3,899 results for Thesis, ResearchSpace@Auckland

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • Cyclic Plasticity of Steel under Seismic Load Conditions

    Seal, Christopher (2009-12)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Novel red fluorescent proteins of the sea anemone Entacmaea quadricolor for in situ imaging of bacteria

    Dalton, James (2006)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Analysis and Modelling of Probes in Waveguides and Mobile Radio Propagation and Systems Engineering

    Williamson, Allan (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • The Special Court for Sierra Leone: Justice for whom?

    Mahony, Christopher (2007)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The thesis examined the divergence of conceptions of justice between civil society actors in Sierra Leone and personnel working at the Special Court for Sierra Leone.

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  • Physiological effects of periconceptional undernutrition

    Jaquiery, Anne (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Hatshepsut: Four Investigations

    Shackell-Smith, Aaron (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • A thesis presented to the University of New Zealand for the Doctor of Science

    Green, Rowland Alfred Weldon (1953)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Ageing-in-place on Waiheke Island, New Zealand: Experiencing 'place', 'being aged' and implications for wellbeing

    Coleman, Tara (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The New Zealand population is ageing and policies continue to emphasise ageing-in-place. Accordingly, studies are needed that illuminate the ways in which experiences of ageing-in-place are formed and may create opportunities for, and constraints upon, the maintenance of daily life and wellbeing. In this thesis I address the interrelations between place, being aged, and wellbeing that shape the experience of ageing-in-place for seniors living on Waiheke Island, New Zealand. I employ a phenomenologically-inspired conceptual framework and pay particular attention to how seniors experience ageing-in-place in the context of Waiheke, as a bounded space within reach of a metropolis. This study draws upon in-depth interviews carried out with 28 seniors aged 65 to 94, as well as photo elicitation interviews and participant research journals conducted with 11 of these participants. Taking a Heideggerian approach to phenomenology, I investigate seniors’ experiences through description and ontological reflection. This approach brings seniors’ personal circumstances and the wider social contexts within which they are situated into view. Additionally, the research strategy draws attention to both the symbolic and material qualities of Waiheke and the home environments of seniors on the island. Drawing on my own research logbook, I also critically consider how the presuppositions, meanings, preferences, and experiences that I bring to the research have influenced the interpretations drawn. The study found that Waiheke poses unique challenges for seniors, such as distance, potential isolation, and a lack of advanced care. Yet Waiheke’s ‘blue spaces’, and characteristics of apparent boundedness and permeability, present resources that seniors can draw upon in daily life. Specifically, these characteristics incite a range of metaphors of ‘islandness’ and a particular sense of place and identity that offer opportunities to respond to, and integrate, challenges and change. The majority of seniors in this research interpreted ageing-in-place on Waiheke as a therapeutic experience, finding a sense of wellbeing through a secure sense of self anchored in strong affective ties to place.

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  • BIOMIMETIC MODIFICATION OF CRYSTAL GROWTH

    Peltier, Raoul (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • A Duly Diligent Response to the Concerns of Muslim System Stakeholders

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar (2011)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    We develop the Quranic Rational Unified Process (QuRUP) by customising the Rational Unified Process (RUP). The QuRUP is developed to provide a duly diligent response to the Quranic concerns of Muslim system stakeholders. For a duly diligent response to the concerns of Muslim system stakeholders, software requirements must be harmonised with the Quran. We demonstrate an application of the QuRUP by analysing Pakistan's Identity Management System (PIdM). By analysing the PIdM, we indicate applications of the QuRUP for harmonising a software system with the Quran. We focus our analysis on elicitation of Quranic privacy requirements in the PIdM. We find that the QuRUP can elicit important Quranic requirements which may be overlooked when the unmodified RUP is applied.

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  • Mathematical modelling of energy demand and supply in the cardiac myocyte

    Tran, Kenneth (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The mechanisms that regulate the control of energy demand and energy supply in the heart muscle are crucial for maintaining normal cardiac function, yet they are not very well understood. Although a number of mechanisms have been proffered by which mitochondrial supply of ATP can change to match varying workload in the myocardium, identifying the underlying regulatory pathways remains controversial. In this study, we have developed mathematical models of the sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase (SERCA) pump and the acto-myosin cross-bridge cycle which, along with the Na+/K+ pump, are the key energy-consuming processes in the cardiomyocyte. These models encapsulate both thermodynamic considerations and metabolite sensitivity into a cycle-based framework. The parameters of these models are constrained by experimental data which characterise their physiological behaviour. These models are then placed within the context of a whole-cell electrophysiological framework, alongside a model of mitochondrial energy supply, to investigate the mechanisms that regulate energy control and to shed light on two experimental observations which, for many decades, have evaded a mechanistic explanation: the apparent linearity of the VO₂- PVA (pressure-volume area) relationship and the metabolic stability hypothesis, wherein demand-supply homeostasis is maintained despite negligible variation in metabolite concentrations at varying workloads. The predictions from our model simulations indicate that, under constant metabolite concentrations, the ATP-FTI (force-time integral) relationship is linear, while the ATP- FLA (force-length-area, cellular equivalent of VO₂- PVA) relationship is linear only at low work rates. The linearity of the ATP-FTI relationship is found to arise from kinetic properties of the cross-bridge model. This property is not retained in the ATP-FLA relationship and is lost when metabolite concentrations are allowed to vary, as during normal variation with changing workload. This suggests that FTI and FLA are not equivalent, and that the VO₂- PVA relationship may only be approximately linear. Finally, we show that metabolite concentrations change significantly with increasing workload if Pi feedback onto mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is removed from the model, suggesting that Pi-regulation alone is sufficient to maintain metabolic homeostasis in the absence of other regulatory mechanisms.

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  • Flexible software process model

    Kirk, Diana Caroline (2007)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Many different kinds of process are used to develop software intensive products, but there is little agreement as to which processes give the best results under which circumstances. Practitioners and researchers believe that project outcomes would be improved if the development process was constructed according to project-specific factors. In order to achieve this goal, greater understanding of the factors that most affect outcomes is needed. To improve understanding, researchers build models of the process and carry out studies based on these models. However, current models contain many ambiguities and assumptions, and so it is not clear what the results of the studies mean. The statement of this thesis is that it is possible to create an abstraction of the software development process that will provide a mechanism for comparing software processes and software process models. The long term goal of the research is to provide planners with a means of tailoring the development process on a project by project basis, with the aim of reducing risk and improving outcomes.

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  • Evaluation of a T-cell assay for mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the Gambia

    Hill, Philip Campbell (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    New generation T cell assays offer hope in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. We assessed the ELISPOT assay using cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and a natural gradient of M. tuberculosis exposure by sleeping proximity to a tuberculosis (TB) case in The Gambia. Two antigens, ESAT-6 and CFP-10 (EC), were compared to purified protein derivative (PPD) by ELISPOT and to the PPD skin test in 735 TB contacts. All three tests responded to the exposure gradient, the PPD skin test most dramatically. Inter-test comparison showed that the EC ELISPOT provided improved specificity in the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection, but at the cost of some sensitivity. Increasing discordance, particularly between PPD ELISPOT and PPD skin test results, down the exposure gradient to 105 community controls was identified. In 693 children, the EC ELISPOT was slightly less sensitive than the PPD skin test in the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection from recent exposure; neither test was confounded by prior BCG vaccination, even in the very young. A fusion protein of EC compared favourably with their respective peptides by ELISPOT assay in 488 TB contacts, a combined test result offered improved sensitivity. Quantitative ELISPOT and PPD-skin test responses were assessed in 1052 TB case contacts, according to an ELISPOT response to EC. Only the ELISPOT count was sensitive to the exposure gradient (p=0.009), revealing a positive dose-response relationship. In the longitudinal assessment, both ELISPOT and PPD skin test conversion occurred over time. PPD skin test reversion occurred in 10% of individuals after 18 months, ELISPOT reversion occurred in 39% at 3 months. In conclusion: the EC ELISPOT offers increased specificity in the diagnosis of M. tuberculosis infection in The Gambia, at the cost of some sensitivity; the PPD skin test appears to be down-regulated in the community; neither test is confounded by prior BCG vaccination; a fusion protein in combination with EC peptides offers optimal ELISPOT sensitivity; the quantitative ELISPOT response in specific-antigen-positive TB case contacts reflects the infectious load of M. tuberculosis; and significant early reversion of the ELISPOT test suggests it is unreliable in M. tuberculosis dormancy.

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  • Aspects of adolescent obesity in New Zealand: quality of life, psychosocial factors and psychological theory

    Carne, Sarah S. (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Purpose: To ascertain the quality of life (QOL) in an adolescent population with a high prevalence of obesity, compare findings to previous research, and investigate psychosocial factors that may account for differences in results by use of psychological theory. Rationale: A landmark article by Schwimmer et al. (2003) found that the QOL of severely obese children and adolescents was similar to those who had been diagnosed with cancer. It was therefore timely to discover whether a population with a high prevalence of obesity would also experience low QOL, or whether this population would normalise a higher weight status, resulting in less stigma and higher QOL. Understanding the results in terms of psychosocial factors and psychological theory will assist in more appropriate targeting of interventions.

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  • Microencapsulated phase change materials for thermal energy storage: development, evaluation, and application

    Smith, Michael Christopher (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Toward empirical IP host traffic measurement in passive network measurement

    Lee, Dong Jin (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    An IP flow represents a group of packets that share the same attribute such as their source address. The ever-growing network traffic produces an enormous number of flows. Recent studies attempt to simplify and mine flows in order to understand the network’s behaviour. The traditional technique of packet aggregation to 5-tuple flows provides understanding of the flows themselves, but fails to capture an understanding of the aggregated end-point that generates flows: the IP host. This thesis describes the design, development and analysis of a measurement method that identifies an IP host from network traffic. A conceptual model of IP host aggregations has been designed to summarize traffic: from 5-tuple to 2-tuple and finally to 1-tuple IP host. Using the framework, various observations and analyses have been conducted at the host level, including empirical distributions and behaviour relationships. Several host characteristics and applications are examined from real-world network data, such as characterizing host interaction variability and identifying hosts that are potentially significant.

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  • An unblinking gaze: on the philosophy of the Marquis de Sade

    Roche, Geoffrey T. (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Whole document restricted, but available by request, use the feedback form to request access. Throughout the 20th Century, a number of philosophers, writers, artists and film makers have implied that there is some profound significance to the work of Donatien Alphonse François, the Marquis de Sade (1740-1814). The project at hand is to evaluate the claim that Sade, in some sense, is a philosopher, and to assess what his philosophy amounts to. There are two aspects to this task. Firstly, I will consider the various philosophical interpretations of Sade’s work. This part of the study will serve as a guide into the Sadeian labyrinth, and will establish some of the more central interpretive themes, in particular the claim that Sade’s thought anticipates that of the Nazis, or that he brings early Modern thought to its logical conclusion. Secondly, I will inquire into Sade’s writings themselves. Of particular interest are Sade’s thoughts concerning the nature of sexuality, psychology, and the human condition in general, his critique of conventional morality, and his description of the nature of power.

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  • Anatomically-based, subject-specific modelling of lower limb motion during gait

    Oberhofer, Katja (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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  • Pathogenesis and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

    Reid, IR(Ian Reginald) (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

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