1,270 results for Thesis, Modify

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • Touchable: Adapting a Haptic Feedback Glove for Use in Rehabilitation Contexts

    Foottit, Jacques

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    With the increasing miniaturisation of computing and sensor technology, it is becoming common for electronics of all kinds to be integrated into clothing and other wearable items. Motion sensing technologies in particular have been used for a variety of consumer fitness and virtual reality applications for able-bodied people. This research explores the potential for affordable motion capture and haptic feedback technologies to be utilised in a rehabilitation context, with a specific focus on the hand. An iterative development process was used to adapt and improve an existing prototype haptic feedback glove in response to the unique challenges facing wearable device users in a rehabilitation context. Collaboration with physiotherapists provided valuable feedback throughout the design process. The result is a significantly different prototype device with major design improvements, and insights into how iterative development processes can be utilised for hardware development.

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  • Satire and Dickens

    White, Richard (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    People have a fundamental need to feel good about themselves, and sometimes we can achieve this at the expense of others. If I can laugh at someone who does something stupid, or feel superior to someone who does something unjust, or rebel against an institution which violates some natural law, then so much the better for me. Essentially, this is why I read satire. Until recently this sort of approach does not seem to have appealed to literary critics - perhaps because it demeans their subject matter - but there are many essential human needs which are satisfied by a reader's imaginative response to satire, and there is nothing ignoble in that. Satire allows us to escape the constrictions that society places on us. When we read satire we can behave badly: we laugh at other people, cackle at their stupidity, and snigger at their pomposity or hypocrisy; we revenge ourselves upon people who have bored, annoyed, or cheated us. All of this misbehaviour is sanctioned by moral propriety, and by the figure who establishes what is proper and what is not, the satirist. It is the satirist who sets up little moral victories for us, made possible by satiric attack. However, when satire becomes part of a novel, it must there vie for ascendancy with other guises of the author. The satirist must compete with the moralist, the comic, or the sentimentalist, and when this happens the reader too must evaluate their satiric victories alongside the other emotions they feel when they read other parts of a novel. Charles Dickens has many such guises, and consequently he particularly challenges the reader to cope with many different responses. This is where satire becomes even more interesting, because the victories are tempered by other, perhaps more noble emotions. The novels of Dickens present the reader with a constant battle between good and bad: both the author's and the reader's.

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  • Ideological choice in the gravestones of Dunedin's Southern Cemetery

    Edgar, Philip Gerard (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xxv, 136 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology. "December 1995."

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  • “Essentially a woman’s work”: A history of general nursing in New Zealand, 1830-1930

    Sargison, Patricia Ann (2001)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: viii, 285 leaves: illustrated; 30 cm.

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  • The Old Testament as Christian scripture: three Catholic perspectives

    Stachurski, Michael R (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: viii, 114 leaves ; 30 cm.

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  • Investigating characteristics in a spatial context that contribute to where bicycle accidents occur

    Williams, Thomas

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Encouraging people to cycle more often is well supported in the academic literature due to the numerous positive economic, social and environmental benefits that are associated with the use of bicycles as a form of transportation. Despite these benefits, the use of the bicycle for day to day transportation remains relatively low outside of European and Asian countries, with one of the main barriers to encouraging more people to cycle more often being related to the perceived and actual dangers associated with riding a bicycle. Using a case-control methodology, this research investigated what characteristics contribute to where bicycle accidents occur in proportion to where to people cycle. Logistic regression analysis identified that the probability of being involved in a bicycle-motor vehicle (BMV) accident increases when specific characteristics are present and decreases with the presence of on road cycle lanes. Of the characteristics identified as being significant, accident probability is highest at intersections, with all types of intersections increasing accident probability compared to non- intersection locations. In addition to intersections, this research also identified that accident probability increases with the presence of high traffic volumes, School zones and driveways.

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  • Manipulation of the tillering dynamics in a perennial ryegrass seed crop as a response to sowing date, sowing rate and grazing

    Hewson, Nathan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seed crop is a profitable option for arable farmers in Canterbury. To achieve optimal yields there is a requirement of the crop to produce 2000 + seed heads/m² which is the result of >2000 reproductive tillers/m². The aim of this experiment is to quantify the effects of manipulating the tillering dynamics of a perennial ryegrass seed crop through the change in sowing date, sowing rate and grazing. Four sowing dates at 3 week successive intervals from the 27th of March with 4 target population densities of 200, 600, 1000 and 1400 plants/m² were sown. Times of sowing one through three with the population density of 200 – 1000 plants/m² reached the target of 2000+ fertile reproductive tillers/m² required for maximum seed yield. As sowing rate increased the number of vegetative tillers/m² also increased while the number or reproductive tillers/m² remained constant, therefore decreasing the proportion of reproductive tillers/m² as sowing rate increased. A reduction in the proportion of reproductive tillers was also seen with later sowings, along with individual reproductive tiller weight. A target population of 1400 plants/m² was impractical as increased self- thinning occurred and resulted in many of the plants dying before reproductive development. Sowing a Perennial ryegrass seed crop as late as 28th of May regardless of population density, tillering could not compensate for lost thermal time in regards to the production of reproductive tillers.

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  • LC/MS method development for the separation of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-derived pigments in red wines

    Frey, Alistair S. P.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    LC/MS method development was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting the separation of anthocyanin-3-O-glucosides in fractionated wine samples. The type and concentration of acid used to lower the pH of the HPLC solvents was found to be the most critical factor, with formic acid producing far better separations than acetic acid. The choice of solvent gradient, column temperature and flow rate were also found to affect separation. The methods thus developed were successfully applied to the separation (by HPLC) and identification (by PDA/UV-Vis and MS) of a number of anthocyanin-3-O-glucosides, anthocyanin- 3-O-acylglycosides, pyranoanthocyanins and polymeric pigments in young Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. The relative amounts and proportions of anthocyanin-3-O-glucosides were compared between young wines vinified from four varieties of grape (Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot and Syrah) sourced from the Marlborough region of New Zealand.

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  • The response of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) to homogeneous and heterogeneous distribution of biosolids in soil

    Reis, Flavia Vilela Pereira

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Potentially, biosolids (sewage sludge) could be added to soil to enhance the growth of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) for the production of honey, essential oils, and ecosystem restoration. Given that manuka is a pioneering species that is adapted to low fertility soils, it was unclear whether there would be a positive growth response to biosolids addition. I aimed to determine the effect of biosolids addition on the biomass, root morphology and elemental composition of manuka. Pots (2.5 L) and Rhizoboxes (15 x 30 x 2.5 cm) were filled with low-fertility soils from Eyrewell Forest (Lismore brown soil) and Kaikoura (sand). Biosolids from Kaikoura (10% of the total weight by mass containing 22g N/kg) were applied either homogeneously or heterogeneously to the surface of the pots and in a 5 cm vertical strip on one side of the rhizoboxes. There was also a control (no biosolids). Each treatment was replicated thrice. Manuka seedlings were grown for 12 weeks and then the biomass, root distribution and chemical composition was determined. The addition of biosolids increased the biomass in both soils. The increases in biomass were not significantly affected by the distribution of the biosolids. However, the distribution of the biomass affected root distribution, with roots proliferating in the biosolids patches in the heterogeneous treatments. In the Kaikoura sand, the addition of biosolids increased the plant concentrations of N, C, P, S, Zn, and Cd, whereas in the Eyrewell soil the biosolids increased N, Zn, Cd and Ni. In Kaikoura there were differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous treatments in plant Zn, Cu and Ni and in Eyrewell differences occurred in Zn and Cd. None of the trace element concentrations in manuka were likely to pose a risk to herbivores or ecosystems. My experiment demonstrated that manuka responds positively to the addition of biosolids and that the positive growth response was not affected by the distribution of biosolids on two soil types. Furthermore, the addition of biosolids did not cause manuka to take up unacceptable concentrations of trace elements. Future research should investigate the performance of manuka over a longer timescale and include treatments where biosolids are applied to the soil surface of existing manuka stands. Root morphology should also be investigated for deeper understanding of foraging behaviour.

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  • Population and diet of the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri): molecular approaches

    Emami-Khoyi, Arsalan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The recent increase in the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) population has given rise to socio-economic concerns regarding the potential conflicts with human interests. Elaboration of a comprehensive management strategy has been hindered by the paucity of solid information concerning New Zealand fur seal ecology. Recent developments in massive parallel DNA sequencing and computational infrastructures were used to address some of the major areas of conflict with human commercial interests. The first focus of the current study was to test a series of non-destructive methods for collecting biological samples for high- throughput DNA analysis. A second focus of the study was application of whole mitochondrial genomes in conjunction with Y chromosome Zinc fingers (ZFY) from New Zealand fur seals throughout the whole range of the species distribution in an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework to reconstruct the recent demographic history of the species. The pristine population size (pre-human colonisation), historical population size after human first arrival and the bottleneck population size were estimated. There was enough variability left in the mitochondrial genomes to detect the 18th -19th- century’s population bottleneck in the species. The pattern observed in ZFY data set was more complicated indicating more subtle population genetics dynamics. Mitochondrial DNA were uniform in its distribution with few distant haplotypes that could represents the presence of old lineages or potential introgression from other sympatric species. The intriguing pattern observed in ZFY data also resulted in the discovery of a rare genomic event called ‘’ectopic gene conversion” between non- recombining parts of Y and X chromosomes in the New Zealand fur seal genome The third focus of the study is on the fine scale population structure of NZ fur seals at a local scale around Banks Peninsula, -South Island, and New Zealand. No evidence of local population structure was found in the area suggesting the presence of substantial gene flow among colonies at a local scale. Moreover, the “spill over“ colony expansion dynamics, suggested previously as a pattern for recolonizing new habitat, was supported at the local scale using genetic data. Most of the newly-established colonies in the area showed the highest degree of genetic structure similarities with older colonies in their vicinity emphasizing the important role of “spill over” dynamics of older colonies in formation of new colonies. The data significantly support multi recolonization events with occasional local recruitment of immigrating individuals. There is a short mitogenomic announcement in chapter five where I used the complete mitogenomes of New Zealand fur seals in addition to three mustelid species (all de novo sequenced in the current research) to re-examine the origin of pinnipeds in the light of new available mitogenomes. The final focus of the study used molecular-based methods to identify the prey and parasite items of the New Zealand fur seal from massive parallel sequencing of faeces and regurgitates. The overlap between the diet of the seals and commercial fisheries were also estimated. Data supported a generalist pattern of feeding behaviour of the New Zealand fur seal. As many as 64 prey species were identified from faecal samples and/or regurgitates in a single colony. Surprisingly, only 10% of species in fur seals diet were species of commercial interest. The population and diet data will provide marine ecosystem managers with an increased knowledge necessary for elaborating any long-term conservation plan for the New Zealand fur seal.

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  • Indigenous biodiversity protection and sustainable management in the Upper Waimakariri Basin

    Snoyink, Nicola Lee

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Human activity, unintentional or purposeful, has an impact on biodiversity health. History, world view and experience influence human activity and behaviour toward the natural world. Despite significant commitment to nature conservation, New Zealand continues to experience biodiversity loss, especially on private land where some of the most vulnerable and under-protected ecosystems occur. Given that indigenous biodiversity protection is embedded in the principles of the Resource Management Act 1991, this research asks to what extent is indigenous biodiversity protection compatible with sustainable management, through a case study of indigenous biodiversity management on private land in the upper Waimakariri basin, in New Zealand’s South Island high country. The research examines the types of indigenous biodiversity conservation practices undertaken by private land managers, and is framed through the lens of ecological literacy and the influence of neoliberal ideology. Adoption and patterns of diffusion of practices are identified through relationships between individuals, organisations, institutions and mechanisms. The research found that indigenous biodiversity enhancement is a part of sustainable management but practices are influenced by biophysical context and location, internal factors such as the world view and experience of the land manager and the local economy and external factors such as the social network, economic drivers, government policy and the availability of additional resourcing. While legal requirements for environmental management are generally met, more insidious impacts on indigenous biodiversity are overlooked, and a lack of co-ordination between government goals creates perverse effects for biodiversity. The research found that private property rights often constrained a broader catchment view and market drivers to increase primary productivity risks further indigenous biodiversity loss. However given that the upper Waimakariri basin contains significant intact though modified tracts of indigenous flora and fauna, naturally occurring lakes and wetlands as well an informed and willing community, there may be an opportunity to trial innovative market mechanisms and alternative land uses to encourage further indigenous biodiversity protection. Conclusions from this research suggest the need to examine the potential utility of a National Policy Statement for Indigenous Biodiversity to clarify planning rules and responsibilities for biodiversity; and the opportunity to examine the potential for use of targeted economic instruments that encourage private landowners to preserve and protect remaining indigenous biodiversity. On doing this New Zealand may be more likely to reduce indigenous biodiversity loss as well as meet its international obligation, while sustaining its international reputation.

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  • Evaluating Trichoderma atroviride and water supply impacts on Miscanthus x giganteus in New Zealand

    Shaw, Victoria

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Miscanthus x giganteus is one of the most promising biofuel feedstocks in the world. This second-generation biofuel source yields 40+ t DM/ha/yr without the need for high inputs of synthetic nitrogen fertiliser. In New Zealand, M. x giganteus is primarily used for the replacement of tree shelterbelts removed for centre pivot irrigation. The perennial, hybrid grass provides at least 16 ecosystem services to a landscape and therefore enhancing its production potential is desired. Trichoderma atroviride is a soil fungus that often functions as a bio-control agent against soil-borne plant pathogens and as a plant growth promoter. Past research indicates that there is potential to use this fungus to enhance plant production. The objective of this glasshouse study was to evaluate whether T. atroviride increases M. x giganteus production and some physiological parameters under varied water conditions: Drought, intermediate to well-watered. Results concluded that water significantly increased all plant variables, which was expected. Well-watered M. x giganteus plants had a mean dry weight of 60.4 g plant-1, producing 238.7% and 756.0% more dry matter than intermediate and drought plants respectively. In contrast, the PR5 T. atroviride strain mix had no effect on any variable compared with plants that were not inoculated. However, there was an interaction between T. atroviride and water in inoculated plants under drought. Inoculated drought plants had a 21.0% higher chlorophyll content and 3.6% higher percentage of total dry matter than plants that were not inoculated. Further research in the field is required to determine the effects of variable soil fertility treatments on M. x giganteus plants with and without T. atroviride. Monitoring the abundance of T. atroviride in roots of M. x giganteus under variable water treatments would also be valuable in determining the competitiveness, effectiveness, growth and survival of the fungus in certain environments.

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  • The evolution of total energy inputs in the New Zealand dairy industry

    Podstolski, Marcel

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    In 1998, Wells (2001) conducted a national study of the total energy inputs of New Zealand dairy farms. The study demonstrated the superiority in energy efficiency of New Zealand dairy production compared to that of European farms. Over the past decade, New Zealand’s dairy industry has transformed. With the growth of the industry in nontraditional regions, as well as a significant increases in irrigation, nitrogenous fertilisers, and supplementary feeds, there has been a substantial growth in milk production driven by an increasingly commodified export market. While the industry has experienced significant changes in the past 10 years, these changes have not yet been reflected in research. As a consequence, the impacts of these developments on the energy requirements of milk production are not yet fully documented. This study addresses that gap in data. This study is the first comprehensive, national assessment of energy requirements of New Zealand dairy farms since 1998. In this study, the total energy inputs of 135 New Zealand farms were calculated to determine their energy intensity and efficiency. Results were compared with energy input records from 1978 and 1998. Results of this study suggest that, in comparison with historical data, dairy farm energy intensity has significantly increased in all regions of New Zealand; energy efficiency has worsened in all but one geographical region. Despite this, New Zealand dairy farms are still more energy efficient than those of other major international competitors, which suggests the competitive advantage still remains. This research identifies the key drivers of changes to energy inputs, and offers recommendations for reducing the energy consumption of dairy production, to safeguard against energy vulnerability, and to reduce the environmental impacts of the dairy industry.

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  • Making the (in)visible, visible: a post-disaster case study of social networks in the suburb of Sumner, Christchurch.

    Marquet, Michelle Rose

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The social dimension of disaster recovery has, in recent times, gained attention in the literature in the fields of social capital, community-based recovery, wellbeing and resilience. Social networks are a consistently recognised component across this scholarship. While there has been a great deal of research around the role and value of social networks, there has been an insufficient amount of work carried out on identifying the social networks themselves. This has resulted in the dominance of some networks (visible networks) and the (in)visibility of others - networks that are recognised, but not assigned enough significance. This thesis presents the results of research that sought to explore this gap by identifying the form and diversity of social networks and exploring their meaning in the post-disaster suburb of Sumner Christchurch. This qualitative case study approach utilised in-depth interviews, open-ended questions and observation. Findings reveal the existence of many more informal social networks than the visible networks typically identified in the literature. Moreover, these (in)visible networks held a variety of meanings for residents of Sumner that were significant for disaster recovery. It can be concluded that (in)visible networks are a valuable form of social network in disaster recovery, and worthy of greater attention.

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  • The role of residence time and mutualistic interactions on the strength of plant-soil feedbacks in naturalised Trifolium

    McGinn, Kevin

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Alien plant species may benefit from leaving behind specialised natural enemies when initially introduced to new regions, but the strength of this enemy release may subsequently decline as enemies accumulate, leading to a reduction in the performance of alien plants over time. In addition, alien plants can be dislocated from beneficial interactions with mutualists, limiting their performance. In this thesis, I examine whether longer-naturalised and more widespread alien plant species experience a weaker escape from soil-borne enemies, as expected if enemy escape is transient. A comparative biogeographic approach was adopted in which plant-soil feedback (PSF) responses were contrasted between the introduced (New Zealand, NZ) and native (Europe) range for 11 Trifolium species. A statistical approach was developed to remove the effect of mutualistic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) from PSF responses. The biogeographic difference in PSF between NZ and Europe was then used to quantify the strength of escape from inhibitory PSF for each Trifolium species in order to identify whether the strength of escape was correlated with the residence time and geographic spread of the species in NZ. I also identified whether Trifolium have retained soil-borne mutualists in NZ by comparing: a) the richness and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with three Trifolium species in NZ and the UK using TRFLP; and b) the symbiotic performance, strain richness and genetic relatedness of rhizobia associated with seven Trifolium species in NZ and the UK by conducting a glasshouse experiment, genetic fingerprinting (rep-PCR with ERIC primers) and phylogenetic analysis of the nodD gene. The strength of biogeographic escape from inhibitory PSF varied considerably among the Trifolium species, although most species had similar PSF in both ranges. In contrast to expectations, the strength of escape was not significantly correlated with the residence time of the species. While there was also no overall significant correlation with the geographic spread of the species, less widespread, non-agricultural species experienced a stronger escape from inhibitory PSF, independent of their residence time. The richness and community structure of AMF taxa associated with three Trifolium species was similar in NZ and the UK. Rhizobia strains isolated from NZ Trifolium had similar nodulation ability as strains isolated from UK plants for all seven Trifolium species tested, including agricultural and accidentally introduced species. Genetic fingerprinting indicated that the strain richness of Trifolium rhizobia in NZ soils is comparable to that in UK soils. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strains of Trifolium rhizobia in NZ are not genetically distinct from UK strains, suggesting that NZ Trifolium utilise rhizobia that were co-introduced from Europe. The Trifolium species studied appear to have retained key soil-borne mutualists in NZ that have probably facilitated their successful naturalisation and spread. The findings highlight that the strength of escape from inhibitory PSF is plant species-specific, even among species within a single genus occurring in the same geographic region; this emphasises the need to examine multiple alien species when testing invasion hypotheses. Although the results suggest that the geographic spread and agricultural status of alien plant species may partly influence the strength of escape from inhibitory PSF, a hypothesised decline in the strength of escape with longer residence time of the alien plant species is not supported; the generalisability of this hypothesis is thus questioned.

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  • Characterisation of rhizobia associated with New Zealand native legumes (Fabaceae) and a study of nitrogen assimilation in Sophora microphylla

    Tan, Heng Wee

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Many legume species have the capacity to fix atmospheric N₂ via symbiotic bacteria (generally termed “rhizobia”) in root nodules and this can give them an advantage under low soil N conditions if other factors are favourable for growth. There are four genera of native legumes, on the main New Zealand (NZ) islands. These are the closely related Carmichaelia, Clianthus and Montigena in the Carmichaelinae clade, tribe Galegeae, and Sophora, within the tribe Sophoreae: all are capable of nodulation. Little work has been done on the genotypic characterisation and host-range specificity of the rhizobia associated with NZ native legumes. Moreover, the ability of native legumes to assimilate soil N in comparison with their N₂ fixation has not been assessed. The primary objectives of this research were to 1) more fully characterise the rhizobia associated with the four genera of NZ native legumes, including their ability to cross nodulate different species and 2) assess the ability of Sophora microphylla to assimilate soil N in comparison with its N₂ fixation. Gene sequencing results indicated that the bacterial strains isolated from NZ native legumes growing in natural ecosystems in the current and previous studies were of the genus Mesorhizobium. Generally, the Carmichaelinae and Sophora species were nodulated by two separate groups of Mesorhizobium strains. Ten strains isolated from the Carmichaelinae showed 16S rRNA and nifH similar to the M. huakuii type strain, but had variable recA and glnII genes, novel nodA and nodC genes and the seven strains tested could produce functional nodules over a range of Carmichaelinae species but did not nodulate Sophora species. Forty eight strains isolated from Sophora spp. showed 16S rRNA similar to the M. ciceri or M. amorphae type strains, variable recA, glnII and rpoB genes and novel and specific nifH, nodA and nodC genes which were different from those of the Carmichaelinae strains. Twenty one Sophora strains tested were able to produce functional nodules on a range of Sophora spp. but none nodulated C. australis. However, eighteen of the twenty one strains produced functional nodules on Cl. puniceus. These results indicate that, in general, the ability of different rhizobial strains to produce functional nodules on NZ native legumes is likely to be dependent on specific symbiosis genes. Clianthus puniceus appears to be more promiscuous in rhizobial host than the other NZ native legumes species tested. Generally, strains isolated from NZ native Sophora spp. from the same field site grouped together in relation to their “housekeeping” gene sequences and ERIC-PRC fingerprinting banding patterns. Most strains were able to grow at pH 3 – pH 11 but only one showed phosphorus solubilisation ability and none showed siderophore production. The strains showed differences in their ability to promote the growth of S. microphylla under glasshouse conditions. DNA-DNA hybridisation tests indicated that strains isolated from New Zealand native Sophora spp. are of several new Mesorhizobium species. The ability of S. microphylla to utilise soil NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ in comparison with its N₂ fixation was assessed under glasshouse conditions. N₂ fixing (nodulated) plants showed substantially greater growth and tissue N content than those relying solely on NH₄NO₃, NO₃⁻ or NH₄⁺ up to the equivalent of 200 kg N ha⁻¹ and N limitation is likely to have been the major cause of reduced growth of non-N₂ fixing (non-nodulated) plants. NO₃⁻ levels were negligible in plant tissues regardless of NO₃⁻ supply, indicating that virtually all NO₃⁻ taken up was assimilated. Thus, there appears to be a limitation on the amount of NO₃⁻ that S. microphylla can take up. However, it is possible that S. microphylla could not access NO₃⁻ in the potting mix and further work is required using different substrate and more regular NO₃⁻ applications to confirm this. Plants showed NH₄⁺ toxicity symptoms at 25 kg NH₄⁺-N ha⁻¹ and above. Nitrate reductase activity was not detected in roots or leaves of mature S. microphylla in the field: all plants were nodulated. Overall, the two major findings of this research are 1) NZ native legumes are nodulated by diverse and novel Mesorhizobium species and 2) S. microphylla seedlings have limited ability to utilise soil inorganic N. Important future work based on the results obtained in this research is discussed.

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  • Effects of aspects of terroir on the phenolic composition of New Zealand Pinot noir wines

    Wei, Liu

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Phenolic content is an important dimension of Pinot noir wine quality. This study aimed to find generic relationships between the phenolic content of Pinot noir wines produced from well-defined locations (single vineyards) in New Zealand, as determined from various chemical analyses, and aspects of terroir relating to local climate, soils and methods of production and information collected from questionnaires. Two New Zealand Pinot noir wines were stored at room temperature (with and without headspace sparging with N₂), at 4°C (with and without sparged N₂), at - 20°C, and at - 80°C following flash freezing with liquid nitrogen, after the original, sealed bottles were opened. The changes in total phenolics, total tannins, anthocyanins and colour parameters over 134 days were quantified. Results showed that the colour-related parameters were more sensitive to storage conditions and time compared with the other parameters. Storage at - 80°C could be the optimal way to preserve colour parameters, as it generally caused the least change in values and induced the least precipitation over the whole experimental period, followed by storage at 4°C. A total of 86 single-vineyard Pinot noir wines were collected from the 2013 Bragato wine competition. Analyses, using standard methods for total phenolics, total tannins and colour measurements, and HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) analysis of monomeric species separated using a published SPE (solid-phase extraction) method, were carried out on these wines. Some strong correlations were found between the different ways of taking measurements on the same, or similar, compounds in wines. Generally, the regional or vintage differences in total phenolics content and total tannins, were not dramatic, but there were evident regional and vintage differences in the colour parameters. Wines awarded different medals grades also differed in their colour parameters. Specifically, wines with gold or silver medals tended to have deeper colour densities and were higher in total anthocyanins than the bronze and no-medal wines, but were not necessarily lower in colour hue. The overall phenolic content differences investigated using PCA (principal component analysis), showed separations between Otago wines and Marlborough wines, and also between vintage 2012 wines, 2011 wines and 2010 wines, although there were some overlaps in these separations. A total of 41 viable questionnaires were returned. Viticulture, winemaking and barrel ageing practices were all quite similar among wines and influences for these parameters on individual phenolics were not able to be drawn. In contrast, soils differed considerably between regions and there were consistent negative and linear correlations between vine potential vigour as affected by soil parameters (carbon content, potential rooting depth and profile readily available water) and key colour parameters (total anthocyanins, total red pigments, ionised anthocyanins, and malvidin-3-glucoside), while positive correlations with some hydroxybenzoic acids were also found.

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  • A sustainability assessment of the Waikato River Authority

    Jones, Kristy Maree

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The Waikato River is arguably one of New Zealand’s most important water bodies. It has a rich cultural heritage, and embodies a number of values for all parts of society. The river has been exposed to decades of contamination, exploitation, and degradation, and its current state now paints a sorry picture. The ecological integrity has been eroded, and relationships and values held with the river have been diminished. The creation of the Waikato River Authority in 2009 brought a new era of co-management to the table regarding the management of natural resources. The Waikato River Authority implemented a vision and strategy that would guide the restoration and protection of the health and wellbeing of the river and safeguard it for future generations. This research uses sustainability assessment to assess the potential of the Waikato River Authority to reach its vision, based on the objectives, strategy and actions implemented.

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  • New Zealand public attitudes towards genetically modified food

    Chikazhe, Taisekwa Lordwell

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Pastoral farming is the major land use in New Zealand, utilising about 40 per cent of the total land (Statistics New Zealand, 2009). Pastoral Genomics (PG), an industry-good organisation funded by the Ministry of Science and Innovation, DairyNZ, Fonterra, Beef and Lamb, Deer Research and Agresearch, is developing genetically modified (GM) ryegrass with increased biomass, drought tolerance and high sugar levels. PG is conducting field tests in North America in order to gather the data needed for submission of an application to the New Zealand Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA- now EPA ) for permission for field trials. The purpose of this study was to see if the New Zealand public’s attitudes towards GM food were changing, with the aim of understanding if such development will be acceptable to the public and become a commercial reality. The study was carried out using an online survey to track changes in public attitudes and, through the use of focus groups, to gain a deeper understanding of how, why, and if, attitudes were changing. The questionnaire was derived from Small’s 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2009 studies. This study found that the NZ public’s attitudes towards GM have remained negative. However, there was less opposition to GM food or applications that benefitted human health, compared to just GM food without any human health benefits. The level of opposition also depended on the organism that was being modified. GM animals had less support than GM plants. The implications of the findings of this study were that GM developers needed to engage and reassure the public about the safety of GM.

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