3,882 results for Thesis, ResearchSpace@Auckland

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • The archaeology of Maori occupation along the Waihou River, Hauraki

    Phillips, Caroline (1994)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This is an archaeological study of Maori occupation along the lower Waihou River, Hauraki from the time of first settlement at about 1450 until 1850 AD. It identifies changes in the environment, economy, settlement distribution and demography over time, and details four pre-contact and three post-contact phases of occupation with differing economic, social, political and spatial responses. These are brought together in a developmental framework describing a series of cultural changes, thereby enabling the underlying processes to be ascertained. This research makes several arguments. Firstly, that Maori material culture has to be understood in the light of the functional and socio-political context in which the objects were made and used. Secondly, that regional analysis of this type employing a range of detailed environmental, settlement location, historical and excavation data are necessary in order to provide an historical developmental framework. Thirdly, that New Zealand settlement distribution studies have to adopt a more flexible approach using models more appropriate to Maori society. Fourthly, that cultural processes can best be analysed through the underlying ideological concepts of the society whose culture is being studied. The thesis concludes that the people of Hauraki displayed a range of dynamic socio-political responses to a variety of natural and human induced events that occurred over a four hundred year period.

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  • Asymmetric synthesis using 4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3-dioxanes

    Lorimer, Rachel Manu (1998)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. (2'R,6'R)-2'-Anthraquinonyl-4',4',6'-trimethyl-l',3'-dioxanes 132, 133, and 134 were synthesized from quinizarin 29 in optimized yields of 64, 56, 65, and 69%, respectively via reductive Claisen rearrangements of the appropriate allyloxy anthraquinones.A mechanism for the rearrangement has been proposed on the basis of experimental outcomes. The acceleration of the rearrangement under reductive conditions is proposed to be a consequence of internal hydrogen bonding in the activated quinone. Lewis acid mediated cyclizations of the chloroallyl dioxanes 131 and 132 were accomplished using neat titanium(IV) chloride and gave anthracyclinones 267, 268, 270, and 271 directly, but with poor selectivities. However, the dropwise addition of a solution of titanium(IV) chloride in dry dichloromethaneto 134 at -82"C generated anthracycline 282 in 67% yield. The reaction proceeded with good regio- and stereoselectivity. It was concluded that the direct synthesis of anthracyclinones in such reactions requires conditions which are incompatible with those necessary for highly selective carbon-carbon bond formation. The regio- and stereoselectivity of 282 was unambiguously determined on the basis of the 2D NMR data. The intermolecular additions of allyltrimethylsilane to 2-hexyl- and 2-phenyl-4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3-dioxanes 293 and 294 were investigated under varying reaction conditions. Homoallylic alcohols were generated directly from titanium(lV) chloride mediated allylations of 293 but the stereoselectivities of the reactions were poor. Milder Lewis acids did not efficiently promote the reaction. It was concluded that 4,4,6-trimethyl-1,3- dioxanes have little potential as chiral auxiliaries for the asymmetric synthesis of homoallylic alcohols. The interactions between dioxanes 293, 294, 313, and 314 and Lewis acids were investigated at -80, -100 and- 120"C. It was demonstrated that the trimethyl dioxanes are relatively unreactive towards Lewis acids and that the presence of an equatorial hydrogen at C2 or C4 of a dioxane ring is necessary for the selective formation of a stable 1:1 BF3-acetal complex. These results strongly suggest that Lewis acid mediated openings of trimethyl dioxanes are unlikely to proceed with high selectivity. The good selectivities observed in cyclizations of 282 were proposed to be a consequence of the overall conformation of the highly functionalized anthraquinone 134.

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  • Torrent of Portyngale: a critical edition

    Montgomery, Keith David (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Torrent of Portyngale is a late medieval romance, preserved in a single manuscript, MS Chetham???s 8009. It is a complex mix of romance themes: adventure, loss and restoration, family and social status, piety and hypocrisy, woven around the love between Torrent, the orphaned son of a Portuguese earl, and Desonell, heir to the throne of Portugal. Cohesion to so wide a range of thematic material comes from the author???s careful elucidation of the religious and moral significance of the text???s events. While popular literature with a didactic purpose is not uncommon in medieval literature and elsewhere in romance (cf. Sir Amadace), modern criticism has failed to fully appreciate the purposeful combination of the two in Torrent of Portyngale. Torrent is perhaps the most critically neglected member of the Middle English verse romances. This is, in part, due to the state of the text, which suffers from extensive scribal corruption. The first modern edition, by James Halliwell (1842), was also careless and did little to create a good impression. The poem???s most recent editor, Eric Adam (1887), appreciated the shortcomings of Halliwell???s work and sought to restore Torrent. He incorporated evidence from fragmentary early prints of the text and drew on the fruits of nineteenth???century romance scholarship. Despite his good editorial intentions, however, it is now clear that he also made errors and editorial decisions that have coloured the way in which Torrent has been viewed since. The substantial body of twentieth and twenty???first century scholarship on Middle English romance and medieval studies in general has diminished the value of Adam???s edition to the point where it may be regarded as obsolete and a new edition long overdue. This fresh edition of Torrent has been prepared from microfilm of the manuscript. It re???examines the text???s phonology, morphology, syntax, dialect and vocabulary, to indentify and evaluate overlooked clues to help answer such fundamental questions as its date (scholars have dated it from the mid??? fourteenth century to the first half of the fifteenth century) and provenance (it has been mapped from East Anglia to South Lancashire). Both the unflattering reputation that Torrent of Portyngale has gathered in modern times and the long???held notion that it is lacking in originality are challenged by the thorough re???examination of the state of the text, its scribes and their practices and evaluating them against prior and current romance scholarship. This new analysis provides a window through which Torrent can be viewed and valued as a product of its time, allowing it to be judged more accurately against its contemporaries and offering many new insights into a text that was clearly once popular.

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  • A methodology for business processes identification: developing instruments for an effective enterprise system project

    Berkowitz, Zeev (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Since the mid 1990s, thousands of companies around the world have implemented Enterprise Systems (ES), which are considered to be the most important development in the corporate use of information technology. By providing computerized support to business processes spanning both the enterprise and the supply chain, these systems have become an indispensable tool utilized by organizations to accomplish and maintain efficient and effective operational performance. However, there are many cases in which ES implementation has failed in terms of the required time and budget, and more importantly, in terms of functionality and performance. One of the main causes of these failures is the misidentification and improper selection of business processes to be implemented into the ES, which are a crucial element of the system's implementation life cycle. In order to achieve effective implementation, a ???necessary and sufficient??? set of business processes must be designed and implemented. Implementing an excessive set of business processes is costly; yet implementing an insufficient set is ruinous. The heuristic identification of the set of business processes, based on requirement elicitation, is flawed; there is no guarantee that all the necessary processes have been captured (Type I error), and/or that superfluous processes have been selected for implementation (Type II error). The existing implementation methods do not include a methodology to address this vital issue. This thesis aims to resolve this problem and to provide a methodology that will generate a necessary and sufficient set of business processes in a given organization, based on its specific characteristics, which will be used as a baseline for implementing an ES. A proper definition of the business processes and their associated properties is proposed and detailed. The properties are then used as parameters to generate the complete set of all the possible business processes in the organization; from this set, necessary and sufficient processes are selected. The methodology exposes the fundamental level of business processes, which are then used as a baseline for further phases in the implementation process. The proposed methodology has been tested through the analysis of companies that have implemented ES. In each of these cases, the identification of business processes utilizing the proposed methodology has proven to provide superior results to those obtained through all other implemented practices, producing a better approximation of their existing business processes.

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  • GABAA receptors in the basal ganglia of the rat, baboon and the human brain

    Waldvogel, Henry J. (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The regional, cellular and subcellular distribution of GABAA receptors was investigated in the striatum and globus pallidus of the rat, baboon and human brain using receptor autoradiography, and multiple immunohistochemical labelling techniques at the light, confocal and electron microscopic levels using antibodies to the ??1, ??2, ??3, ??2,3 and ??2-subunits of the GABAA receptor complex. The results demonstrated that GABAA receptors in the striatum showed considerable subunit heterogeneity in their regional (primate brain) and cellular distribution (rodent and primate brain). At the regional level in the baboon and human brain, GABAA receptors in the striosome compartment contained the ??2, ??3, ??2,3 and ??2-subunits while receptors in the matrix compartment contained the ??1, ??2, ??3, ??2,3 and ??2-subunits In general terms in both the rodent and the primate brain, up to six different types of neurons were identified in the striatum. There was considerable species diversity in the cell types. Two main types of neurons (type 1 and type 2) immunoreactive for the subunits ??1,??2,3,??2 were identified in the striatum. They were GAD positive and were classified according to their cellular morphology and staining properties; rat type 1 neurons were GAD positive only, while human type 1 neurons were GAD and parvalbumin positive. Type 2 neurons were identified in both the rat (GAD positive only) and in human (GAD and calretinin positive). All three mammalian species showed the presence of type 3 neurons which were large neurons with few spines and immunoreactive for subunits ??1,3,??2,3,??2. Type 4 neurons were calbindin positive and immunoreactive for subunits ??2,3,??2,3,??2. The remaining neurons were immunoreactive for ChAT and the ??3-subunit (type 5), or immunoreactive for neuropeptide Y with no GABAA receptor subunit immunoreactivity (type 6). The globus pallidus contained three types of neurons; type 1 neurons contained parvalbumin and type 2 contained parvalbumin and calretinin and both were immunoreactive for subunits ??1,??2,3, ??2 while type 3 neurons were medium-sized calretinin neurons immunoreactive for the subunits ??1,??2,3,??2 At the ultrastructural level in the globus pallidus, ??1 and ??2,3-subunits were localised on large neurons (types 1 and 2) and were found at three types of synaptic terminals. These results show that the subunit composition of GABAA receptors displays considerable regional and cellular variation in the striatum, but is more homogeneous in the globus pallidus.

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  • Rarotongan society: the creation of tradition

    Baddeley, Josephine Gail (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This work examines aspects of contemporary Rarotongan society selected to illustrate how Rarotongans structure their reality. This is not a study of social change, but it does show how the vestiges of ideologies from the past have been reinterpreted and incorporated into the contemporary society. To demonstrate how the ???traditional??? ideologies have survived and co-exist with ???modern??? ideas, institutions of a pre-European origin, such as adoption practices, M??ori medicine and the transmission of chiefly titles, are discussed. Rarotongans may view these and other customary practices according to several criteria from which they choose the one which is most appropriate to their purposes on any particular occasion. It is shown that Rarotongans are in the process of creating a cultural tradition which incorporates elements from their traditional past and European influences which are being transformed into something that is perceived as essentially Rarotongan.

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  • The Long-term effects on antenatal glucocorticoids and preterm birth

    Dalziel, Stuart Ryan (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Antenatal glucocorticoids are widely used in perinatal medicine, and are one of the key treatments responsible for improving survival of preterm infants since the 1960s. A systematic review reported in this thesis concludes that antenatal glucocorticoids reduce the risk of neonatal death, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular haemorrhage, necrotising enterocolitis, infectious morbidity and need for respiratory support. Several areas of uncertainty have been clarified, including the effectiveness of treatment in the current era of neonatal practice, and in women with hypertension syndromes and premature rupture of membranes. However there is a paucity of data on long-term outcomes after exposure to antenatal glucocorticoids. This is particularly important given recent proposals that fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids may be a core mechanism explaining the epidemiological evidence that those born small are at increased risk of later adult disease. Furthermore, the relative contributions of fetal growth and prematurity to small size at birth, and hence later disease risk, has not been well elucidated. This thesis reports the follow-up of 534 thirty year olds whose mothers participated in the first, and largest, randomised trial of antenatal betamethasone for prevention of neonatal RDS. Two-thirds of participants were born preterm. Follow-up assessments included cardiovascular risk factors, spirometry, psychological assessment and bone densitometry. Exposure to antenatal betamethasone did not affect mortality, body size, blood pressure, lung function, fasting plasma levels of lipids, cortisol or IgE, socio-economic status, psychological functioning, health related quality of life or bone mass. However betamethasone-exposed participants showed increased insulin resistance. This is the first experimental evidence in man to demonstrate long-term metabolic effects of fetal glucocorticoid exposure. However, as all other outcomes are reassuring, and treatment significantly reduces neonatal mortality and morbidity, obstetricians should continue to use a single course of glucocorticoids for the prevention of neonatal RDS. Adults who were born preterm had increased blood pressure, insulin resistance, reduced lung function and reduced adult height at age thirty. This is the largest reported follow-up of ex-preterm infants into adulthood. Although the associations are relatively small, their potential implications for the prevalence of later chronic obstructive pulmonary and cardiovascular disease are of concern.

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  • Regulation of stem cell development by Runx transcription factors

    Lam, Enid Yi Ni (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The origin of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and the relative roles of the yolk sac and the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region in the establishment of definitive haematopoiesis are controversial. Definitive HSCs were thought to originate from the AGM, while contribution from the yolk sac was restricted to the primitive blood. However, recent mammalian studies have demonstrated a contribution of yolk sac progenitors to the formation of definitive erythroid and myeloid lineages. This is supported by the recent discovery in zebrafish of erythromyeloid progenitors (EMPs) that arise within the posterior blood island (PBI), before emergence of HSCs in the AGM. The cell type that gives rise to HSCs is also unknown, with possible contributions from a bipotential haemangioblast, the haemogenic endothelium and the mesenchyme. The Runx transcription factors are important regulators of development in a number of organ systems. Runx1 is essential for the development of definitive HSCs and is transcribed from two promoters, P1 and P2, generating two major Runx1 isoforms. To further understand the role of Runx1 in HSC biology and the roles of the two isoforms during the establishment of definitive haematopoiesis, transgenic runx1 promoter reporter zebrafish were generated. The Tg(runx1P1:EGFP) line displays fluorescence in the PBI, where EMPs develop. The Tg(runx1P2:EGFP) line marks definitive HSCs in the AGM that are shown, by lineage tracing, to later populate the pronephros and thymus. Direct tracking of marked cells from the PBI in the runx1P1 transgenic confirms the two definitive blood lineages are distinct. Time-lapse imaging of a compound Tg(runx1P2:EGFP)/ Tg(kdrl:nls-mCherry) embryo expressing the red fluorescent protein mCherry in endothelial cells shows the emergence of HSCs from endothelial cells. This is the first demonstration of the direct generation of definitive HSCs from the haemogenic endothelium in a living embryo. The differential expression and functions of Runx3 isoforms were analysed. Depletion of Runx3P2 delays the entry of primitive erythrocytes into the circulation, and blocks the initiation of definitive haematopoiesis. Runx3P1 is expressed in the gut endoderm of the embryo and may function in regulating the activity of signalling pathways controlling angiogenesis through the Hedgehog and BMP signalling pathways.

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  • The mechanism of death evoked by human amylin in pancreatic islet B cells

    Bai, Ji Zhong (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Subscription resource available via Digital Dissertations. Amylin is a 37-amino acid peptide usually cosecreted with insulin from pancreatic islet ??-cells. It is implicated in the regulation of normal glucose metabolism and thought to induce pathological features of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In particular, human amylin (hA) deposits as islet amyloid, and is associated with the loss of insulin-producing islet ??-cells in NIDDM. The biochemical mechanism of hA-evoked death in cultured RINm5F pancreatic islet ??-cells has been investigated in this thesis. Synthetic hA but not rat amylin (rA) aggregated in aqueous solution, formed fibrils, and evoked ??-cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The cell death exhibited apoptotic features, including inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial dysfunction, delayed membrane lysis, aurintricarboxylic acid suppression and cell membrane blebbling. Cytotoxicity of hA was inhibited by Congo red (an amyloid-binding dye), 8-37hA fragment (fibril-forming but non-toxic), 1-40??A or 25-35??A (Alzheimer-associated peptide), but neither by sorbitol (inhibitory to hA fibril formation), rA nor its 8-37rA peptide (non-fibril-forming and non-toxic). Preformed large amyloid deposits of hA were less potent in causing ??-cell death than small aggregates. These data suggest that hA induces ??-cell apoptosis via small aggregates through a possible membrane receptor pathway. Inhibitors of protein and mRNA synthesis did not inhibit hA-evoked apoptosis, but rather enhanced or directly triggered ??-cell death during prolonged exposure. Likewise, Ca2+ modulators, which alter intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), failed to prevent hA cytotoxicity and were ultimately cytotoxic themselves. Fura-2 loading and 45Ca2+ uptake studies indicated that hA did not mobilise intracellular Ca2+ during its toxicity. These results indicate a protein synthesis- and Ca2+-independent process of hA toxicity RINm5F islet ??-cells. The studies reported in this thesis have established a new in vitro model of hA-evoked apoptosis using cultured RINm5F pancreatic islet ??-cells. A new model of NIDDM pathogenesis is presented and discussed.

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  • Management Rhetoric as Performance, Perspective and Persuasion: A Scriptive Reading of Management Theory Texts

    Monin, Nanette (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The texts of management theory are extensively cited and paraphrased in academic research and teaching, and in business practice. They have only occasionally been subjected to critical interpretation. My inquiry signals this space in management research and then enters into it. I ask how critical reading can effectively explore text-making in management theory, and whether text analysis might discover previously unrecognised meaning in management theory. Having established that critical management scholarship has not accessed the literary theory that would support explorations of text-making in management, I transport relevant theory across the disciplinary divide. Drawing on a wide range of literary theories, I develop an approach to critical reading, a method of text analysis, that I have called ???scriptive reading???. Scriptive reading is a form of rhetorical analysis that acknowledges the role of dominant (standard) readings in textual interpretation; moves on to a critical reading that explores aspects of performance (author-reader relationships), perspective (worldviews) and persuasion (persuasive rhetorical strategies) in the text; and, in a final reflexive reading, considers the potential impacts of a particular reading experience on reading outcomes. In keeping with reader-response theory the shift is from the writer to the reader of the text. For analysis I select six influential management theory texts ??? authored by Frederick Taylor, Mary Follett, Peter Drucker, Henry Mintzberg, Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Charles Handy. Reading scriptively, I identify ten variously shared performance characteristics in these texts; isolate ten precepts that are common to the perspective generally shared by them, and demonstrate that all six texts employ similarly persuasive rhetorical strategies. My findings focus on the narratives of management theory exposed in the six readings. I discover that five of the six texts have built a narrative around a utopian root metaphor. The sixth text, authored by Mary Follett, does not construct a utopian worldview, but it does share common performance attributes and persuasive strategies. Although widely acknowledged to be theoretically profound and relevant, Follett???s text has not historically enjoyed the status of the other five. I conclude that reader identification with the subtexts of management theory may have more influence on scholarly recognition of them than do the performance attributes and the persuasive rhetorical strategies of the texts. The significance of my conclusions suggests that scriptive reading provides readers of management theory with a useful method of text analysis.

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  • Ripe for Harvest

    Brailsford, Ian (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Ripe for Harvest chronicles the establishment of the American youth market in the three decades following the end of the Second World War. The arrival of this market segment coincided with the post-war 'baby boom' and what John K. Galbraith characterised as the development of an 'affluent society'. Yet demographic changes and economic prosperity alone did not create the youth market. Markets are uncovered, delineated, promoted, and tested. The first part of the thesis examines the establishment of a youth-market business in the mid-1940s . Seventeen magazine and Eugene Gilbert's youth-market agency played a vital role in selling the idea of youngsters' spending power to wouldbe advertisers. Then follows an evaluation of the National Broadcasting Company's (NBC) attempts to deliver its young listeners and viewers to advertisers. The middle sections describe the techniques used by advertising agencies to sell their clients' goods and services to youngsters. The first case study deals with two marketing classics, Pepsi-Cola's 'Pepsi Generation' and Noxzema's 'Cover Girl' medicated make-up. We then move to an analysis of the J. Walter Thompson (JWT) agency's efforts to exploit the youth market for its major clients. Finally, there is a critique of youth marketing that combined commercial and ethical issues: the sale of cigarettes to youngsters and public-service advertising which attempted to steer youngsters away from delinquency and drug abuse. The final chapter details the implications of youth marketing from social and cultural perspectives. self-appointed social critics feared unscrupulous marketeers had manipulated America's youngsters into becoming unthinking consumers. The thesis argues that the relationship was more ambiguous than this accusation suggested.

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  • Educating About Asia in New Zealand Secondary Schools in The 1990s Contesting Policy Curriculum and Practice

    Pang, David Nui-Nyen (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The thesis is about New Zealand's educational response to the rise of Asian capitalism in the 1990s. The transformation is a significant one because it involves a shift not just in the political and economic sense but also in the opening of the New Zealand mind. Although studying Asia has been articulated in major Western countries as the key to improving a nation's understanding about Asia, the dependence on the fortunes of the Asian economy and on governmental cueing is problematic because the approach is not necessarily consistent with improving the Asia knowledge base. It is argued in this thesis that the educating about Asia project for New Zealand secondary schools in the 1990s is essentially a contested initiative. The study follows a multilevel research framework. It identifies the underlying assumptions and substantive issues in terms of policy, curriculum, and practice. The analyses show that the unfettered global forces are increasingly influential in determining and maintaining educational reform and change. The study has argued that 'Asia 2000' and 'Asia literacy' are primarily economic ideas that have taken on a slogan status broad enough to capture the nation's attention but not defined enough in terms of epistemological and pedagogical clarity. The speedy formation of Asian studies education in the social studies and languages curricula is, therefore, a technical exercise rather than an outcome of analytical or theoretical consideration. The research has further established that Asia-literate teachers are central to implementation. However, the weak connection between policy and practice means that the implementation is not teacher-driven. The lack of ownership of the policy initiatives by teachers explains why the implementation of Asian studies education is at a glacial pace. The thesis concludes that Asian studies education is very much a diminished curriculum and its implementation a decentralised activity. It suggests that there is much more educational space to develop Asian studies education than the narrow and predominantly utilitarian argument allows. As the contextual pressures become more unchartered in the new century, it is important to rethink the taken-for-granted assumptions or run the risk of less formidable policy, curriculum, and practice foci. Asian studies education reform in New Zealand is very much a work in progress.

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  • Flexible Mixed Models: Regression Splines and Thin-Plate Regression Splines in a Mixed Model Framework

    Mackenzie, Monique L. (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Regression splines and thin-plate regression splines were fitted inside generalized linear mixed models with good results. Their role in prediction and as exploratory tools are examined. Regression splines were specified in advance using biological information and compared with knot positions chosen using the data available. A forwards selection procedure was used to choose knots for thin-plate regression splines, and both cross-validation and fit statistics were used to discriminate between competing models. Parameter bias was assessed using a parametric bootstrap in the generalized mixed model setting, and bias for both high and low variance data was compared. Model-based, bootstrap, and robust inference methods were used to assess parameter inference, and the impact of peculiar individuals on the models were examined. Forestry growth and mortality data is used for the modelling throughout. Model specification using biological information returned good results, and models with a relatively small number of well chosen knots outperformed models with larger numbers of relatively poorly placed knots. The generalized mixed model fixed effects estimates were found to be unbiased, but the model-based variance estimates were consistently too small. While variance estimates for terms with random effects were more realistic, robust measures of inference were consistently more reliable. For the normal errors models, model-based inference was only valid when complex covariance structures were specified or robust inference was used Generalized mixed models were found to be relatively robust to influential individuals while cross-validation enabled problematic individuals to be identified.

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  • Spectroscopic and Conductivity Studies of Doping in Polythiophene and Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) and their Applications as Gas Sensors

    Chiu, William Wen-Chao (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The studies in this project involve investigations of doping in polythiophene and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). Techniques including Raman, infrared, x-ray photoelectron and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, elemental analysis and conductivity measurement are used to characterize polythiophene and poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) samples. The main purpose of these studies is to search the most suitable materials for preparing conducting polymer gas sensors based on polythiophene or its derivatives. Polythiophene samples prepared either electrochemically or chemically are examined and the reactions between the dedoped polythiophene and iodine, a commonly used oxidizing agent are studied using both iodine solutions in acetonitrile and iodine vapour. Ion-exchange reactions are also attempted by treating pre-doped polythiophene powder with solutions in acetonitrile containing copper(Il) complex anions. Studies of doping in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) cover a wide range of dopants: First, a study of secondary doping using iodine is carried out. Here Raman spectroscopy with 514.5 nm excitation is used to investigate the level of I3- dopant in the polymer, while Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm excitation is used to investigate the change in the ratio of the intensity of the symmetric C??=C?? stretching vibration associated with the oxidized structure and the reduced structure respectively with changes in the polymer doping level. Other spectroscopic analyses .are also carried out to examine the changes in the physical structures of the polymer and the conductivity is measured to see whether secondary doping has a significant impact on the electronic structure. Second, a study of dopant-exchange using copper(II) complex anions in aqueous and acetonitrile solvents is carried out. Here electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and elemental analysis are combined to determine whether the incorporation of copper(Il) complex anions in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) is due to doping or due to adhesion; conductivity of the samples is also measured to see whether there is any change in the electrical properties upon dopant-exchange / anion-adhesion. Third, a study of dopant effects in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) using an electrochemical doping method is carried out. Four commonly used dopants, BF4-, Cl-, SO42- and poly(styrene-4-sulfonate), are investigated using Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm excitation to study the shift in the position of the symmetric C??=C?? stretching vibrations when the polymer incorporating one of the four chosen dopants is subjected to a progressive increase in the applied potential. The doping levels achieved in these electrochemically prepared samples are estimated from a pre-determined correlation equation that relates the ratio of the intensity of the symmetric C??=C?? stretching vibrations and the polymer doping level. Finally, a study of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) incorporating anionic polyelectrolyte dopants and their applications as gas sensors is carried out. Here poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) incorporating poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl- 1-propane sulfonate) is studied for the first time and its properties are compared to those of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) incorporating poly(styrene-4-sulfonate), which have already been well-studied by various research groups. These materials are prepared into gas sensing units either electrochemically or chemically to investigate their abilities in the detection of gases and solvent vapours.

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  • Understanding Reassurance in Women Following Diagnosis of Benign Breast Conditions

    Meechan, Geraldine Theresa (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Undergoing specialist investigation of breast symptoms is a distressing experience for most women because of the possibility of a breast cancer diagnosis. Anxiety is typically reduced in those women who receive a benign diagnosis, however, some women remain distressed and are not reassured, despite malignancy being ruled out. Anxiety following benign breast symptom diagnosis has both clinical and psychological implications. Continuing anxiety may result in further medical consultations and impact negatively on required follow-up assessments and future screening behaviour. This distress can also impinge on women's quality of life and perception of good health. Current psycho-oncology research reflects a limited understanding of why some women are not reassured and the factors detracting from this process. Additionally, it is also unclear what intervention strategies are beneficial to promote reassurance following benign breast symptom diagnosis. Three studies were conducted at "one-stop" specialist breast clinics in Auckland to investigate the psychological impact of benign breast symptom diagnosis. The aim of the first study was to understand who is not reassured following benign diagnosis. A prospective, longitudinal methodology was employed to assess women prior to and immediately following diagnosis and at two and four months. Findings revealed that demographic, clinical, experiential and psychological variables impacted on reassurance in the short and long-term post-benign diagnosis. Specifically, women who were not reassured were more likely to have completed their education at secondary school level. The breast symptoms of a breast lump, breast pain and skin dimpling along with a lower perception of health detracted from reassurance. Women who had a family member and friend with breast cancer were less likely to be reassured as were those with greater fear of treatment, health anxiety and perceived stress. A second study, drawing on cognitive experimental information-processing methodologies, was designed to further understand why some women are not reassured. Women completed a Cancer Stroop task and ambiguous words task to investigate the role of attention and selective interpretation biases in the context of benign diagnosis. Findings suggest that biases may be operating for non-reassured women and that specific factors may play a role in anxiety following benign diagnosis. Women who were not reassured showed a greater attention and interpretive bias towards negative/threatening information. Additionally, results indicate that the Stroop task may be uncovering anxiety that is not evident in traditional self-report measures, as women who rated they were reassured experienced greater interference for cancer and threat words compared to not reassured women. The aim of the third study was to develop intervention strategies for women undergoing breast symptom diagnosis to reduce anxiety and enhance reassurance for benign symptoms. Women were randomly assigned prior to attending the clinic to one of three groups: standard clinic information, an additional information pamphlet or an additional pamphlet and meeting with a psychologist following benign diagnosis. Although the women receiving the additional pamphlet reported that they found the additional information helpful and made the process less threatening, no differences in anxiety were found across the groups prior to diagnosis. At follow-up, the effects of the additional pamphlet or support from the psychologist were not evident as no differences in levels of reassurance and anxiety were found. Taken together these studies support and extend current knowledge of the psychological impact of benign breast symptom diagnosis. Although further work is needed to clarify effective intervention strategies for women undergoing specialist assessment, this research contributes towards building a picture of women at risk for non-reassurance following benign breast symptom diagnosis. The findings also provide important clinical implications for health professionals working with women attending specialist breast clinics.

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  • Mujer, Historia Y Sociedad: La Dramaturgia Femenina De La Espana Contempor??nea

    Zaza, Wendy-Llyn (2000)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Thesis now published: Zaza, W. (2007) Mujer, historia y sociedad: La dramaturgia espa??ola contempor??nea de autor??a femenina; prologue by Itziar Pascual. Kassel: Reichenberger, 202 pp. This study examines contemporary Spanish women's theatre through three main inseparable themes: woman, history and society. Written from a feminine perspective, the works discussed contest a canonical History which marks the dawning of western civilization. It is then that the Judeo-Christian religion and ancient Greek thought create foundational "sins" which relegate woman to a condition of inferiority. Within a patriarchal structure, she is confined to a private sphere of action. Consequently, a public female presence implies adopting "masculine" values and any possibility of an autobiographical life is thus sacrificed. The woman who dares oppose patriarchal authority becomes, in the context of twentieth-century Spain, a symbol of a people in ideological confrontation with the authorities in power and condemned to a real or figurative death. The prologue to the Civil War is grounded in a conflict of class, with rural areas pitted against central government and proletariat against bourgeoisie. The war itself, together with the postwar period until General Franco's death, constitute an ideological confrontation portrayed through the principal foci of action and from within the prison. The end of the conflict only comes with the restoration of democracy in Spain, a period which coincides with an increasing sociocultural awareness regarding the situation of women. On the one hand, the works analysed reflect this awareness of woman as a class in accordance with Marxist-feminist thought. On the other hand, they are witness to an internal process, which the woman experiences as an individual, and through which she gradually becomes an autonomous subject. The political changes wrought in Spain in 1975 bring about new concerns, arising particularly from irreconcilable differences between the manner in which the country presents itself and its daily reality. The works pertaining to post-Francoist society denounce a resistance to change on the part of State and cultural structures. This study analyses these concerns within the context of sociopolitical hopes and aspirations leading up to the threshold of the twenty-first century.

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  • The Relationship Between Importance and Time Allocation: Conceptualisations and Conditions in Learning, Social and Spiritual Domains

    Lai, Mei Kuin (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The purpose of this thesis was twofold. Firstly, to investigate university students' conceptualisations of the relationship between importance and time allocation in their learning, social and spiritual domains. Secondly, to investigate the conditions that govern the strength of those relationships in the three domains. Specifically, this research focused on conceptualisations and conditions in the university studies, marriage and Christian faith sub-classifications of the three domains. In order to examine this twofold aim, 30 university students of New Zealand European, Pacific Island and Chinese descent were interviewed about their conceptions of the relationship between importance and time allocation, and the conditions that govern the strength of those relationships, in the three domains. Understanding these conceptions and conditions implied, first and foremost, understanding students' beliefs about the importance of, and the amount of time allocated to, each of these domains. Thus, this information was also obtained in the interviews, the latter via a retrospective diary completed during the interview, which required students to record the amount of time allocated to these domains in the week prior to the interview. Results revealed that students believed their university studies, marriage and Christian faith to be of similar importance, although the Christian faith was consistently believed to be the most important domain. There were, however, large differences in the amount of time allocated to these three domains with university studies being allocated the most time, and marriage, the least. It was, therefore, not surprising that students' conceptualisations of the relationship between importance and time allocation were very complex. To begin with, these conceptualisations were not solely based on associating the importance of the domain with the amount of time allocated to it. Even when they were solely based on this association, their conceptualisations of what that association should be were highly varied. To add to the complexity, students' conceptualisations of the relationship between importance and time allocation in the three domains varied across the domains. In contrast, the conditions governing the relationship between importance and time allocation were not domain specific. Most conditions were common across two of the three domains. The Christian faith domain shared similar conditions to the university studies and marriage domains. The university studies and marriage domains did not share any similar conditions. Conditions were related between and within domains, and appeared to be hierarchical, as some conditions appeared to be pre-requisites of other conditions. There were few gender differences across the three domains in the main findings of the study. There were, however, ethnic group differences. Chinese and Pacific Island students had similar beliefs about the importance of the domains, and similar conceptualisations of the relationship between importance and time allocation in the domains. These were different from New Zealand European students. In contrast, Chinese and New Zealand European students reported similar conditions governing the relationship between importance and time allocation, which were different from Pacific Island students. A higher order conceptual framework offers an integration of the conceptualizations of the relationship between importance and time allocation with the conditions governing those relationships. This framework suggests that conditions governing the relationship between importance and time allocation are hierarchical in nature, and are linked to conceptualisations of the relationship between importance and time allocation. This thesis concludes by discussing some possibilities for future research in this area.

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  • The development of models for sustainable fisheries

    Batstone, Christopher John (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. In 1986 the New Zealand system of fisheries management was reformed. The Quota Management System (QMS) augmented the existing input control regulatory instruments with a system of output controls: individual transferable quota (ITQ). This thesis examines a number of aspects of the QMS in the context of a case study of the SNA1 snapper fishery. The QMS model is contrasted with a dynamic optimization model of rights based fishing which shows the effectiveness of ITQ systems in resolving the open access problem and that proportional share ITQ prices potentially contain information about the biological and economic state of a fishery. Departures of the QMS from the theoretical model are noted, particularly the allocation mechanism, the continued application of open access input control apparatus, and the basis of total allowable catch definition. Input control is considered in a bioeconomic model of the Hauraki Gulf sub-stock of the SNA1 fishery that features a sea surface temperature recruitment sub-model. Changes to the minimum legal size regulation (MLS) and the effect of differing inter-temporal recruitment structures on rent generation are evaluated. The biological and economic inefficiency of size regulation and the unequal distribution of risk between sectors in this fishery under the current management regime are demonstrated. The potential role for discount rates as performance indicators is shown. An intra-cohort stock externality due to growth overfishing is evident. The productive capacity of the SNA1 fishery system is presently not fully utilized. Output control is examined through time series analyses of prices in SNA1 ITQ markets. To date government has relied on the results of stock assessment research when setting the allowable harvest and monitoring the performance of fisheries policy. Excessive reliance on biological data, in particular modelling outputs, has attracted criticism. An alternative, a minimum information system uses information contained in quota prices as indicators of the biological and economic health of a fishery. SNA1 quota ownership and lease markets are found to exhibit the characteristics of weak form efficiency. Prices reflect expected rents in the fishery. However, at this stage of their development prices also reflect firms' uncertainty over expectations of fishery management agency behavior. Concern has been expressed that ITQ systems may be compromised by market failure through the exercise of market power. Evidence of market power is found in the SNA1 market for ITQ lease title. Explicit non-commercial quota, a review of the effectiveness of remnant pre-QMS regulatory instruments, and a substantial role for economic information in the total allowable catch setting process and as performance indicators form the basis of recommendations for policy.

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  • Positive and negative perfectionism: two sides of the story: a global or domain-specific construct?

    Haase, Anne Marie (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis examines perfectionism in the context of domain-specificity, development and exploratory intervention within an alternative behavioural approach to perfectionism. The primary study moves beyond the view of "unhealthy" general perfectionism to explore the possibility of a Positive and Negative form of perfectionism in relation to specific domains of life (University/Work, Relationships, Physical Activity, Domestic Environment, and Appearance) in students, athletes and a clinical group. A mixed model of 3 (group) x 2 (perfectionism) x 5 (domain) for absolute perfectionism and a mixed model of 3 (group) x 5 (domain) for relative perfectionism were assessed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results for absolute perfectionism revealed two significant main effects (group and domain) and two 2-way interaction effects (group by domain; group by perfectionism), while results for relative perfectionism showed two main effects (group and domain). For absolute perfectionism, the interaction of domain by group suggested that clinical patients experienced perfectionism in specific domains, but that their levels of perfectionism were still higher than the university students and athletes. The University/Work domain was significantly higher than all the other domains for university students, while the University/Work domain and the physical Activity domain were higher than all other domains for athletes. The interaction of perfectionism by group showed that Negative Perfectionism differed between the three groups, while Positive Perfectionism was similar across the groups. For relative perfectionism, athletes reported higher Positive to Negative perfectionism than university students, while the clinical sample reported higher Negative to Positive Perfectionism than the university students. Overall, domain specificity was associated with total perfectionism only under certain conditions (i.e., group), while Positive and Negative Perfectionism differed only between the groups and not domains. These findings call into question the ease with which one can generalise perfectionism across all areas of life. In light of these findings on domain-specificity and interest in further exploring the perfectionism distinction within a behavioural framework, a separate study was conducted to explore themes around Positive and Negative Perfectionism. A positive and negative distinction of perfectionism was proposed on the basis of themes emerging from semi-structured retrospective interviews with l0 university students. Themes associated with Negative Perfectionism related to current experiences (e.g., fear of failure, avoiding negative consequences) and developmental influences (e.g., high parental expectations, parental absence/nonapproval). Themes associated with Positive Perfectionism also related to current experiences (e.g., flexibility, high self-esteem, balance) and developmental influences (e.g., authoritative parenting, consistent positive reinforcement). Stemming from the discussion of the themes of Positive and Negative Perfectionism, an exploratory intervention study grounded in rational-emotive behavioural therapy was conducted in order to attempt to reduce Negative Perfectionism in non-clinical individuals. Eight women participated in the intervention study based on a multiple baseline single-subject design, in an attempt to incorporate internal controls. All participants experienced reduction in Negative Perfectionism to varying degrees, while Positive Perfectionism remained fairly constant, providing preliminary evidence for a potentially effective perfectionism intervention. Thus, this thesis sheds new light on domain-specificity, development and intervention of perfectionism in an alternative behavioural framework of Positive and Negative Perfectionism. Key words: Perfectionism, Domain-Specificity, Positive Perfectionism, Negative Perfectionism.

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