a study of current practice : a thesis submitted as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education (Special Education), Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Kearney, Alison (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis investigates the nature and extent of computer use for learners with special needs and the context in which they are used. It investigates and documents the practices and beliefs of teachers who believe the computer to be an effective tool for including learners with special needs in regular class settings. The research addresses a number of problems associated with the use of computers in this field. First the lack of critical debate over the use of computers to facilitate the inclusion of learners with special needs in New Zealand schools. Second, while the computer has the potential to overcome many barriers faced by these learners, arguably, this is not always happening and in some cases, the computer can erect other barriers to inclusion. Finally, while it is known what the computer can do for learners with special needs, clarification is still needed on how to do it. The research explores these issues through the perceptions of the teacher who has a vital role to play in the successful use of computers for learners with special needs. The research is designed over two phases. It involves a purposive sample of teachers who have a learner in their class with a Ministry of Education funded computer for reasons of special need. Phase one uses a survey method in which a questionnaire is the vehicle of data collection. Phase one is divided into two parts: (a) the nature and extent of computer use by learners with special needs and the beliefs and practices of the teachers. (b) a comparison of the beliefs and practices of those teachers who believe the computer to be an effective or very effective tool for the inclusion of learners with special needs into regular classes with those teachers who do not believe computers to be effective in this role. Phase two employs a form of ethnographic research where semi structured interviews are used to collect data from six teachers who believe the computer to be an effective tool for inclusion. A analysis of the nature and extent of computer use reveals that most teachers feel confident and competent in implementing computer technology for the learner in their class, and believe that the computer has many advantages. It is less clear however, whether these advantages are being utilised. Most learners were funded through the Ongoing Resourcing Scheme, and the majority had more than 21 teacher-aide hours per week. They used their computers for less than once hour per day and predominantly in the areas of English and Mathematics. Most learners had an IEP, and the computer was written into that plan. The teachers who believed the computer to be an effective tool for including learners with special needs in regular classes identified a number of common beliefs and practices. A belief and commitment to the concept of inclusion, and the importance of integrating the computer into the regular curriculum, (including assessment and the Individual Education Process,) as well as the computer philosophy of the school were significant findings of the research. In sum, the research provides: • an overview of the nature and extent of computer use by learners with special needs, • identifies the beliefs and practices of teachers who belief the computer to be an effective tool for the inclusion of learners with special needs and • highlights ways in which the teacher, the computer and the environment in which it operates might best accommodate the needs of learners with special needs in inclusive ways.

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  • Strong in their spirits : women managers in the social services : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work

    Hawken, Dianne Barbara (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    And where the words of women are crying to be heard, we must each of us recognise our responsibility to seek those words out, to read them and share them and examine them in their pertinence to our lives (Lorde, 1980: 15). Social services world-wide is a predominantly female profession with mainly female clients, yet is primarily managed by men. Although internationally there is considerable literature on women in management the main focus has been on how women can adapt to fit in to the male world of management. In Aotearoa New Zealand there has been little research on women in social services management. This qualitative study examined the experiences and practice of eight pakeha women, mainly middle managers, in a number of social service agencies in Aotearoa New Zealand. The thesis sought, by listening to their voices, to illuminate how they experienced organisational life and how they managed. The women in management literature was analysed within a framework that combined management theory and feminist theory (Padgett, 1993), management in the social services was explored, and research studies on women in human service management were examined. In this study the women managers' experiences fell into two distinct areas: their struggles and their strengths. The women felt "out of kilter" with the organisational culture and the current managerial climate. This was partly explained by feminist theory as being the result of the genderedness of organisations within our patriarchal society. The recent organisational changes through the implementation of managerialism in the social services was another significant factor. Juxtaposed to their struggles, were the strengths of the women, their skills, qualities and practices. They were competent managers with distinctive styles of operation. Drawing from the literature and the findings, four key feminist management practice principles were identified that offered an inclusive, transformational, woman-centred and service-oriented way of managing.

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  • Unbridled optimism : public choice, the public service and electoral law reform : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Policy

    Shaw, Richard Hugh (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis addresses issues that are likely to be confronted by the public service in New Zealand as a result of the advent of electoral law reform. During the decade since 1984 the institutional arrangements that circumscribe the activities of the core public sector have undergone a process of considerable change. The proposition extended in this research is that the structural configuration that has emerged out of the process of public sector reform will face a number of significant challenges in the emerging political environment. In the context of a milieu shaped by the imperatives of proportional representation, two particular characteristics of the contemporary public service may prove problematic. Specifically, the nature of the statutory interface between responsible ministers and the chief executives of government organisations may, in conjunction with an 'atomised' core public sector, function so as to compromise both the impartiality of public servants and the ability of an administration to develop and implement policy in a strategically consistent fashion. The extent to which such difficulties are likely to occur will be the result of the convergence of a series of variables, including the calibre of political leadership provided by future Prime Ministers, and the nature of the advice and guidance provided to public servants in the new climate. Perhaps most significant of all, however, will be the precise configuration of future parliaments returned under the new electoral system. The fusion of the legislative and executive arms of government under New Zealand's constitutional arrangements means that patterns of legislative representation influence the formation of governments; in the future, those patterns may exercise a more direct influence upon the environment within which the public service operates than has historically been the case in New Zealand.

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  • Women's experiences of their partner's attendance at a Men for Non Violence programme : their stories and a discourse analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Towsey, Frances (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study aims to report and analyse the texts of interviews with eleven women participants as they talk about their experience of their relationships during and after their partners' attendance at a Men For Non Violence (MFNV) programme. The women's partners, from whom they subsequently separated, had attended a MFNV programme while they were living together. Firstly, the women's stories of their private experience are summarised to provide new knowledges of the problem and in turn to be constitutive of a developing public understanding. Secondly, the commonalities in the women's experience, particularly in relation to the MFNV programme, are presented. Finally, a discourse analysis of the transcribed interviews illuminates the socially available linguistic resources used in common by the women in constituting their experiences and selves, with the effects and implications of these being discussed. The majority of the women reported temporary reductions in physical violence with associated increased levels of psychological violence from the time their partners attended a MFNV programme, which supports existing findings. The discourses available to and drawn on by the women reproduce and perpetuate men's non responsibility for their violence and maintain responsibility for women to end the violence, thereby reinforcing an ideology of male dominance.

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  • The possum problem in the Manawatu-Wanganui region : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Agricultural Science in Resource Economics at Massey University

    Lock, Glenda Margaret (1992)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Since their introduction to the Manawatu-Wanganui region possums have increased dramatically in number and are now causing problems in both rural and urban areas. They are responsible for the destruction of indigenous forests and the spread of bovine tuberculosis, a disease that threatens the access of dairy, meat and several other animal products into a number of key overseas markets. The study addresses this by looking at the problems associated with possums and the value that the region places on their control. This was done via two contingent valuation surveys, one in the form of a dichotomous choice question and the other in the form of an open ended question. It was found that 97.8 percent of respondents were aware that possums were causing problems in New Zealand. The region placed a value of between $1.5 million and $7.0 million per year on possum control. Farmers' valuation of possum control was approximately twice that of nonfarmers, possibly reflecting the adverse effect that possums could have on farmers' income stream.

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  • Sustainability of agroforestry in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Regional Planning at Massey University

    Bray, Tania L (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this thesis is to assess the concept of sustainability and apply it in a practical sense to New Zealand agroforestry. Sustainable management of natural resources is fast becoming recognised as necessary for the long term survival of our species. The agricultural communities prominence as the major user and steward of New Zealand's natural resources requires change in the values placed on these resources by farmers, and the incorporation of the principle of sustainable management at the farm level. The concept of sustainability is broken into three component parts; economic, environmental and social sustainability. Each of these components is broken again into specific measurable principles. Through literature research and a case study, the principles are applied to agroforestry, and a conclusion reached. It is found that given good management practices and normal business risks, agroforestry had the potential to maintain the natural capital stock and remain relatively profitable. Agroforestry is also found to have the potential to maintain the life support systems and biodiversity of the environment. Finally agroforestry is found to positively impact on rural societies, and provide the necessities of life and is relatively robust to political change. This thesis concluded that agroforestry as practiced in New Zealand is a profitable enterprise which improves the environment and increases the viability of many rural communities.

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  • The use of a geographic information system (GIS) for farm soil conservation planning : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Priyono, Cyprianus Nugroho Sulistyo (1993)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The use of a Geographic Information Systems (PC ARC/INFO) for farm soil conservation planning was demonstrated in several neighbouring properties in the Apiti district, Manawatu. The area (775 ha) was mainly steep and strongly rolling hill country where the dominant land use was pastoral grazing by sheep and cattle. The main objective of this study was to utilize the GIS at each step of the farm soil conservation planning process. The planning process began with a land resources inventory (LRI) where information on basic physical resources relevant to land management and soil conservation was collected and stored in a database before further processing. Factors collected in the LRI included primary factors (soil type, soil depth, slope, rock type and elevation) and secondary factors (existing erosion, land use, fence lines and ownership, and drainage condition). A digital elevation model (DEM) was developed to display landforms. Field observations were also used and local farmers were given the opportunity to become involved in the planning process. The next step involved delineating areas of similar land use capability and potential land use. The areas were also assessed in terms of potential erosion and conservation needs. These operations were undertaken by combining the LRI factors in various ways. Results of these assessments were matched to define land units which have similar physical characteristics. Recommendations for management practices were then made by considering combinations of the factors. The plan was displayed as maps showing the management options available for farmers. Both map overlay procedures and database analyses were carried out at each step of the planning process. As the map overlay is a unique operation in the GIS, it was used to combine necessary factors from the LRI based on a set of criteria. Database analyses were then carried out using macro commands which were developed according to the criteria. The ability of the GIS for database analyses distinguishes the GIS from other systems whose primary objective is map production. The use of database analyses in this study was a particular example for making recommendations in soil conservation planning. However, the techniques are applicable to many different conditions and different purposes. The maps presented in this study are examples of how it is possible to show the results of analyses. Advantages and constraints of such procedures at each step of the planning process were discussed.

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