95 results for Thesis, Post-doctoral

  • The search for 'self' for lifestyle travellers

    Cohen, Scott Allen (2009)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: ix, 186 leaves : maps. ; 30 cm. Notes: "February 27th 2009". University of Otago department: Tourism. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Otago, 2009. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Assessing the impact of human disturbance on penguins

    Ellenberg, Ursula (2009)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xix, 257 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm.

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  • Malagan ritual art on Tabar, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea

    Gunn, Michael J (1992)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Malagan ritual art traditions of New Ireland have long been of interest to Western anthropologists, but have not before been considered in terms relevant to the New Irelanders themselves. This thesis documents the malagan ritual art traditions of Tabar, a group of three islands off the coast of New Ireland which is acknowledged as the traditional source of malagan, and analyses malagan through the terms of reference which were specified by the Tabar Islanders as part of condition for undertaking fieldwork. Two series of ritual ceremonies are described, a mortuary series and a commemorative series. Over 450 malagan descriptions within twenty two subtraditions have been recorded and are documented in an accompanying appendix. The social and cultural connections of malagan are described and analysed, then the indigenous taxonomic structure malagan is described and analysed. A new understanding of the nature of these subtraditions has resulted from this study.

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  • Tourism policy implementation in the Philippines, 1973-2009

    de la Santa, Edieser (2010)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: xv, 362 leaves : ill., maps ; 30 cm. Notes :University of Otago department: Tourism. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Otago, 2010. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Remineralisation of decalcified tooth enamel consequent to orthodontic treatment

    Lam, Emily (2010)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: xx, 253 leaves : col. ill ; 30 cm. Notes: “A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Clinical Dentistry in Orthodontics, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand”. "August 2010". University of Otago department: Oral Sciences. Thesis ( D. Clin. Dent. )--University of Otago, 2010. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • HIV prevention, treatment, and care in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Crump, Andrew John (2012)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: xi, 296 pages : illustrations, map ; 30 cm. Notes: Thesis (M. D.)--University of Otago. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • The role of film in destination decision-making

    Croy, William Glen (2007)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: xv, 346 leaves: ill. (chiefly col.); 30 cm.

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  • Environmental stochasticity and density dependence in animal population models

    Samaranayaka, Ariyapala Hattasinge (Ari) (2006)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Biological management of populations plays an indispensable role in all areas of population biology. In deciding between possible management options, one of the most important pieces of information required by population managers is the likely population status under possible management actions. Population dynamic models are the basic tool used in deriving this information. These models elucidate the complex processes underlying the population dynamics, and address the possible consequences/merits of management actions. These models are needed to guide the population towards desired/chosen management goals, and therefore allow managers to make informed decisions between alternative management actions. The reliability that can be placed on inferences drawn from a model about the fate of a population is undoubtedly dependent on how realistically the model represents the dynamic process of the population. The realistic representation of population characteristics in models has proved to be somewhat of a thorn in the side of population biologists. This thesis focuses in particular on ways to represent environmental stochasticity and density dependence in population models. Various approaches that are used in building environmental stochasticity into population models are reviewed. The most common approach represents the environmental variation by changes to demographic parameters that are assumed to follow a simple statistical distribution. For this purpose, a distribution is often selected on the basis of expert opinion, previous practice, and convenience. This thesis assesses the effect of this subjective choice of distribution on the model predictions, and develops some objective criteria for that selection based on ecological and statistical acceptability. The more commonly used distributions are compared as to their suitability, and some recommendations are made. Density dependence is usually represented in population models by specifying one or more of the vital rates as a function of population density. For a number of reasons, a population-specific function cannot usually be selected based on data. The thesis develops some ecologically-motivated criteria for identifying possible function(s) that could be used for a given population by matching functional properties to population characteristics when they are known. It also identifies a series of properties that should be present in a general function which could be suitable for modelling a population when relevant population characteristics are unknown. The suitability of functions that are commonly chosen for such purposes is assessed on this basis. I also evaluate the effect of the choice of a function on the resulting population trajectories. The case where the density dependence of one demographic rate is influenced by the density dependence of another is considered in some detail, as in some situations it can be modelled with little information in a relatively function-insensitive way. The findings of this research will help in embedding characteristics of animal populations into population dynamics models more realistically. Even though the findings are presented in the context of slow-growing long-lived animal populations, they are more generally applicable in all areas of biological management.

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  • Four Lollard dialogues: an edition with commentary

    Gordon, Briar E R (1983)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The four dialogues which are the basis of the present study have not hitherto been printed in full. They are grouped together because of their use of a common form. The dialogues represent an intellectually respectable facet of English Lollardy, moderate in opinion, with little elaboration of overtly heretical doctrine and with signs of modest learning. Their doctrinal content emphasizes their implicit connections with the chief themes and aspirations of Wycliffism. Like much Wycliffite writing, they are highly allusive and often elliptical in style, and only fully intelligible in the light of the documented arguments of Wyclif, and more widely, against the whole historical, philosophical, theological, social and literary background of their period. For this reason, the Introduction and Commentaries refer heavily to this background, suggesting parallels for the doctrinal and historical allusions of the dialogues, and elucidating their connections in the Lollard context. The parallels between the dialogues and the writings of Wyclif are important for the wider consideration of Lollardy. The marked similarity of thought between Wyclif’s writings and the vernacular Lollard works was once thought to provide evidence for their common authorship by Wyclif. This principle is no longer accepted, but it has suggested a new interpretation, already well documented in the case of the Lollard sermon cycle: that the vernacular works were produced in a milieu where Wyclif's writings were known and accessible, and that there were continuing links between the vernacular Wycliffite movement and the learned tradition from which the movement sprang. Vernacular Lollard writers responded to the demands of a pious and increasingly literate laity, making available for them the learning of the schools by bridging the gap between scholastic theology and popular religion. The dialogues provide examples of just such a class of popular theology. On the surface, the dialogues do not support the notion that a common literary standard operated among Lollard writers, for there is considerable disparity among them in literary style and linguistic competence. Nevertheless, the literary methods of the dialogues indicate points of correspondence with the style of the wider Lollard canon, and even Wyclif's writings. At the most basic level, this is seen in the predictable use of a common store of biblical and patristic citations, allusions and analogies. It is also apparent in the use of some specifically connotative diction and of a narrow range of dialects. More elusively, there is a general adherence to an aesthetic framework shaped by doctrinal principles and conforming to the plain style of the sermo humilis. It is important not to ignore the participation of the dialogues in current trends and issues. For nearly all the doctrinal and polemical issues elaborated in the dialogues, contemporary and earlier parallels can be cited from orthodox texts. These provide valuable evidence for the currency of Wycliffite thought and of the issues embraced by Lollardy. Parallels can be drawn, for instance, from the literature of Chaucer, Langland and Gower, whose writings provided an alternative expression of the reform ideal. But it is equally important to note where the parallels end. Whereas orthodox critics lamented the evils current in the contemporary church, these Lollard authors were explicitly alienated from the established church by their antisacerdotalism and especially by the antisacramental implications of their theology. Because the doctrinal heresy of the dialogues is frequently allusive, cumulative and implicit rather than overt, the contemporary repudiation of Wycliffism is instructive. It throws light on the activities of the movement, on the impact of its doctrines, and on the concern which it aroused. These refutations indicate that a particular opinion was seen in its time to be Wycliffite, heretical and seductive. However, from the evidence of the dialogues, it can be appreciated that the false doctrine of the Lollards could present an alternative doctrine to current orthodoxy, and one not easily distinguished from orthodoxy. The heresy of the dialogues is fully evident only in the light of other Wycliffite writings as well as in the wider context of the literature written to oppose Wycliffism. The form of the dialogues implicitly invites comparison with the literature of the opposition as the Lollard protagonists counter the arguments of orthodoxy. In the case of the dialogues, however, there is not a shadow of doubt as to the strength of the Lollard position, nor of the purpose of the dialogues, to inform, persuade and propagandize on behalf of the movement.

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  • The development of special needs dentistry service in Malaysia - a situational analysis (based on New Zealand experience)

    Hamzah, Siti Zaleha (2010)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Aim: The aim of this project is to understand the expectations of the Malaysian population for future development of Special Needs Dentistry (SND) service in Malaysia. Along with the current recognition of the specialty by Ministry of Health, Malaysia, the Ministry has identified New Zealand as an appropriate nation to provide information on service developments and lessons learnt from an established service. Methodology: Mixed-methods research design was adopted to carry out this study which contained both qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative part involved interviewing fifty five participants who represented the major stakeholders in the SND service, both in Malaysia and New Zealand which comprised people with special needs, caregivers, policy makers, dentists and disability support group representatives. The qualitative data were analysed using applied grounded theory. The dominant themes identified were used to formulate the survey questionnaire for the quantitative part in which 345 paper questionnaires were posted. A response rate of 17.0% was calculated from the original surveys returned. Results: The data suggested inadequate home and professional dental care for people with special needs which underline the necessity to develop the SND service in Malaysia. Transportation difficulties, lack of awareness about the importance of dental care, negative attitude, the difficulties in finding an accompanying person for the dental visit as well as an extended time required by the dentist to treat people with special needs (PSN) were identified as barriers to access dental care facilities. In addition, inadequate knowledge and experience of the local dentists could be one of the contributing factors for their unwillingness to provide the service. The results also suggested that patients who required general anaesthesia for dental treatment, those with complex medical problems and uncooperative patients should be treated under the specialist care. This would be more appropriately provided in the hospital environment than in the community setting. Even though it was suggested that a domiciliary service was necessary, this practically depended on the achievement of the adequate number of specialists in this field and the existence of a well established service and network. Nevertheless, it appeared that the Ministry of Health Malaysia is well prepared to face the challenges in the development of the SND service in Malaysia. Conclusions: There were definitely some issues regarding dental health care of people with special needs which had to be considered and could be managed by the Ministry of Health in the future development of the service. Oral health promotion covering areas such as building public health policy, creating supportive environments, strengthening community action, developing personal skills or reorientating health service in the pursuit of oral health goals would help to strengthen the service in the near future.

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  • Evaluating the impact of a National Hospital Pharmaceutical Strategy in New Zealand

    Tordoff, June M (2007)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: In September 2001, in addition to their existing management of primary care pharmaceutical expenditure, PHARMAC, the New Zealand government's Pharmaceutical Management Agency, was authorized to manage pharmaceutical expenditure in public hospitals. In February 2002 PHARMAC launched a three-part Strategy, the National Hospital Pharmaceutical Strategy (NHPS), for this purpose. The Strategy focused on Price Management (PM), the Assessment of New Medicines (ANM), and promoting Quality in the Use of Medicines (QUM). Major initiatives planned were: for PM, to negotiate new, national (as opposed to current, local) contracts for frequently used pharmaceuticals; for ANM, to provide economic assessments of new hospital medicines; and for QUM, to coordinate activities in hospitals. Aims: To assess the impact of each of the three parts of the National Hospital Pharmaceutical Strategy, and assess any impact of the Strategy's new contracts on the availability of those medicines. Methods: Price Management was assessed in 2003, 2004 and 2005 using data from eleven selected hospitals to estimate savings for all 29 major hospitals, and by tracking hospital pharmaceutical expenditure from 2000 to 2006. For other aspects, cross-sectional surveys were administered to chief pharmacists at all hospitals employing a pharmacist; 30 hospitals in 2002, 29 in 2004. Surveys were undertaken in 2002 and 2004 to examine ANM and QUM activity in hospitals before and after the Strategy. Surveys were undertaken in 2004 and 2005 to examine any changes in the availability of medicines on new contracts, in hospitals. In 2005 a survey was undertaken of opinions on PHARMAC's specially-developed pharmacoeconomic (PE) assessments. Results: PM results indicated that, by 2006, savings of $7.84-13.45m per annum (6-8%) had been made on hospital pharmaceutical expenditure, and growth in inpatient pharmaceutical expenditure appeared to slow for all types of hospitals in 2003/4. ANM surveys indicated that, by 2004, hospital new medicine assessment processes, predominantly formal, became more complex, more focused on cost-effectiveness, and the use of pharmacoeconomic information increased. The PE survey indicated that PHARMAC's economic assessments of new medicines were mainly viewed favourably but were not sufficiently timely to be widely used in hospital formulary decisions. Availability surveys indicated that new contracts occasionally caused availability problems e.g. products that were "out of stock", or products considered inferior by respondents. Problems were usually resolved within weeks, but some took over a year. QUM activities showed little change between surveys, but during the period an independent organisation was formed by the District Health Boards of New Zealand, with representation from PHARMAC, to coordinate the Safe and Quality Use of Medicines in New Zealand. Conclusion: The National Hospital Pharmaceutical Strategy has been moderately successful in New Zealand. Savings of NZ$7.84-13.45m per annum were made, and growth in inpatient pharmaceutical expenditure appeared to slow in the year following the Strategy's launch. The study has indicated some important short-term effects from the Strategy, but further research is needed to ensure that favourable effects are sustained and unfavourable effects kept to a minimum. Similar, centralized, multifaceted, approaches to managing pharmaceutical expenditure may be worth considering in other countries.

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  • Evolutionary ecology of the New Zealand Fur Seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) and Hooker's Sea Lion (Phocarctos hookeri)

    Beentjes, Michael P (1989)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Thermoregulatory behaviour, terrestrial locomotion and postcranial skeletal morphology of the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) and Hooker's sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) are quantified and the results compared between the two species. Differences and/or similarities are discussed in terms of the evolutionary ecology of these two sympatric otariid species. Additionally, a single chapter, describes some aspects of the behavioural ecology of P. hookeri. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of filming studies reveal that fundamental differences exist between the gaits of Arctocephalus forsteri and Phocarctos hookeri. Terrestrial locomotion of the latter species is similar to that of terrestrial vertebrates in which the limbs are moved in sequence, alternately and independently. In contrast, the gait of the New Zealand fur seal does not conform to this sequence, the hind limbs being moved in unison. The gaits of both species are defined and illustrated. The gaits are here considered to be ecological specialisations which are adaptations to the mechanical problems imposed by different habitats. Gaits of these species appear typical or representative of members of their inferred subfamilies (Arctocephalinae and Otariinae). The gaits of A. forsteri and P. hookeri are however paradoxical in light of their inferred evolutionary history since the gait of the Hooker's sea lion resembles more closely that of the putative ancestors of otariids (ursids = bears) than does the gait of the New Zealand fur seal; fur seals supposedly gave rise to the sea lions and are traditionally considered to possess retained primitive features. There were minor (statistical) quantitative differences in some of the limb bone and vertebrae linear dimensions between A. forsteri and P. hookeri but these were differences in degree rather than kind. Analysis of gait and structure of A. forsteri and P. hookeri together with several specimens of the Australian otariids (A. pusillus doriferus and Neophoca cinerea) suggest that: a) There is no correlation between gait and postcranial morphology in these otariids. b) There do not appear to be any phylogenetic differences in the linear dimensions of postcranial morphology between fur seals (Arctocephalinae) and sea lions (Otariinae). There was no statistical difference in the relative width of the humerus between A. forsteri and P. hookeri. This finding casts doubt on the utility of this character as a diagnostic indicator between fur seals (Arctocephalinae) and sea lions (Otariinae) as proposed by Repenning & Tedford (1977). While the gaits of the New Zealand fur seal and Hooker's sea lion are profoundly different, no major concomitant structural differences between the species appear to exist. Selection for the behavioural control of the gait has apparently preceded concomitant structural modifications. Thermoregulatory behaviour of the sympatric Hooker's sea lion and New Zealand fur seal in relation to air temperature and solar radiation were studied, quantified, and the results compared between the two species. Both species adjusted posture and flipper exposure so that surface area exposed to air increased as solar radiation intensified, providing quantifiable evidence that flippers are the major sites of heat exchange. The general pattern of thermoregulatory behaviour in these species, while showing minor differences in the magnitude of postural and flipper adjustments to solar radiation, does not differ in the basic sequence or type of response. Non - postural thermoregulatory behaviour was shown to be influenced by the respective habitat substrates and topographies of the two species.

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  • Individual differences in the effect of drawing on children's memory

    Willcock, Emma Louise (2004)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    For more than a century, drawing has enjoyed a prominent position in clinical interviews with children. In surveys conducted in the United States, for example, drawing consistently ranks as one of the top 10 instruments used by clinicians who work with children. Despite its popularity, many of the claims made about the use of drawing during clinical interviews have never been empirically assessed. The purpose of the present thesis was to examine the effects of two drawing techniques commonly used to elicit complete and accurate accounts of children's past experiences. Prior research has shown that when children are interviewed about their past experiences, those given the opportunity to draw report more verbal information than children merely asked to tell. This finding has been obtained irrespective of the nature of the target event (e.g., educational, emotional, clinical), and over delays that range from 1 day to 1 year. Although the effect of drawing on the amount of information that children report has been replicated in a number of different laboratories, the mechanism responsible for this effect is not known. Furthermore, despite these group effects, some children clearly profit more from the opportunity to draw than others. In a series of two experiments, I examined whether differences in the way that interviewers interacted with children during drawing interviews could provide an explanation for why drawing elicits more complete reports than telling alone. In addition, I examined whether differences in intelligence, memory, language development, drawing skill, theory of mind, temperament, and socioeconomic status could be used to explain individual differences in children's performance when they were given the opportunity to draw during a memory interview. Consistent with prior research, the results showed that drawing facilitated 5- to 6- year-old children's verbal reports of educational and emotional events without compromising accuracy. Interestingly, examination of the interviewers' behaviour revealed that the drawing interview increased children's verbal reports because it encouraged interviewers to take more conversational turns. That is, interviewers asked more questions and made more minimal responses when interviewing children who were drawing and as a consequence, the children reported more information. With respect to individual differences in children's performance during drawing interviews, the results showed that while drawing ameliorated the impact of having a poor memory on children's verbal reports, drawing was of little benefit to children who were highly distractible. In two additional experiments, I examined children's ability to use human figure drawings or body maps to indicate where they had been touched during the course of a staged event. I also examined which child characteristics might be used to predict individual differences in children's ability to use the body maps effectively. Irrespective of children's socioeconomic background, the delay between the event and the interview, and individual child characteristics, 80% of children made at least one false allegation of touch when using the body maps. Moreover, approximately 10% of children erroneously indicated that they had been touched on the genitals, and 25% of children erroneously indicated that they had received a touch to the breast. On the basis of these data, I conclude that children fail to understand the representational nature of body maps. Given this, use of body maps in clinical or legal contexts should be discouraged. Taken together, these findings indicate that although children can remember considerable amounts of information about their experiences, the efficacy of drawing as a medium for eliciting this information varies depending on the way that drawing is employed. While drawing was highly effective when used as a medium for eliciting verbal information from children, providing children with a pre-drawn body map failed to facilitate children's accounts of bodily touch. Overall, these data have important implications for how children are interviewed in clinical and legal settings.

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  • "The thirteenth apostle" : Bishop Selwyn and the transplantation of Anglicanism to New Zealand, 1841-1868

    Phillipson, Grant A. (1992)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The process of transplanting metropolitan institutions to colonial societies has not been adequately studied by New Zealand historians. As a result, the transplanted Churches have been depicted as conservative imitations of their Mother Churches, unwilling and unable to adapt to their new environment. This view must be modified by contextualising the Churches, in terms of the real complexity of their metropolitan models, and the flexibility of their responses to the colonial environment. In this thesis I argue that the first 'Missionary Bishop', G.A. Selwyn, was the key selector in a process of controlled borrowing, in which the Church of England sought to adapt its metropolitan heritage to the exigencies of colonial society. He brought the perspective and policies of the conservative reform movement to New Zealand, and tried to create its ideal model of the Church in the 'freer air' of the colonies. He soon discovered that the colony was not the tabula rasa which he had expected, but his reforming background gave him the flexibility to adapt his metropolitan model within the parameters of his new environment. On the simplest level of transplantation, this enabled him to recreate the English parish of church, school, and clergyman, in a manner tailored to the class structure, financial situation, and population density of both the towns and the dispersed frontiers. On a more fundamental level, the exigencies of voluntarism and colonial ecumenism encouraged Selwyn to remodel the entire structure of the Church as a dissenter-style voluntary society. He created a 'club identity', at the central level through synodical government, and at the local level through committee government and the nucleus of a future 'empire' of organised activities designed to maximise voluntary participation and loyalty to the denomination as an organisation. How did this affect the wider society? The traditional view of the unadaptable Churches has dismissed them as powerless in society and politics. In fact, Selwyn's success in balancing 'Home' and environment enabled his Church to perform vital social functions on the colonial frontier, by helping to regularise single-male anarchy into respectable small-town family life. In the political sphere, historians have created a myth of the missionaries as unadaptable and assimilationist in their views, bent on the wholesale destruction of Maori culture and social structure. Selwyn and his key supporters, however, adapted their idea of 'amalgamation' to incorporate devolution and limited bi-culturalism. They also proved to be a much more formidable force in Maori politics than most historians have allowed. The time has come to dispense with the stereotype of the Church of England as slavishly imitative, inflexible, unadaptable, and fundamentally unsuccessful, in colonial New Zealand.

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  • Origin and beginning of the Congregational Christian Church of Samoa (C.C.C.S.) in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Ioka, Danny (1998)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Since this work is the first major research on the history of the C.C.C.S. in Aotearoa New Zealand, the main objective is to provide a general survey of its origin and beginning. The Thesis takes seriously the self-understanding of the C.C.C.S. about its own history. This neccesitates the use of the cultural-theological perspective in the most inclusive sense which captures best the holistic mind of C.C.C.S. members as Samoans, while also reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the holistic mind particularly through its mode of the historical imagination. This perspective is used within the hermeneutical boundaries of the thematic and chronological approaches in conventional history writing. The history of the C.C.C.S. which is only about thirty years old, from 1962-63 to 1993, is therefore understood in a wider historical context following the hermeneutical guide of the historical imagination of the C.C.C.S. Chapters One and Two trace the origins or roots of the C.C.C.S. in the homeland of its founders, Western Samoa, and in the growth of the founders' home church [E.F.K.S.] outside Samoa in Fiji, Hawaii and in the U.S.A. The link between these two aspects of the wider historical origins is the central self understanding of modern Samoa which Samoan migrants especially since Post World War IT took with them to countries of migration. Chapter One identifies this self-understanding as a Biblical culture and a Christian society. This, according to the Samoans, culminated the theological evolution of modern Samoa at the interface between Samoan culture and Christianity on the basis of the Samoan national theological confession [or motto], Fa'avae I le Atua Samoa' [May Samoa be founded in God], from 1830 to 1960. The migration of this self understanding [or world view] with Samoan migrants became foundational in the establishment and growth of Samoan Churches in Fiji, Hawaii, the U.S.A., and in the P.I.C.C. in New Zealand. Particularly significant was the association of this migrating world view of modern Samoa with the main motivation for Samoan migrants, and with the emotional attachment and the spirit of loyalty to spiritual and cultural roots in the home church and the homeland which explain the eventual links between these migrant churches and the mother Church in Samoa. The C.C.C.S. began in New Zealand on the same basis when its founders left the P.I.C.C. But there were more crucial considerations involved. Chapters Three and Four identify the inadequacy of the multicultural church context of the P.I.C.C. to accommodate the full impact and requirements of Samoan Christianity, and also its tendency to compromise and to undermine the holiness of Samoan worship. Of utmost importance was the assertion of the right and authority for self-determination in relation to religious life, religious development and re1igious future in New Zealand which included the preference for the sole jurisdiction of the mother Church in Samoa. Chapter Four also enlarges on this as reflecting the full impact of the migrating world view of modern Samoa with Samoan migrants. What began as a natural assertion of the right for self-determination by the C.C.C.S. turned out to reflect the increasing assertion by Independent indigenous Churches of the Pacific with their indigenous leadership of their authority against the traditional authority and leadership of missionary Societies. Chapter Five gives a detailed account of the complex beginning of the C.C.C.S. in relation to these issues, and because of the controversial involvement by the relevant Church authorities- the E.F.K.S. in Samoa, and the P.I.C.C. and the C.U.N.Z. in New Zealand. The inseparable issue of the appropriate form and manner of Christian witness and ecumenism explains best the opposition by the Samoans who remained in the P.I.C.C. against the beginning of the C.C.C.S. In the final analysis, the broadminded and accommodative ecumenical approach by the E.F.K.S. in solving the complex issues arising from the controversial beginning of the C.C.C.S., because of its founding vision, had more merits than the narrowly construed and culture dismissive ecumenical approach by the P.I.C.C. and the C.U.N.Z. Chapters Six and Seven illustrate the successful growth and consolidation of the C. C. C. S. because of the inherent dynamism of its transplanted cultural foundation and its imported Church structure, and in conjunction with the positive influence of the multicultural and rich society of New Zealand. A summary of the conclusions of the Thesis may be briefly stated. The C.C.C.S. began in New Zealand as a Settler Church which was also a part of the E.F.K.S. in Samoa. This founding vision embodies the central hopes and aspirations of founders of the C.C.C.S., and also explains the actual course of the history of the C.C.C.S. in its thirty years from 1962-62 to 1993. The founding vision encapsulated certain important aspects of the wider historical context of the origin of the C.C.C.S. One was the transplantation to New Zealand of Samoan Christianity and the world view of modern Samoa in which it was formed - a biblical culture and a Christian society in the holy land of Samoa. Secondly, the link between this migrating world view of modem Samoa and the historical movement and migration of Christian civilisation means that the growth of Samoan migrant churches in countries of Samoan migration was Samoa's authentic contribution to the historical movement and migration of civilised societies and Christian civilisation. In this respect the beginning of the C.C.C.S. in New Zealand is viewed as a significant expression of the migration of the Mind of modern Samoa which, through the courtesy of modem communication and transport, and the push-pull operation of all migration, had extended its 'home horizon' in countries of Samoan migration. The founding vision also reflected the assertion of the right for self determination and the authority for the sole control of religious life, religious development, and religious future in New Zealand which included the preference for the E.F.K.S. in Samoa to be the sole authority to exercise jurisdiction over the CC.C.S. This reflected the increasing assertion of the authority of Independent indigenous Churches of the Pacific and indigenous leadership against the traditional authority and leadership of missionary societies. This was consistent with developments in world-wide Christianity particularly in relation to the paradigm shift in the form and manner of Christian witness and ecumenism as exemplified in the integration of the I.M.C. - the epitomy of traditional approach to mission, and the W.C.C. - the symbol for the transition into mission through indigenous and independent national Churches of Christian countries. When the origin and beginning of the C.C.C.S. is placed in the wider historical context, it clearly demonstrates a pioneer example of the migration of indigenous Churches of the Pacific with the determination to join the ecumenical movement in the Pacific and worldwide on the basis of national independent Churches, and on the universal mood of Independence characterised by a cultural-theological spirituality.

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  • Memory-work : understanding consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction of clothing retail encounters

    Friend, Lorraine A. (1997)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This research investigated the process and meaning of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction in women's clothing retail encounters. It utilised a 'memory-work' methodology which operationalised storytelling and allowed a detailed examination of consumer experiences of retail encounter in 'real life' situations. The qualitative data was derived from memory-texts provided by nine women in Hamilton, New Zealand. Over a period of four months, each woman wrote five detailed stories based on her experiences evoked from specific themes chosen to trigger satisfying or dissatisfying experiences of clothing shopping for themselves. For each trigger, details of the participant's memory texts were analysed and compared in group discussions, by the participants as well as the researcher, to obtain both self and social meanings of their experiences. The memory-texts illustrated how the consumers evaluated and attached meanings to the context and events which occurred in the clothing retail encounters. The analysis of these revealed that the consumer appraised her interactions based on her self identity, experiences and social context. It illustrated that the process of consumer satisfaction and dissatisfaction was centred around the evaluation of the self rather than the service/product attributes and performances. This overall appraisal was based on whether or not the consumer was threatened, or had her values enhanced, and thus the extent to which she belonged. The nature and intensity of satisfaction and dissatisfaction depended not only on the consumer matching her goals and values, but was a complex result of the cognitive, affective, and socio-cultural contexts.

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  • Mycorrhizal status of rushes and sedges in New Zealand

    Powell, Conway Ll. (1973)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    1. 18% of rush and sedge field samples were infected with endomycorrhizal fungi. 2. In pot experiments, rushes and sedges remained nonmycorrhizal in soils of Truog P ≤ 3.6 1 μg /ml, despite inoculation with rush and sedge mycorrhizas from the field and with known endogonaceous symbionts. 3. In poor soils, rushes and sedges made growth comparable with that of mycorrhizal Leptospermum scoparium and outgrew mycorrhizal Poa colensoi and achieved shoot P concentrations comparable to those which decreased mycorrhizal infection in Leptospermum and Poa. 4. Rushes and sedges achieved extensive root absorbing surface through a combination of high root productivity, large root length/root weight ratio, and long and persistent root hairs. 5. It is suggested that failure to form mycorrhizas is due to rapid P uptake by the extensive root absorbing surface resulting in high plant P concentrations early in seedling growth, inhibitory to mycorrhizal fungi.

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  • The Burton Brothers studio : commerce in photography and the marketing of New Zealand, 1866-1898

    Whybrew, Christine M. (2010)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The Burton Brothers studio of Dunedin, the most renowned ofNew Zealand's colonial photographers, was among the first to present photographs of colonial New Zealand to international audiences. From 1866 to 1898 this studio produced a stock of photographic images that recorded the industrial, social and political progress of the colony. Burton Brothers photographs were produced in series and included topographical views of locations, such as Milford Sound and the King Country, or were targeted to specific projects or events, such as the eruption of Mount Tarawera and the government survey of the Sutherland Falls. Alfred Henry Burton, the studio's director, accompanied the Union Steam Ship Company's first tourist excursion to Fiji, Samoa and Tonga, and photographs from this series and those of King Country Maori are valued as ethnographic records of indigenous peoples. Now prized as documentary artefacts in institutional collections, the "truth" value of these photographs is compromised by their production as marketable commodities. By examining the intended purpose that informed the creation and distribution of these photographs, this thesis disrupts conventional interpretations of Burton Brothers photographs as historical records. This thesis examines photographs as physical objects, prioritising the material properties of the photograph over image content. This methodology is informed and guided by the close and systematic study of Burton Brothers photographs in their original formats, including albumen prints, cartes de visite, stereographs, lantern slides, albums and the studio's original wet collodion and gelatin dry plate negatives. All prints released by the studio were inscribed with the firm's trademark (brand), negative number and a descriptive caption. Each series of photographs was promoted by a non-illustrated catalogue, containing an excerpt from the photographer's diary or other written narrative that operated as contextual description for the photographs. These textual elements function to direct interpretation in accordance with the studio's commercial agenda and in alignment with contemporary social and political ideologies. The impression of New Zealand circulated by Burton Brothers photographs was derived more from the text accompanying and overlaying these photographic products than the image content. This "textual overlay" allows insight into the studio's purpose m producing, releasing and marketing photographic products. Through this, the context of production is analysed and Burton Brothers photographs are examined as products of commercial endeavour, accessing a greater understanding of the commercial photography trade in nineteenth century New Zealand.

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  • Archaeology and history of the Chinese in southern New Zealand during the nineteenth century : a study of acculturation, adaptation, and change

    Ritchie, Neville A. (1986)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Amongst the thousands who swarmed into New Zealand last century in quest of gold were some 10,000 Chinese. Although they were relatively 'late arrivals', within a few years they constituted one of the largest, and certainly the most conspicuous ethnic group on the goldfields. They differed not only in appearance but also in material culture and outlook. Whereas other nationalities among the goldseekers tended to rapidly assimilate with the dominant Anglo-European population, the Chinese were perceived 'to be different', and 'unwilling to adopt European ways' . They also differed in that from the outset the majority came as sojourners rather than settlers. As economic conditions in New Zealand deteriorated in the latter half of the 1870s, fear of economic competition lead to growing racial intolerance against them, culminating in repressive legislative restrictions on Chinese immigration. The first part of this study is a social history of the Chinese in New Zealand in the nineteenth century based on archival and ethnohistorical records. The second part utilises archaeological information- field evidence and studies of material culture, to provide a new perspective on the lifestyle of the Chinese miners. The historical and archaeological data is compared against information on traditional lifeways, to gain a measure of the Chinese miners' responses to their situation in New Zealand in terms of acculturation, adaptation, or change.

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  • A tectonic synthesis of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt

    Jugum, Dushan (2009)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt (DMOB) is an Early-Permian ophiolite sequence exposed in the South Island of New Zealand. The ophiolite is overlain by the thick deep-marine sedimentary Maitai Group. The Alpine Fault divides the DMOB into two sections, one in Nelson and the other in Southland. The DMOB is divided into three different units based on lithology and geochemistry: the Livingstone Ophiolite, which is a typical ophiolite sequence dipping sub-vertically and facing west; the Otama Mélange, a deformed ocean-floor assemblage with no ultramafics or serpentinites and a greater amount of felsic rocks than the other two units; and the Patuki Mélange, a highly deformed ophiolite structurally beneath the Livingstone Ophiolite. The Lvingstone Ophiolite has three phases of igneous activity. The first phase is represented by cumulates, massive gabbro, and extensive pillow lavas. It has a MORB-like geochemistry with a subtle above-subduction signature. The age of this phase is 277.6 ± 3.3 Ma using U/Pb in zircon. The second phase locally intrudes the first with dykes which are feeders for extensive non-pillowed lava flows of variable thickness. The age of the second phase (275.2 ± 5.4 Ma) cannot be distinguished from the first. The second phase has a stronger above-subduction geochemical signature than the first phase. The third phase comprises felsic and intermediate dykes that cut the first two phases and intrude into the sediments overlying the DMOB. This phase has not been directly dated but has the same geochemistry as the felsic rocks in the Otama Mélange. The igneous rocks of the Otama Mélange are 50% felsic and have an age of 269.3 ± 4.5 Ma. The mafic and felsic rocks from the Otama Mélange have a strong above-subduction geochemistry, but are not typical of arcs. The Patuki Mélange contains both MORB-like and OIB igneous rocks in a serpentinite matrix. The MORB-like Patuki Mélange is similar to the first stage of igneous activity in the Livingstone Ophiolite. Sediment blocks within the Patuki Mélange have been correlated with the Maitai Group, based on their petrology and detrital zircon age pattern. These sediments have a youngest detrital zircon age of Late Permian through to the Early Triassic. The Maitai Group sediment are distal in character within the Patuki Mélange and more proximal above the Livingstone Ophiolite. I infer that the Livingstone Ophiolite represents a fore-arc, and the Otama Mélange a localization of the Livingstone ophiolites stage three igneous activity in that fore-arc (possibly due to ridge subduction). The Patuki Mélange is either an off-scraping of a subducted slab or part of the trench wall of the above-subduction crust. The DMOB may have been part of the same ocean-crust as the Brook Street Terrane during its formation, but there is no specific evidence for this. Detrital zircons from the Caples Terrane are almost exclusively Triassic in age. The Maitai Group may have some time overlap with the oldest Murihiku Terrane. The DMOB is identical in geology and age to the Yakuno Ophiolite in Japan which may have once been part of the same subduction-zone before the opening of the Neo-Tethys. Detrital zircons from the Aspiring Terrane have a Jurassic age 154.1 ± 2.0 Ma, which constrains the age of the metamorphism of the Haast Schist. The DMOB has been highly deformed with evidence for extensional structure reactivated in compression on the sea-floor during igneous activity; however, most of the observed internal deformation in the DMOB is Cenozoic in age. The serpentinites are completely overprinted by the oblique compression through New Zealand since the Miocene.

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