1,598 results for Thesis, Lincoln University Research Archive

  • Policy strategies for the implementaion of agroforestry in New Zealand

    Stupples, Liana G.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Agroforestry provides an opportunity to address many current land use problems. Despite its potential benefits agroforestry has not been extensively adopted as a land use in New Zealand. Assuming that a government might wish to promote the adoption of agroforestry by farmers this study provides strategies for the implementation of agroforestry in New Zealand. In order to create policy to influence adoption and realise the potential of agroforestry this study investigates the factors that determine farmers' adoption. A model of the innovation adoption decision process is proposed and used as a framework with which to discuss agroforestry adoption in New Zealand. Based on the approach that in order to create effective policy, strategies must be matched to the requirements at farmer level, policy strategies that fit the requirements of the farmer are suggested.

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  • Postmodernism and landscape architecture

    Lister, G.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Postmodernism is a broad based phenomena, which at once is a group of attitudes and theories, is to do with the condition of living in the contemporary world, and includes a concomitant range of styles and expressions in different fields of activity. In Landscape Architecture Postmodernism has been particularly associated with Participatory Design, Ecological Design, and Experimental or Contextual Design. However, reference to the more rigorous theory would encourage caution in simply attaching the label of Postmodernism to any or all of these. No explicit use has apparently been made of Postmodernism in New Zealand Landscape Architecture and there are few examples of postmodern trends in either theory or practice.

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  • Transport of Christchurch solid waste: road transport versus rail transport

    Schriiffer, B.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This focus of this study is to analyse the logistics of solid waste transport from Christchurch (New Zealand) to the local landfill by comparing two scenarios - road versus rail transport. The thrust of the research is based on a triple bottom line approach that considers economic, environmental and community issues.

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  • Managerial sex role stereotyping among Chinese students in New Zealand

    Zhu, D.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The management literature in gender issues argues that in spite of the progress made in the last few decades, women still face difficulties in being accepted and recognised as managers because the manager’s role has been perceived as masculine. Gender stereotypes, hence, continue to become a barrier to women’s access to top management position. This study examines the perceptions of the relationship between sex role stereotypes and the perceived characteristics necessary for managerial success among Chinese students in New Zealand. The study sample consisted of 94 male Chinese students and 119 female Chinese students studying in New Zealand. In order to allow for cross-cultural comparisons, this study used a direct replication the Schein Descriptive Index (SDI) from previous study (Schein & Mueller, 1992). The male and female perceptions on the relationship between sex role stereotypes and characteristics were analysed separately. The results revealed that both male and female Chinese students in New Zealand perceive that successful middle managers possess characteristics, attitudes and temperaments more commonly ascribed to men than to women in general. In addition, the results were compared with previous studies conducted in China and Japan, New Zealand, America, Britain, Canada, and Germany. Our findings conclude that Asian people are worse than Western people in respect to managerial sex role stereotyping, particularly, Chinese males who show a very strong degree of managerial gender stereotyping. Multiple discriminant analysis was used to discriminate the relationship between men, women and middle managers on 92 items from the survey questionnaire. The analysis resulted in two separate canonical functions which distinguished between three groups women, men and managers).

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  • The economics of managing congestion: with special reference to backcountry recreation

    Kerr, G. N.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The management of congestible recreation resources has been based largely on the concept of satisfaction. This concept is poorly defined and often does not reflect objectives for management of recreation resources. One way of addressing these problems is to define and use measurable objectives for management of recreation resources. One such objective is economic efficiency. The concept of efficiency is defined and economic theory developed to identify efficient allocations of congestible resources, the efficient capacities of resources under different allocation mechanisms, and the efficiency costs of use of lottery-based allocation mechanisms. The usefulness of this body of economic theory in allocation of backcountry recreational resources is addressed through investigation of ability to measure demand for congestible resources, and the problems associated with use of surrogate measures of demand. Theoretical models of efficient management of congestible resources cannot be applied with the current state of knowledge because existing non-market valuation methods are not able to identify Hicksian-compensated demand functions for congestible backcountry recreation. Use of Marshallian demand measures introduces the possibility of resource misallocations of unknown direction and magnitude.

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  • Maori participation in fisheries management plans

    Frater, J. M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    If tino rangatiratanga as guaranteed under the Treaty of Waitangi is to be met, Maori participation is considered a desirable and I necessary component in the development of Fisheries Management Plans. The aim of this study is to propose a model which allows for Maori participation in fisheries management planning at a level equal to that guaranteed in the Treaty of Waitangi. The study uses Arnstein's ladder of participation (1969) as a "yardstick" for comparing the different levels of participation which may occur. Both the level of Maori participation provided for in the Treaty of Waitangi and in the institutional arrangements (at the constitutional, collective choice and operational levels) in the development of the Auckland and south-East Fisheries Management Plans are examined. It is concluded that Maori participation, as provided for in institutional arrangements of both Fisheries Management Plans, was at a level below that guaranteed in the Treaty of Waitangi. Furthermore, it is recognised that any system which would allow tino rangatiratanga to be expressed would need to incorporate the values and institutions of Maori. Consequently, a bicultural model for fisheries management planning is proposed, incorporating the values and institutions of both Maori and Pakeha.

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  • Addington 2041 - a platform for change

    Flanagan, M.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    While we recognise that our current suburban form is unsustainable, and through regional growth management policy seek to intensify the city core and inner suburban areas, we do not have a new design programme for these liminal spaces. Intensification therefore falls to the suburban default, often resulting in compact suburbia, and undesirable urban environments. Using a ‘research through design process’ this thesis explores transit- oriented development as an alternative design programme for Addington, an inner suburban Christchurch space. Addington 2041 is a compact, mixed use, diverse urban landscape, clustered around a reactivated train network and station. Supported by educational, cultural, commercial, and residential activities, and a high quality pedestrian and public realm, Addington 2041 interprets an international urban form in the local context, and combined with a revealed sense of place and identity creates a liveable urban environment for the future.

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  • Are Asian stock markets characterized by rational speculative bubbles?

    Hu, B.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Seven Asian stock markets (Japan, South Korea, Singapore, China, Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines) were tested by using two methodologies. First, cointegration method tested the long run relationship among stock prices, dividends and earnings. Second, duration dependence method tested the hazard rate. The conclusion of this research is that rational speculative bubbles existed in the Chinese, Indonesian and Malaysian stock markets, but not in Japan, Singapore, Korea and Philippines over the sample period from 1991 to 2009; and the presence of rational speculative bubbles is more prevalent in emerging than developed stock markets. Further sub-period analysis shows that the rational speculative bubbles existed mainly during the pre-financial crisis sub-period, but not in post-financial crisis sub-period. In the case of the duration dependence test, weekly data was more sensitive than monthly data in detecting speculative bubbles.

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  • An empirical analysis of China big four state-owned banks' performance: A data envelopment analysis

    Xu, J.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This article examines the efficiency performance and productivity change of China's Big four state-owned commercial banks and to test how the banks react to the bank reform period from 1990 to 2008. The empirical analysis utilizes the data envelopment analysis to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of the Big four state-owned banks on a panel basis. The result shows that the technical efficiency, scale efficiency and productivity change of the Big four state-owned banks reacted positively over the reform period from 1990 to 2008. The result also shows that too much protection, support and intervention from the Chinese government results in a lack of motivation to innovate and develop new financial products and services. The article concludes that the Chinese government should let the banks make the lending decision base on the commercial principles.

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  • The bacteriolytic enzymes of Gliomastix murorum var. Felina

    Rhodes, Lesley

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Extracellular bacteriolytic activity was obtained when Gliomastix murorum var. felina was grown on heat-killed Bacillus subtilis cells (2.5 mg ml⁻¹) suspended in a defined salts solution, buffered at pH5 or at pH7. Maximal yields were measured when shake flask cultures were incubated in light at 30°C for 10 days. Lytic supernatants were designated E₁ and E₃ (fungus grown at pH5, supernatant optimally active at pH3.6 and pH8.0 respectively) and E₂ (fungus grown at pH7.0, supernatant optimally active at pH7.5). E₁ was investigated further and found to be inducible and to be repressed by glucose addition. E₁ was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration on a Sephadex G-75 column. The pH optimum was 3.4 (ionic strength 0.051 and the molecular weight was estimated by gel filtration as 17000. The mode of action of the bacteriolytic enzyme was that of a β-N-acetylmuramidase. Specific activity was increased 7-fold (from 61.4 units mg⁻¹ protein to 44B units mg⁻¹ protein).

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  • Extraction of colour during fermentation of pinot noir wines and its stability on ageing

    Steans, G. F.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The characteristics of the major pigments in red wines are discussed and the results of an experiment to stabilise the peak of colour extraction which occurs during fermentation are presented. It was found that the peak which occurs early during the fermentation is due to the formation of anthocyanin aggregates and that this could be stabilised by the addition of a solution of commercial grape tannin. This resulted in aged wines which were pressed at 43 hours after innoculation having similar colour densities to those wines fermented to dryness in the presence of the grape skins. Treated wines showed increases in the amount of polymerised anthocyanin present at fifteen months despite an increase in the amount of polymerised colouring material deposited during this time.

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  • A New Zealand townscape

    Nicholson, H. A.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    There are more similarities than differences between most New Zealand towns. This common landscape is a product of society interacting with the land. The nature of the common landscape reflects the nature of society. As well as being a concrete, three-dimensional phenomenon, the common landscape is imbued with significance and meanings which are unconsciously understood by its everyday inhabitants; meanings which serve to remind and to define the order of society for its members. By understanding the common landscape as a participant, designers can begin to consciously participate in this dialogue. This study is based upon Cambridge, New Zealand, but its concern is with the typical landscape rather than with the unusual. A common landscape which occurs time and again in towns throughout New Zealand.

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  • Landscape design guidelines for marinas

    Roff, Sue

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    NB: Accompanying maps are not yet available online, please check library copy.

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  • Health effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure in a sedentary population

    Lizamore, Catherine Anne

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The use of simulated altitude is frequently used in an attempt to enhance athletic performance. Similar techniques have also recently been used in a clinical population to improve cardiovascular risk. However, the effects of different frequencies of simulated altitude per week, follow up assessments and the effects of passive simulated altitude in addition to exercise (rather than exercising in hypoxia) has not been tested in a sedentary, middle-aged population. To simulate altitude, an intermittent hypoxic exposure (IHE) protocol was used whereby 5-min of hypoxia was alternated with 5-min of normoxia for 1 hour. Heart rate variability (HRV), i.e. the beat-to-beat fluctuations between R-peaks, cardiovascular fitness (VO2peak), systolic blood presssure (SBP), highly-sensitive C-Reactive protein (hs-CRP, indicative of systemic inflammation associated with athlersclerosis), high density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and arterial stiffness were used to assess cardiovascular health during 3 IHE studies. In the first study, 4 IHE sessions/week for 4 weeks resulted in increased HRV compared to a placebo treatment (71.6 ± 52.5%, mean between-group change from the natural logarithm ± 90% confidence interval), indicating increased parasympathetic activity. The second study assessed the effects of IHE frequency on selected risk factors. Following the 5-week intervention, HRV (during paced breathing) increased in participants given both 2-3 (IHE3) and 5 (IHE5) IHE sessions per week (IHE5: 47.3 ± 41.6%; IHE3: 6.2 ± 6.9%), thereby confirming the changes in HRV reported in Study 1. In addition, haemoglobin concentration (2.7 ± 2.8%), time taken to complete the maximal fitness assessment (34.5 ± 36.8%), and maximal workload (14.4 ± 14.9%) were increased in IHE5 compared to the control group, while changes in hs-CRP (12.7 ± 48.7%) were trivial. None of these changes were seen in IHE3. There was an increased VO2peak (12.6 ± 9.3%) in IHE3 compared to the Control, but not IHE5. Due to the benefical effects on VO2peak and HRV, 2-3 IHE sessions/week were used together with 3 exercise sessions/week (IHE3+Ex), and compared to exercise only (Ex) in the third study. Immediately post intervention, 4- and 8-wk follow up measurements were taken. Both groups showed a tendency to decrease total cholesterol, improve arterial compliance (pulse wave velocity) and increase VO2peak and HRV, but these changes were unclear. High density lipoprotein (Post: 8.0 ± 8.0%; 8-wk: 10.0 ± 8.5%), SBP (Post: -3.4 ± 3.4%; -3.5 ± 3.7%) improved in IHE3+Ex more than Ex, and while VO2peak was qualitatively unclear at Post it was increased at the 4-wk (9.4 ± 8.0%) and 8-wk (7.9 ± 8.3) follow-up sessions. While differences in systemic arterial stiffness (augmentation index) was unclear between groups at Post, the augmentation index increased at 4- and 8-wk (4-wk: 11.8 ± 18.4%; 8-wk: 24.8 ± 19.7%) in the IHE3+Ex group compared to Ex. Overall, IHE appears to increase the parasympathetic contribution to the sympathovagal balance of the heart at rest in sedentary middle-aged participants, and may improve SBP and some fitness parameters, particularly with 4–5 IHE sessions/week. While the short-term effects of IHE on arterial health are promising, more research on the long-term effects of IHE treatments is needed before IHE can conclusively be considered ‘safe’.

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  • Services and economic growth in China

    Li, Xuedong

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The service sector is playing an ever-increasing role in China’s economy (Li, 2012). Nevertheless, the service sector’s share in gross domestic product (GDP) is still lagging behind the manufacturing sector. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution that an expansion in the service sector may make to per capita economic growth in China. In addition, the study examines the spillover effects of growth in the service sector on growth in the manufacturing sector and vice versa. The model specification is based on previous studies of per capita economic growth (Fischer, 1993; Gani & Clemes, 2010). The framework consists of a single structural growth equation and a structural equation to measure the spillover effects of growth in the service sector, on manufacturing. Multiple regression analysis is used to analyse panel data from 1994 to 2011. Finally, the study presents its findings and policy implications.

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  • Liver abscessation in pasture based beef bulls of New Zealand

    Trotter, Craig George

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Internationally, liver abscessation is reported as a major issue affecting the health and productivity of beef cattle under intensive total mixed ration production systems. With the increasing intensity of pastoral based production systems, there has been increasing anecdotal evidence of liver abscessation on bull beef farms across New Zealand, but to date, no research in the field. The research in this thesis was undertaken to establish the incidence of liver abscessation in pasture based beef bulls, as they are a typically at-risk livestock class; and establish if there were any differences in aetiology between lot fed and pasture based cattle. This was achieved by: identifying the species of bacteria present in abscesses in beef bulls from the South Island of New Zealand; establish the key rumen function features across the seasons in a production cycle with these bulls; quantify the changes in rumen papillae epithelium histology and ultrastructure across a production season; and measure the rumen population of Fusobacterium necrophorum in bulls managed under an industry typical intensive production system. Chapter 3 reported that the annual incidence of liver abscessation in a database of 137675 intensively managed bulls between 2000-2005 from the South Island of New Zealand was a mean of 9.5%. There were typically some variation across years due to environmental factors and a clear and significant seasonal influence was observed. Incidence of liver abscessation peaked across November- December (11.3 and 11% respectively) and then declined as the slaughter season progressed. The typical age of the bulls slaughtered appears to directly influence the seasonal incidence rate, with older bulls slaughtered during this the late spring and summer peak in incidence. Abscesses graded as severe (two or more abscesses with a diameter larger than 4 cm accounted for 67% of all abscessation recorded. Friesian and dairy type cross bulls had abscessation incidence approximately twofold greater than beef type bulls (10.3% and 4.71%, respectively). There was also a clear regional difference in liver abscessation incidence where it seems that those regions where animal performance is greatest also have the highest incidence of liver abscessation (Ashburton South district of 12.2%) Chapter 4 reports the use of abscesses of slaughtered bulls to identify the species of bacteria present across a production cycle, using a polymerase chain reaction assay of the V2V3 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA region. Fusobacterium necrophorum was identified in every abscess removed from affected livers across the production season of 2007-2008 and the partial sequence of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was a 100% match to that of the F. necrophorum species identified in previously recorded international databases. In some of the abscesses removed, there was a mixed culture present of F. n. necrophorum and F. n. funduliforme and in 6% of samples other faculative anaerobic species of bacteria, namely Provetella and Porphyromonas species were also identified. Seasonal rumen function characteristics of four rumen fistulated bulls across a production cycle (chapter 5) revealed major changes in the concentration and production of short chained volatile fatty acids (SCVFA), ammonia and osmolarity of rumen fluid, particularly between the winter and spring grazing regimes. The total SCVFA concentration in summer was 62 and 55% greater than that recorded in winter and autumn but only 14% higher than recorded in spring with the SCVFA concentration between winter and spring increasing by 43% from a winter maintenance diet through to a near ad lib diet. Increases in the consumption of feed quantity and quality also revealed increasing proportions of propionic and butyric acid concentrations in the rumen with the proportion of both as a total of all SCVFA increasing by 28 and 89% for propionic and butyric acids respectively with the osmolarity of rumen fluid increasing by 23.3% between winter and spring seasons. Results of rumen pH assessment using indwelling rumen pH sensors revealed major diurnal fluctuations in rumen pH across each season with the highest mean rumen fluid pH occurring in spring (6.44 ± 0.01 pH units); in summer bulls recorded a mean pH of 6.29 ± 0.01 and spent 6.21% of each day under a pH of 5.8 units and 17.3% under a pH of 6.0 units. Estimated flow rates of rumen fluid were higher in spring and summer when compared to winter and autumn (22.7 ± 2.5, 21.3 ± 4.2 versus 10.8 ± 1.5 and 14.5 ± 1.0 %/h respectively) with the concentration of SCVFA in faecal fluid highest in spring (49.1 versus 37.2, 36.2 and 21.0 mMol/l for summer, autumn and winter respectively. Samples of papillae were removed from each of the four bulls post rumen evacuation and were subjected to scanning electron and light microscopy (chapter 6). The results from these revealed significantly thicker epithelial depths in winter compared to spring. Spring papillae widths were 25% thinner than winter, with cell counts decreasing by 34% between winter and spring (13.9 ± 1.11 and 10.4 ± 0.20 cells respectively). Light microscopy revealed extensive desquamation of the outermost epithelial tissue in spring. Thinner papillae were also observed in summer and autumn compared with winter, which may be a physiological adaptation of increased potential absorptive capacity to the greater concentration and production of rumen metabolites (principally SCVFA and ammonia). When compared to winter, papillae from each of the other season also had considerably greater populations of protozoa present on the surface. Chapter 7 reports the evaluation of the population of F. necrophorum in the rumen through the use of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. Samples were collected from rumen contents of the four bulls across the seasons of the production cycle. The results from this assay revealed only very low concentrations of F. necrophorum in the rumen were present, with a viable population only detected in spring from one of the four bulls. In all other samples the assay was not able to detect of F. necrophorum in the rumen. Using a series of plasmid dilutions of F. necrophorum derived from the liver abscesses, the assay was able to confirm that the amplified rpoβ section of New Zealand F. necrophorum species is the same as that recorded internationally. The assay could detect the presence of F. necrophorum in the rumen fluid down to low concentrations confirming the assay was successful to detect F. necrophorum in the rumen and that the population of F. necrophorum in the rumen of the four bulls used in this study was below the level of detection of the PCR assay. To conclude, these results show evidence that liver abscessation in the New Zealand bull beef industry is present at 9.5% of all bulls slaughtered having abscessation. There is a clear seasonal trend of abscessation across the production season and F. necrophorum is the major microbial species present in liver abscesses in these pasture based bulls. The rumen function of beef bulls across a production season did not show evidence of sub-acute ruminal acidosis, nor is there any evidence of rumenitis upon rumen papillae removed from the ventral sac of the rumen. In three of the four seasons, the population of F. necrophorum in the rumen of the four bulls in this study was undetectably low. Further work is required to better understand the aetiology of liver abscessation in the context of intensive pasture based production systems as it appears that the traditional explanation of the sub-acute ruminal acidosis induced rumenitis- liver abscessation complex may not explain the relatively high incidence observed in these systems.

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  • Home and independence: the landscape design of grouped housing for the elderly

    McCahon, Shona

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The home and immediate locality increasingly become the focus of every-day living in later life. As such, the home environment has a strong effect upon the functional, social and psychological well-being of elderly people. Most importantly, having one's own home is highly valued because it means independence and status at a time of life when these conditions are often threatened by the physiological and social changes of old age. Some elderly, who find that the conventional detached house and section does not suit their changed situation, find that grouped housing designed specifically for the elderly can fulfil their needs. This study explores the contribution that landscape design can make towards meeting those needs.

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  • Land application of liquid waste: a case study of piggery waste application on light soils

    Pandey, S. P.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Some fieldwork conducted at University of Canterbury

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  • Institutions for water resources management in North Canterbury: a case study

    Neeson, M. P.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The Canterbury water economy is moving from a development to a mature phase. Increased water demand for agricultural purposes, especially irrigation, will place considerable stress on available water supplies and accelerate conflict with other water users. A complex institutional system exists for managing water resources in North Canterbury. This study examines these institutional arrangements and the decision-making processes of the North Canterbury Regional Water Board. The focus is upon an ex poste evaluation of the events which lead to the preparation of water allocation plans for the Waiau and Hurunui Rivers. It is shown that those groups and interests whose social power is not institutionalised are unlikely to secure more than marginal changes to the status quo. Greater changes can be secured only by directing political activity at the policy making level. The study concludes that existing institutional arrangements lead to suboptimal social decisions. Various strategies for strengthening water management institutions and policies are outlined.

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  • Golf course design

    Glasson, C. R.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Accompanying maps can be consulted in the library.

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