3 results for Thesis, Master

  • Exporting New Zealand education services : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Hanna, Nita (1993)

    Master thesis
    Massey University

    The entry of New Zealand state education into the export market provided an unique opportunity for the researcher to combine interests in education, exporting, marketing and finance. The challenge was to investigate an entirely new export industry which was growing at a very rapid rate. In the absence of other studies relating to the New Zealand situation, information was obtained from relevant documents, interviews with people associated with aspects of the industry and questionnaires to students in selected institutions and to a spokesperson for overseas students within each of the institutions. The intended benefits and possible pitfalls perceived by people associated with forming the legislation were identified. In addition to the expected financial gains a number of non-financial benefits based on past experience with government assisted students were revealed. They related to trade and internationalisation. Some were of a very long-term nature. Anticipated problems were largely associated with traditional attitudes about the role of state education in New Zealand. The study revealed: There were wide differences of opinion on the role of legislation and on the policies which should be adopted. Students, unlike respondents from New Zealand institutions, did not consider the high standard of New Zealand education qualifications their main reason for choosing New Zealand as an educational destination. Although students tended to compare aspects of New Zealand with those of their home country, there was overall agreement about liking the cultural experience, the way of life, the people, and the New Zealand countryside. Students adapted to most differences in teaching institutions between New Zealand and their home country within one year, except mastery of the English language. Spokespeople for institution did not indicate language was such a persistent problem. Aspects of New Zealand students would most like to change included costs (especially rising costs) and the attitudes of some New Zealanders to foreigners. Respondents from institutions believed there was a very large market for New Zealand education, but the rate of growth was dependent on the acceptability of numbers of overseas students by New Zealanders. There was very little difference between fee-paying and government funded students' responses. Lack of funding has restricted some generic activities including a co-ordinated approach to catering for student's needs once they are in New Zealand.

    View record details
  • Investigation into the relationship between ethylene and sulfur assimilation in Arabidopsis thaliana and onion (Allium cepa L.) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science (with Honours) in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Sanggang, Fiona Ann (2006)

    Master thesis
    Massey University

    The phytohormone ethylene (C2H4) mediates the adaptive responses of plants to various nutrient deficiencies including iron (Fe)-deficiency, phosphorus (P)-deficiency and potassium (K)-deficiency. However, evidence for the involvement this hormone in the sulfur (S) deficiency response is limited to date. In this study, the effect of C2H4 treatment on the accumulation of the S-assimilation enzymes ATP sulfurylase (ATPS). adenosine-5 -phosphosulfate-reductase (APR), O-acetylserine-(thiol)-lyase (OASTL) and sulfite reductase (SiR) was examined in A. thaliana and onion (A. cepa). To complement this, the effect of short-term S-depletion on the expression of the 12-member gene family of the C2H4 biosynthetic enzyme, l-amino-cyclopropane-l-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS) from A. thaliana, designated AtACS1-12, was also examined. Western analyses were used to show that plants of A. thaliana pre-treated with the C2H4-signalling inhibitor 1-MCP, had elevated levels of ATPS, APR and OASTL protein in leaf tissue at all time points examined, suggesting that C2H4 has an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of these enzymes. However, SiR appeared to be under dual regulation by C2H4: under S-sufficient conditions C2H4 appears to prevent the unnecessary accumulation of SiR and conversely promote the fast accumulation of SiR under S-depleted conditions. The changes in AtACS1-12 expression in the root and leaf tissues of S-sufficient and S-depleted plants of A. thaliana were examined by RT-PCR using gene-specific, exon-spanning primers. The expression patterns of AtACS2, AtACS6 and AtACS7 were comparable regardless of S availability and may therefore be housekeeping genes. In contrast, the expression of AtACS5 in leaf, and AtACS8 and AtACS9 in roots was repressed under S-depleted conditions, although the mechanism of this repression cannot be elucidated from this study. The protein products of these closely-related genes are believed to be phosphorylated and stabilised by a CDPK whose activity may be compromised by S-depletion. The inhibition of AtACS5, AtACS8 and AtACS9 expression, and the decrease in AtACS5, AtACS8 and AtACS9 accumulation, and hence less C2H4 production, may be part of the plant adaptive response to S-depletion, as the C2H4 -mediated repression of root growth is alleviated to allow the plant to better seek out the lacking nutrient. The expression of the MPK-stabilised genes AtACS2 and AtACS6 appeared to be similar regardless of S availability, although this may merely be a consequence of the scoring method used in this study, which cannot determine whether there was any difference in the level of expression of these genes. The expression of AtACS10 and AtACS12 was repressed in S-deficient plants. Although both AtACS10 and AtACS12 isozymes posses the hallmark seven conserved regions found in the ACSes of other plant species, they are also phylogenetically related to alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and are known to encode aspartate (AtACS10) and aromatic amino acid transaminases (AtACS12). Therefore, the apparent downregulation of these genes suggests that the downregulation of amino acid metabolism may be part of the plant adaptive response to S-depletion. The downregulation of several AtACS genes, and therefore possibly also C2H4 biosynthesis, in S-deficient plants was accompanied by an accumulation of APR protein. The increase in APR protein that also occurred in 1-MCP-treated plants indicates that C2H4 may be involved in the plant response to S-depletion, because in both cases the upregulation of the S-assimilation pathway, as manifested by the accumulation of APR protein, occurred when C2H4 biosynthesis and signalling was repressed. However, the possible role of other phytohormoes in the plant response to S-depletion cannot be excluded, as there is evidence for crosstalk between the C2H4 signalling pathway and those of auxin, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins and jasmonic acid (JA). Furthermore, because C2H4 has been implicated in the response of various plants to Fe-deficiency, P-deficiency, and K-deficiency, in addition to S-deficiency, it may be a regulator of the plant adaptive response to nutrient stresses in general.

    View record details
  • Hydrogeological investigations of the Palmerston North region : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science with Honours in Earth Science at Massey University

    Lieffering, Robert Ewout (1990)

    Master thesis
    Massey University

    The Lower Manawatu River Valley and its major tributary the Pohangina River Valley are incised within the marine strata of the South Wanganui Basin. Lining each valley are a flight of both aggradational and degradational terraces. Three aggradational terraces are identified and correlated with the Ohakea, Rata, and Porewa terraces of the Rangitikei River Valley which aggraded during stadial periods of the Last (Otiran) Glaciation. The distribution of these terraces in the Lower Manawatu River Valley is discussed and their cover beds described. Previous river channels of the Manawatu River are identified by means of bore-log information. The nature and history of the Manawatu River has resulted in a sequence of clay, silt, sand, and gravel deposits which is exceedingly complex in detail. Cross-sections are presented which show this complexity. This has been the main factor influencing the distribution and nature of the aquifers in the region. Water is normally extracted from the coarsest deposits with 75% of the bores in the region obtaining water from gravel layers, 15% from sand layers, and 10% from sand/gravel mixtures. The aquifer system is considered to be "leaky" due to the complex arrangement of lithologies allowing water to flow both vertically and horizontally without much impedance. Depth ranges of 0-60 m, 60-120 m, and > 120 m below the ground surface are considered to be the closest resemblance to separate aquifers. Piezometric contour maps are presented which show an overall groundwater flow direction for all the depth ranges from east to west along the Manawatu River Valley with additional water influx from the Pohangina and Oroua River catchments. Transmisivities of the aquifer system ranges between 150-2000 m2/day and storativity between 1.1 × 19-4 and 3.2 × 10-4. Static water levels and discharge rates increase with depth and decrease from east to west. Nearly all the bores in the area are naturally flowing artesian, making the entire area a discharge zone. Recharge of the aquifer system is from two sources. Firstly, direct percolation of atmospheric precipitation, the main source areas being the Tararua Range, the Ruahine Range, and both the eastern and western flanks of the Pohangina Anticline, and secondly, river recharge. There is a significant loss (6,500 1/s) of water as the Manawatu River flows through the Manawatu Gorge which is identified as occurring in the vicinity of White Horse Rapids. This water loss is attributed to groundwater river recharge of shallow aquifers. Groundwater accounts for nearly 90% of total water use within this area and the estimated water extraction from the aquifer system is 120,000 m3/day (43 × 106 m3/year.) The hydrochemistry of the area is presented by way of isoconcentration contour maps. Total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, chloride, electrical conductivity, potassium, manganese, sodium, and total dissolved solids increase from east to west within the research area. Free carbon dioxide, fluorine, and iron show no trend but have local "highs". Only sulphate shows an increase from west to east. The average concentrations for the various chemical parameters are: total alkalinity - 157 ppm, Ca - 104 ppm, Cl - 36 ppm, free CO2 - 11 ppm, conductivity - 43 mS/m, F - 0.16 ppm, Fe-2.1 ppm, Fe-2.1 ppm, Mg - 55 ppm, Mn - 0.38 ppm, nitrate - 0.02 ppm, Na - 23 ppm, SO42- - 10 ppm, and total dissolved solids - 256 ppm. Concentrations increase with depth for all the chemical parameters. Conductivity diagrams are presented which show extremely good linear relationships when plotted against all the major cations and anions. These diagrams have practical significance because conductivity is easy to measure in the field.

    View record details