21,568 results for Thesis, All rights reserved

  • Dancing to a different tune: adaptive evolution fine-tunes protein dynamics

    Donovan, Katherine Aleisha (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The molecular mechanisms that underpin adaptive evolution are not well understood. This is largely because few studies relate evolved alleles (genotype) with their physiological changes (phenotype), which move a population to better fit its environment (adaptation). The work described in this thesis provides a case study exploring the molecular changes underlying adaptive evolution in a key allosteric enzyme. It builds upon a long-term evolution experiment by Richard Lenksi, where twelve replicate populations of Escherichia coli have adapted in parallel to better fit their low-glucose environment. I focused on the allosteric enzyme pyruvate kinase type 1, since this has been shown to adapt to this environment. First, I used X-ray crystallography to determine a higher resolution structure (2.2 Å) than previously available of the wild-type PK1 enzyme for comparison with the evolved enzymes. I resolved the ambiguous space-group problem that affects these crystals, and demonstrated that the kinetic function of the recombinant enzyme is the same as previously reported. In addition, I propose a new model for allosteric activation: a combination of structural and dynamic analyses determined that the allosteric signal is transferred by a series of dynamic changes between the allosteric site, upon fructose-1,6-bisphosphate binding, and the active site for increased substrate binding. The functional analyses demonstrated that all eight evolved PK1 enzymes have a reduced activity compared to the wild-type PK1 at physiological substrate concentrations. Not only did the evolved PK1 enzymes show a parallel decrease in activity, but they all showed changes to substrate binding affinity and seven of the eight showed an altered allosteric activation mechanism. These results suggest that natural selection has selected for enzymes with a reduced activity by altering the functional mechanism of the evolved enzymes. However, in crystal and in solution structure characterisation determined that all of the evolved PK1 enzymes have maintained the same structural fold as the wild-type PK1. Although the fold is the same, substrate binding promiscuity suggested a change in the flexibility of the enzyme, allowing substrates of different sizes and shapes to bind. Computational and experimental dynamics studies determined that natural selection has selected for reduced activity by altering the dynamics in all of the evolved PK1 enzymes, and it has used altered dynamics to change the allostery of the enzymes. Therefore, this study provides the first example of adaptive evolution fine-tuning protein dynamics to alter allostery. This thesis describes the molecular mechanisms underlying one aspect of adaptation of Escherichia coli to the low-glucose environment in Lenski’s long-term evolution experiment. The adaptive mutations in Escherichia coli’s pyruvate kinase type 1 serve to increase the availability of phosphoenolpyruvate for glucose uptake. From a molecular perspective, natural selection has selected for adaptive amino acid substitutions that produce an enzyme with reduced catalytic activity at low phosphoenolpyruvate concentrations, thus decreasing phosphoenolpyruvate consumption. In addition, the adaptive mutations have altered the enzymes’ affinity for the allosteric activator (fructose- 1,6-bisphosphate), fine-tuning them to match the concentration of fructose-1,6- bisphosphate in the cell at the point of glucose re-introduction. Overall, this work describes the intricate relationship between genetic changes and the resulting phenotype and demonstrates the parallel nature of adaptation for this particular case study. Whereby, parallel changes are mapped from organismal fitness, to enzyme function and to enzyme structure. The dynamic changes, however, are not parallel thus making the prediction of specific changes in adaptive evolution difficult.

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  • Evaluation of composite laminates interleaved with nanofibre and microfibre veils

    Collins-Gargan, Rosalie (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The research covered in this thesis aimed to investigate the use of nanofibre and microfibre veils in carbon fibre reinforced composites and assessed the potential of the veils to improve damage resistance during impact and fatigue loading. It was hypothesised that the interleavings would increase the amount of energy required for crack propagation because of toughening due to fibre reinforcement mechanisms such as crack deflection, fibre pull out and fibre breakage. The work was undertaken as a combined project between the University of Waikato (Hamilton, New Zealand) and Revolution Fibres Ltd (Auckland, New Zealand). During this investigation, six thermoplastic polymers were chosen (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), acrylonitrile styrene acrylate (ASA), polystyrene (PS), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC)) that could potentially be used for the electrospinning of polymer nanofibre veils. Nanofibre veils were successfully produced from PMMA, and a polymer blend of polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) and PMMA, (referred to as 'nanoNyplex'). These veils, along with three other nanofibre veils (nanoPA6,6, poly vinyl butyral (nanoPVB), and poly ether sulfone (nanoPES)), three microfibre veils (polyphenylene sulfide (microPPS), polyetherimide (microPEI), and woven polyamide 6 (microtricot)) procured from other manufacturers, and three veils combining one of the nanofibre veils with each of the microfibre veils (microPPSnanoPA6,6, microPEInanoPA6,6, and microtricotnanoPA6,6) were then used as interleaves in the manufacture of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composite panels. Interleaves were placed between every ply of prepreg. After curing the panels, test specimens were created to assess fatigue, vibration damping and compression after impact performance. From the vibration damping study, it was found that the nanoNyplex interleaving improved damping the most. It was thought that energy dissipation was due friction brought about by the movement of the interleaving fibres in the matrix, resulting in friction due to weak adhesion between the nanoNyplex fibres and the epoxy matrix. From the compression after impact (CAI) section of this study, it was found that specimens interleaved with nanoPA6,6, microPPS and microPPSnanoPA6,6 had the highest CAI strengths. From optical inspection, it appeared (in general) that as the CAI strength of the specimen increased, the length of the damage region also increased. However, those identified with the highest CAI strengths had shorter damage regions. From the fatigue section of this study, it was found that the use of most interleavings, (apart from microtricot) increased the number of cycles to failure. Post fatigue test scanning electron microscopy confirmed that crack deflection was present for most interleaved specimens. Some evidence of pull out and breakage of the interleaving fibres was seen on the fracture surfaces of the nanoPA6,6, microPPS, microPEI, microPEInanoPA6,6 and microPPSnanoPA6,6 interleaved specimens. For both CAI and fatigue, it was found that improvement was generally greater with veils that had a large number of fibres per unit area and high adhesion strength with the matrix. However, for CAI it seems that high fracture toughness was also desirable.

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  • Credit loss dynamics in Australasian banking

    Hess, Kurt

    Thesis
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the drivers and dynamics of credit losses in Australasian banking over an extended period of time in order to improve the means by which financial institutions manage their credit risks and regulatory bodies safeguard the stability and integrity of the financial system. The analysis is based on a specially constructed data base of credit loss and provisioning data retrieved from original financial reports published by Australian and New Zealand banks. The observation period covers 1980 to 2005, starting at the time when such information was published for the first time in bank financial statements. It moreover covers the time of major crises which occurred in both Australia and New Zealand in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The heterogeneity of reporting the data both amongst banks and through time requires the development of a reporting typology which allows data extraction with equivalent informational content. As a thorough study of credit risks requires long data series often not available from third party data providers, the method developed here will provide value to a range of researchers. Based on an evaluation of many alternative proxies which track a bank's credit loss experience (CLE), the thesis proposes a preferred model for impaired assets expense (as % of loans) as dependent variable, mainly because of its timely nature and good data availability. Explanatory variables include aggregate macro variables of which changes in unemployment and the return in the share markets are found to have the most significant influence on a bank's credit losses. Bank-specific control variables include a pre-provision earnings proxy whose significance points to the use of provisions for the purpose of income smoothing by Australasian banks. The model also controls for size and nature of lending as smaller, retail-oriented housing lenders, on average, exhibit lower loan losses. Clear results are found with regard to the effect of rapid expansion which appears to be followed by a surge of bad debt provisions 2 to 3 years later. Moreover, inefficient banks tend to suffer greater credit losses. An important part of the thesis looks at the characteristics of alternative CLE proxies such as stock of provisions, impaired assets and write-offs which have been used by earlier literature. Estimating the preferred model with such alternative CLE parameters confirms their peculiarities such as the memory character of stock of provisions and the delayed nature of write-offs. These measures correlate rather poorly amongst themselves which calls for caution in the comparative interpretation of earlier studies that use differing CLE proxies.

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  • Exploring noise sensitivity: cardiac correlates of noise sensitivity and the auditory evoked orienting response

    Mulgrew, Joseph (2014-05-12)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    A growing body of evidence suggests Noise Sensitivity (NS) moderates the relationship between noise exposure and stress-related disease. As NS is pronounced within several clinical disorders, its biological mechanisms are of clinical and epidemiological import. Central Neurovisceral Integrative System (NIS, Thayer & Brosschot, 2005) concepts were drawn from to argue that autonomic balance (AB) provides an influential biological mechanism underlying NS and, additionally, that AB and NS influence the Auditory Evoked Orientation Response (AEOR). Baseline Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and NS, as measured by the NS Questionnaire (Schütte, Marks, Wenning, & Griefahn, 2007), were collected from 103 Auckland University of Technology staff and students and were used to analyse the neurovisceral correlates of NS. Furthermore, 60 participants went on to provide cardiac data recorded during and post exposure to auditory stimuli of varying valence, which were used to analyse the influence of autonomic balance and NS on the AEOR. The results of the study provide some limited support for both propositions. Findings are discussed with reference to AB, total regulatory capacity, emotion, and orientating. Although questions are left unanswered, future research directions are postulated that could culminate in the development of both screening and treatment protocols with pronounced clinical applications.

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  • Lesbian, gay and bisexual clients’ experiences of discussing sexual identity in therapy

    Tsai, Sandy (2014-05-19)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The current study explores lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals’ experiences of discussing sexual identity in therapy. Current literature indicate that the absence of sexual identity issues being identified and discussed could be a significant barrier to effective therapy with LGB clients. However, little research has explored how sexual identity is conceptualized in therapy by LGB clients and their therapists, and how this influences their therapeutic outcomes. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), LGB clients’ experiences of discussing sexual identity in therapy was investigated. Results clustered into three overarching themes: 1. Sexual identity as self in the making; 2. Sexual identity as a barrier; and 3. Sexual identity as increased awareness of oppression. Discussion of sexual identity is important for LGB clients in therapy, regardless of whether it is the main focus of their presenting issues. These discussions help them explore their sexual identity formation processes, which result in a stronger sense of identity due to a better understanding of sexual identity as an aspect of themselves. LGB clients who lack such opportunities to discuss sexual identity in therapy experience heteronormative assumptions and biases from their therapists, which increased their awareness of themselves as individuals of sexual minority and empathy towards others under oppression. The current study concludes that therapists should remain open-minded and explorative when helping LGB clients discuss their sexual identities in therapy, but always in context to their presenting issues so that conceptualizations and sense-making of sexual identity is centred in the clients’ subjective experiences

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  • Turning points in therapy with Bulimia Nervosa clients: a qualitative analysis of the therapist's perceptions

    Mysliwiec, Nadia

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This research explored therapeutic turning points as experienced by therapists working with clients diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa. A growing body of research reveals that turning points make important contributions to change, transformation and recovery during therapy (King et al. 2003). This research aims to develop a deeper understanding of how turning points and mindfulness-based techniques effect the treatment of this complex eating disorder. While there is existing research on the turning points that occur during therapy with eating disorder clients there is a paucity of research on the turning points that occur specifically with clients diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa. Studies have documented various changes in clients during and after treatment for bulimia, however, most of this research stems from quantitative data and little from the actual experiences of clients and their therapists. Therefore, this study conducted in-depth interviews with five experienced psychologists and psychotherapists working in this field. Using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step guide to thematic analysis, five major themes emerged from the therapists’ discourses. Firstly, therapists believed that it was essential for their clients to build social relationships with others, and that one of the first turning points was the initial trust and collaboration between client and therapist. Secondly, therapists said that an important turning point in therapy was when clients felt that they wanted to change. This need was often driven by a client’s shame and guilt related to their bulimia and the detrimental consequences of their illness. Thirdly, it was crucial for clients to experience a feeling of success. An initial turning point, as experienced by the therapists, was when a client could resist the urge to binge and purge. This allowed the client to feel empowered and hopeful, in turn increasing their motivation and allowing space for the clients to realise that their lives could be different. Fourthly, therapists strongly believed that “negative” turning points were just as useful as positive ones. Lastly, therapists supported the use of mindfulness and acknowledged the positive influence it had on turning points. A key turning point was when clients could let go of their rigid thinking and be with their emotions. This often lead to “ah-ha” moments, ultimately facilitating the realisation that bulimia is a choice they could have control over. This study has added to the growing field examining the turning points that occur in therapy with clients diagnosed with Bulimia Nervosa and has yielded much needed information for practice and future research.

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  • Teenage girls' daily engagement with mass media: implications for identity construction and well-being

    Gooch, Andrea

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    A process of identity formation often defines teenage years where young people transition into adulthood. Multiple factors such as family environment and sociocultural context contribute to shaping teen girls’ identities, what they believe in and how they see themselves as fitting into the world around them. Mass media plays a big part in constructing social realities, often depicting narrow and limited depictions of masculinity, femininity and ideal girlhood. Young people, who may have less experience and critical awareness when it comes to media messages, may take on stereotypical or problematic images as representing reality. This research project explores from a social constructionist perspective, teenage girls daily engagement with the mass media and the implications of this for their identity construction, health, and well-being. Six face-to-face interviews were conducted with teen girls aged between 14 and 17 years old. These girls were asked to collect media images over one week and their responses to these images were discussed. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted and four dominant themes were identified within the talk: ‘It’s all about appearance’; ‘Attracting the boys’; “Inspirational content”; and ‘The pressure to be “trendy”. These themes are discussed demonstrating the difficult terrain teen girls face in navigating the vast and pervasive nature of mass media in constructing their personal identity. Further research is necessary into the nature of teen girls’ engagement with mass media with comparative data required from a teen boy population to expand and support initial insights gained from this project.

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  • What is the relationship between psychodynamic psychotherapy and the 12 steps of Alcoholics Anonymous? A heuristic enquiry

    Hunter, Phoebe

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    This dissertation is a heuristic enquiry into the relationship between psychodynamic psychotherapy and the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous. I make use of my experience as a client of psychodynamic psychotherapy and as someone working the 12 Steps in order to investigate the relationship between them. The research chronicles how I arrived at Alcoholics Anonymous in the context of having spent several years as a client of psychoanalysis. It examines in detail how I make use of the Steps and psychotherapy as distinct but complementary paths to recovery from alcoholism. It explores some of the literature pertaining to psychotherapy and the 12 Steps, specifically emphasising the role of spirituality in recovery and the tensions that can arise between psychodynamic psychotherapy and spirituality. It also explores spirituality within the context of Alcoholics Anonymous for people who do not identify with the concept of an external deity as is written in the 12 Steps. Within psychotherapy there has been confusion and contradiction in how to respond to people with addiction and in Alcoholics Anonymous there has been hostility and mistrust of psychotherapy. From my own experience of entering therapy and struggling with addiction, I became aware of a gap or disjunction in psychoanalytic thinking around treating addiction. I have offered an account of my lived experience in the expectation it will be meaningful and have practical use for people who are seeking help and for the therapists hoping to treat them. I hope that psychotherapists will be able to feel more confident in what they might be able to offer clients and more aware of the limits of what they can offer, so as to feel more encouraged to seek help from other sources if necessary. In making transparent the ways psychotherapy and the Steps operate in my life, I aim to show how both can be usefully integrated to the benefit of both clients with addiction issues and the therapists treating them.

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  • Stigma: You do your time, you come out and do more: A phenomenological analysis of the experiences of stigma as lived by ex-prisoners.

    MacLennan, Brigitte Amber (2015)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This thesis explores the phenomena of stigma and its effects upon offenders who have spent time in prison. There has been a long history of stigma attached to those who have engaged in criminal activity. As far back as the late 1800's it was concluded that a criminal could be identified by their physical facial features alone. While it is no longer common to stigmatise offenders based on the distance between a person’s eyes, there is still a great deal of stigma attached to having been in prison which can prevent offenders from living a pro-social life. There is little research in this area, particularly within the New Zealand context. This thesis uses phenomenological research to engage with the participants in order to gain an understanding of their lived experiences with stigma. Interviews were conducted to explore this phenomenon. Allowing offenders who have served time in prison to have their experiences heard has potential implications for policy makers with regards to release conditions and also for services that are run in prisons. Making successful transitions from prison living to living a pro-social life has benefits for not only the offender, but the community in which they are residing as a whole.

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  • Measuring the sustainability of logistics in small island nations in the Pacific : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Logistics and Supply Chain Management at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Joy, Jullian Gilbert (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the factors which small island nations in the Pacific could consider measuring as indicators when monitoring and reporting on the sustainability of supply chain management practices, focused on the logistics elements. A theoretical framework is derived from a review of appropriate literature to guide the research, which employs a case study methodology. The case study provides a cross sectional view of the reporting environment for early 2015, focused on the small island developing states (SIDS) that are members of the Pacific Islands Forum. Governmental regional organisations are the core participants for the development of the research, due to the nature of the political and business environment in these Pacific nations. One private company and one academic institute are also included as possible triangulation validations. The research finds that no effective measuring or reporting is currently being conducted in relation to assessing the holistic sustainability levels of logistics in the region. The lack of past adequate cross sectional or other methodology of data capture and reporting by the nations, has consequently resulted in a lack of adequate longitudinal data sets. Such data is needed to reliably inform and enable effective decision and policy making on logistics activity and investment in the region. The research finds that monitoring and reporting systems would operate effectively at the regional government level, with data disaggregation to national and indicator level. The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) method of reporting fits within the political environment, and the research finds that this, linked with the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) indicators, which are to apply from 2015 to the year 2030, could provide a suitable monitoring and reporting framework. This would enable a consistent longitudinal data capture. The research’s recommended methodology will enhance the monitoring value and improve the opportunity for effective further research for the sustainability levels of logistics and other related societal functions in the small island nations.

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  • Principal appraisal : fluxion and abatement : a grounded theory of principal appraisal in a small selection of New Zealand schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Strong, Neville G. L (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the circumstances in and around the principal appraisal process in five New Zealand primary schools. An outcome of this investigation was to generate a theoretical explanation of what was happening in this appraisal process. Data were gathered from five principals and their appraisers through a questionnaire and an interview. Through a constant comparative analysis of the data, a basic social process was discovered that consisted of four conceptual categories labelled as metamorphosis, metamorphic reaction, adaptation and palatableness. These categories were linked into a core category labelled fluxion and abatement. Fluxion and abatement is a conceptual statement of a continually changing appraisal process that has been grappled with and abated in a meaningful way by the appraisal participants. That no school site, of principal appraisal development and implementation, closely resembles another, is testimony of the fluxion and abatement theory. That schools are still talking of adaptation to the latest metamorphosis of professional standards and that a palatableness state is some time, even years, away, strengthens the theory produced in this study. These findings have important implications for a number of areas of school operation. The first is leadership. Will the school site strengthen or move away from a collaborative model of leadership? The study argues for a supportive board of trustees to the principal, who should engender a transformational leadership style. These collaborative approaches will see schools as educative communities rather than managed organisations. The second implication is in teaching and learning. Principals, working with their staff, need to have refined the meaningful data on what is happening in teaching and learning within their schools. The third implication is the principal appraisal process. This process should be used as a purposeful tool to achieve and produce evidence of the other stated implications. The last implication, school effectiveness, is the prospective outcome of such a principal appraisal process.

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  • ECHELON: Espionage without ethics : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Philosophy at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Bole, John (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In June 2013, Edward Snowden disclosed the extent of mass surveillance conducted across entire societies by five Western Governments. Snowden apparently hoped to generate a global debate on the appropriateness of these activities and the risk /reward trade-offs that society was being asked to make. Snowden seems to have either overestimated the concern of the average person or misunderstood their current level of understanding and acceptance of surveillance. Either way, the debate was short. In general, society seemed to register a level of disquiet but no specific concern. This paper seeks to determine if the disquiet is a consequence of human morality and to identify any specific moral concern.

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  • Epidemiology and production effects of leptospirosis in New Zealand sheep : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy In Veterinary Sciences at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Vallée, Emilie (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

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  • The world makers : one centre's approach to technology education with infants and toddlers

    Mortlock, Anita (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Infants and toddlers are surrounded by technology. They observe and explore technological artefacts and the uses of them on a daily basis. Despite this, there is little research to guide teachers about what the technological interests, understandings and capabilities of infants and toddlers might be and how they might be supported and extended. Technology education is a relative/y new curriculum area and it has not yet been included in the literary discourse about infant and toddler educational programmes. This study aims to examine what the teachers at one childcare centre identify as the technology interests, understandings and capabilities of a small group of infants and toddlers. Video footage was taken of the infants and toddlers at work and play and segments were then shown to individual teachers during interviews. The children's assessment portfolios were examined and the teachers and families were invited to contribute further information. The sum total of this data was used to analyse and reflect on particular episodes of video footage. The technological interests, understandings and capabilities of both the children and the adults were seen to be integrally linked to the temporal, physical and interpersonal environments of the centre.

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  • The production and consumption of history : a discourse on heritage and nostalgia in the 1990s : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Brown, Annette Margaret (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The dialectic of history as an ideology and history as a commodity can underpin a discourse on the production and consumption of history as heritage and nostalgia in the 1990s. History as an ideology is erased from the dominant space of representation, by history as a commodiy; therefore, history as an ideology needs to be discussed separately from history as a commodity even though they are not independent categories; this is because they are mutually constitutive of each other. The processes and structures that underwrite this dialectic, Capitalism and Modernity, produce different outcomes in different places and at different times; outcomes such as the cabinets of curiosity during early modernity, modernist and postmodernist museums, heritage sites such as country houses, a shopping mall and a disneyfied theme park arranged around a historic locale and the gentrification of some parts of the inner City of London. These objects of history are produced, reproduced and consumed by social actors in different places and at different times. The production and consumption of history as an object does not explain why these particular outcomes exist in the places and the times that they do. These outcomes need to be explained, and can be explained, by using a dialectical methodology. Such an explanation would look at the underlying processes and structures of Capitalism and modernity.

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  • Tourism in the Manawatu : an analysis of spatial patterns in the demand for and supply of motel accommodation : a thesis ... for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Devi, Vijaya (1981)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The study concerns one form of accommodation, the motel, in the Manawatu, a non-key tourist area in New Zealand. Initially prompted by a claim that Palmerston North, the regional centre, was losing out on important conference custom because of a shortage of accommodation, the study considers this question and proceeds to both describe and analyse motel characteristics in the region. Description includes salient characteristics of moteliers, motels and clients obtained from a questionnaire survey conducted in May 1980. Spatial variations in the characteristics are accounted for in terms of centre types: regional, subregional, market and recreation centres. The theory of hierarchical diffusion and the concept of central places are used in an attempt to explain the location of motels. Findings showed that a large proportion of tourist traffic comprised transient tourists; the shortage of accommodation at Palmerston North appeared to be seasonal rather than absolute; accessibility in terms of visibility did not influence profit and some measure of 'amateurism' was evident in motel management. Time constraints and the limited area of study, however, could have influenced these general findings. It is suggested that transit tourism may be important in other non-key tourist areas, most obviously in the Waikato because of its similarity to the Manawatu, and that further study of this overlooked aspect of tourism seems worthwhile.

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  • “You Bring It, We’ll Bring It Out” Becoming a Soldier in the New Zealand Army : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Social Anthropology at Massey University Manawatū, New Zealand.

    Harding, Nina (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The transition from civilian to soldier is a process of identity acquisition. Based on participant-observation, this thesis follows a cohort of new soldiers through the first year and a half of their careers in the New Zealand Army, from their first day of Basic Training to their first overseas deployment. Both the Army as an institution and its individual soldiers are explicitly self-reflexive, and I use not only academic theory but also soldiers’ own theories of identity and identity acquisition to make sense of the experience of becoming a soldier. I show that although recruits undergo change in becoming soldiers, they simultaneously retain pre-service identities. Using Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of practice, I argue that civilians join the Army because of a shared “primary habitus”, a pre-existing identification with action, productivity and continual self-improvement through facing challenges that forms recruits’ earliest embodied understandings of themselves. The relationship between this “practical” habitus and the new soldier habitus to be acquired is key to understanding the civilian-soldier transition. While civilians draw on and thus fulfil the primary practical habitus in becoming soldiers during initial training periods, once socialised they find the Army much less challenging, and therefore may find that their need to be involved in meaningful action is not met. Although the practical habitus is behind and can make sense of the cohort’s actions, it is a mode of identity that has not often been recognised as such by academics, due to the fact that they do not share it. However, I show that it is more important in generating soldiers’ practice than the modes of identity that are usually employed to understand them: gender, sexuality, ethnicity and nationality. Therefore, I argue that anthropologists should not limit analysis to traditional axes of identity.

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  • Exploring New Zealand’s Rural Education Activities Programmes (REAPs): Social capital in a lifelong learning and community development context : A thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctorate of Education at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Morrison, Derek Ryan (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This research explored the extent to which social capital is an approach used by New Zealand’s Rural Education Activities Programmes (REAPs) to contribute to rural education. Social capital was defined for the purposes of this study as the resource residing in networks of individuals, based on mutual trust and shared social norms, which can be brokered and mobilised to achieve social benefits, particularly in the application of knowledge and skills. A conceptual framework lays out four key elements from this definition which were investigated: networks, trust, social norms, and brokerage. Given the lack of published material on REAPs and their work, a primarily qualitative design was utilised. Set within a constructivist epistemology and interpretive phenomenological methodology, in-depth interviews with REAP managers and questionnaires for REAP learners were used to collect data. The aim was to explore the lived experiences of these two REAP groups to identify their views on how REAPs operate so that those views could be considered within the social capital framework above. An inductive-deductive-inductive analysis approach was used to maximise the extent to which findings reflected participant language. Findings from both REAP managers and learners supported the strong presence of the four social capital elements in REAP activity. In many cases the qualitative themes were closely related, both within and across the four social capital elements. Both strong (social) and weak (institutional) forms of trust were described as influencing learner participation in networks, where REAPs played a role in brokering that participation within similar (bonded) and differing (bridged) networks. REAPs made use of trusted relationships and valued-based decision making to gain local community and cultural knowledge to ensure the relevance of responsive learning activities. The result was enhanced confidence and identity of learners to take part in other social activities, including further learning and collective action. Lived examples of these elements supported a social capital approach that fit well with the lifelong learning and community development processes outlined by the REAP mandate. These processes were defined holistically to consider the integration of individuals’ beliefs, viewpoints, and behaviours as much as skills and knowledge. The explored social capital approach within lifelong learning and community development contexts, yields clear recommendations for Government, REAPs, and partner organisations. Flexibility, values/identity-based education, and closing network gaps to facilitate innovation come through as REAP social capital practices that could inform policy and partnerships across the whole of the education sector. Further research is needed to more closely consider the complex relationships of the identified social capital themes. In terms of emergent themes, a deeper exploration of innovation produced through brokerage within REAP activity is highlighted as a key area of research for future.

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  • Organising Therapists’ Emotional-Social Skills: Are Therapists that Different? : A thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North New Zealand

    Marwick, Andreas (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Wampold and Imel (2015) argue that therapeutic outcomes may be more dependent on variables associated with therapists than treatment systems. An element of these therapist variables include the emotional and social skills of therapists, however, to date, little has been done to investigate the relationships between these therapy factors. One exception to this is pilot research conducted by my supervisors, their students, and myself (Harvey, Marwick, Baken, Bimler, & Dickson, 2016). This thesis aims to replicate and extend on this pilot research as to better understand therapists’ emotional and social skills in practice. Using three complementary approaches including thematic analysis of therapist transcripts, a date-specific literature review, and revision of foundational research, Harvey et al.’s original pool of emotional and social skills was revised and extended. Subsequently, using a statistical method for mapping psychological constructs, therapists’ emotional practices were transformed into a ‘map’ with three spatial dimensions, which was generally supported by comparative reliability checks including a validation study with a foreign-language sample. Finally, the nature of emotional practice was further investigated by administering a questionnaire of emotional practice items to 79 therapists. From this, eight salient practice constructs were identified. Statistical links were also found between these and both demographic data and a modified measure of the therapeutic relationship. Furthermore, using Q-analysis, a general consensus of responding was found between therapists’ emotional response patterns and as a result, a tentative pathway to therapists’ practice styles was developed. From these findings important research and clinical applications are apparent.

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  • Generational differences in work values, work-related outcomes and person-organisation values fit : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Cennamo, Lucy K (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Values are important constructs in guiding behaviour and enhancing motivation in the workplace. However, more research is required into generational patterns in work values, particularly as much of the information regarding age differences is based on stereotypes. The aim of this research was to investigate differences between the four generational groups currently in the workforce (Matures, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Baby Boom Echo), according to work values and the work-related outcomes of job satisfaction, affective organisational commitment and intention to leave. The study also examined how differing values may contribute to the perception of person-organisation values fit. An overall theoretical model of person-organisation values fit and outcomes was developed and then assessed for invariance across age using structural equation modelling. A sample of 504 Auckland employees completed a questionnaire (either online or via pencil and paper). Results indicated that the youngest generations (the Generation X and Echo group) placed more importance on status-related work values than the oldest generations (the Matures and Baby Boomers). The Echo group also placed more importance on having a social working environment than the Matures and Boomers. Freedom-related work values were also rated as being more important to the Echo group than any other generation. The two youngest generations showed greater intent to leave their organisations in the next 12 months compared with older groups. In terms of perceived fit between individual values and organisational values, Matures and Boomers reported better fit with extrinsic values than Generation X, and better fit with status-related values than the Echo group. The model of overall person-organisation values fit and outcomes was confirmed, and was invariant across groups, suggesting that the overall fit process was consistent across age. The findings from this study offer insight into possible areas for organisational intervention to enhance communication and acceptance between generational groups. Future areas of research are also suggested to improve understanding of this field.

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