1,268 results for Thesis, Modify

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • Touchable: Adapting a Haptic Feedback Glove for Use in Rehabilitation Contexts

    Foottit, Jacques

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    With the increasing miniaturisation of computing and sensor technology, it is becoming common for electronics of all kinds to be integrated into clothing and other wearable items. Motion sensing technologies in particular have been used for a variety of consumer fitness and virtual reality applications for able-bodied people. This research explores the potential for affordable motion capture and haptic feedback technologies to be utilised in a rehabilitation context, with a specific focus on the hand. An iterative development process was used to adapt and improve an existing prototype haptic feedback glove in response to the unique challenges facing wearable device users in a rehabilitation context. Collaboration with physiotherapists provided valuable feedback throughout the design process. The result is a significantly different prototype device with major design improvements, and insights into how iterative development processes can be utilised for hardware development.

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  • Satire and Dickens

    White, Richard (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    People have a fundamental need to feel good about themselves, and sometimes we can achieve this at the expense of others. If I can laugh at someone who does something stupid, or feel superior to someone who does something unjust, or rebel against an institution which violates some natural law, then so much the better for me. Essentially, this is why I read satire. Until recently this sort of approach does not seem to have appealed to literary critics - perhaps because it demeans their subject matter - but there are many essential human needs which are satisfied by a reader's imaginative response to satire, and there is nothing ignoble in that. Satire allows us to escape the constrictions that society places on us. When we read satire we can behave badly: we laugh at other people, cackle at their stupidity, and snigger at their pomposity or hypocrisy; we revenge ourselves upon people who have bored, annoyed, or cheated us. All of this misbehaviour is sanctioned by moral propriety, and by the figure who establishes what is proper and what is not, the satirist. It is the satirist who sets up little moral victories for us, made possible by satiric attack. However, when satire becomes part of a novel, it must there vie for ascendancy with other guises of the author. The satirist must compete with the moralist, the comic, or the sentimentalist, and when this happens the reader too must evaluate their satiric victories alongside the other emotions they feel when they read other parts of a novel. Charles Dickens has many such guises, and consequently he particularly challenges the reader to cope with many different responses. This is where satire becomes even more interesting, because the victories are tempered by other, perhaps more noble emotions. The novels of Dickens present the reader with a constant battle between good and bad: both the author's and the reader's.

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  • Ideological choice in the gravestones of Dunedin's Southern Cemetery

    Edgar, Philip Gerard (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xxv, 136 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology. "December 1995."

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  • “Essentially a woman’s work”: A history of general nursing in New Zealand, 1830-1930

    Sargison, Patricia Ann (2001)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: viii, 285 leaves: illustrated; 30 cm.

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  • The Old Testament as Christian scripture: three Catholic perspectives

    Stachurski, Michael R (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: viii, 114 leaves ; 30 cm.

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  • Credit accessibility: the impact of microfinance on rural Indonesian households

    Santoso, Danang Budi

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Microfinance enables rural households to accumulate assets, smooth consumption in time of economic shocks, reduce the vulnerability due to illness, drought and crop failures, and better education, health and housing for the borrower’s household. In addition, access to finance may contribute to an improvement in the social and economic position of women participation in family decisions making. Microfinance may have positive spill-over effects such that its impact surpasses the economic and social improvement of the borrower. However, there is still concern whether microfinance performance and outreach eminently reaches the poor household. This study aims to investigate the credit accessibility and significant characteristics of rural households who are users of microcredit loans versus non-users of microcredit loans. The study also surveys the welfare impact of microfinance on rural households in Indonesia. The study administered a structured questionnaire to 605 rural households in Bantul District, Yogyakarta Province in Indonesia. Binary Logistic regression is used to investigate credit accessibility of the surveyed respondents. The results reveal that age of borrowers, household income, interest rates, and loan duration are key determinants affecting credit accessibility in the surveyed area. Similarly, binary logistic regression is used to investigate characteristics of the surveyed respondents, based upon whether they used or did not use microcredit. The empirical results suggest that age, marital status and education attainment siginificantly affect characterics of clients and non-clients of microfinance. The multinomial logit model (MNL) is used to assess the welfare impacts of microcredit in term of households income, monthly expenditure and total assets of borrowers. In term of the borrowers income, the MNL shows that age of borrowers, monthly expenditure and occupation are significant factors influencing the increase in income of the borrowers after they have accessed microcredit. In term of borrower’s total assets, the MNL model reveals that more highly educated borrowers are more likely to increase their total assets after accessing microcredit. The MNL model also reveals that only expenditure per month of borrowers has a positive correlation with the increase of welfare impacts of the clients’ expenditures.

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  • Effect of the environment during seed development on brassica seed quality

    Rashid, Muhammad

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    High quality seed is essential for the establishment of a good crop. New Zealand grown brassica seeds usually have high germination but often have variable seed vigour. The latter can result in poor crop establishment and storability. High temperature stress during seed development is known to reduce seed vigour in some species, but whether temperature stress is responsible for seed vigour loss in brassica species was not known. The effects of high temperature during seed development on forage rape (Brassica napus) seed quality were determined by assessing seed mass, germination and vigour using a sowing date trial and field and controlled environment experiments. A time of sowing trial was conducted in the 2011-12 season. A late flowering forage rape cultivar “Greenland” was sown on 25 March and 13 April, 2011 with sowings replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. Seed quality was assessed at three seed development stages (determined by seed moisture content (SMC)): at physiological maturity (PM) (≈50% SMC), pre-desiccation final stage (≈25% SMC) and harvest maturity (≈14% SMC). Seed had attained PM at between 47-52% SMC which was similar to other brassica species. The seed quality testing results demonstrated that sowing time had no effect on seed germination in the prevailing environmental conditions in that season, and at PM there were no differences in seed vigour. However, seed vigour was significantly reduced in seeds harvested at the pre-desiccation (≈25% SMC) and harvest maturity (HM) (≈14% SMC) stages for the early sowing. This was explained by a longer time of exposure to conditions which caused weathering during maturation for the March sowing. In a controlled growth room, set at 30/25 ˚C (day/night, 12 hours each, R.H 70%), plants received heat stress for four days (240 ˚Ch) at (i) seed filling ii) PM and iii) seed filling plus PM before being returned to the field until seed harvest for two consecutive seasons, 2011-12 and 2012-13. Heat stress decreased seed quality in all three treatments. In both years seed vigour was adversely affected by the heat stress, but seed germination was not. High temperature stress during seed filling produced smaller seeds but this did not occur with heat stress at PM. Seed developed at the top of the raceme was smaller and had lower germination compared with seed developed at the middle and basal raceme positions. This difference in seed quality between raceme positions became greater after heat stress. A field trial was conducted in the same two seasons with artificially created high field temperature conditions (using plastic sheet cages) during forage rape seed development. The heat stress was imposed during phase-I (seed filling to PM) and phase-II (PM to HM) and at both Phase-I+II. Heat stress during phase-I significantly reduced seed germination, vigour and seed mass, confirming the results of the controlled environment experiment. Imposition of heat stress during phase-II (after PM), however, significantly reduced seed germination and vigour but did not affect seed mass. Hourly thermal time (HTT) at a base temperature (Tb) of 25 ˚C and the number of hours that temperature remained above 25 ˚C during phase-II (from PM to HM) were significantly correlated with germination and vigour, but not seed mass. The data suggested that for a Tb of 25 ˚C, at least 100 ˚Ch before PM and 300 ˚Ch after PM were required before vigour loss occurred. The effects of high temperature during seed development were further studied at a physiological and ultrastructural level using heat stressed and non-stressed seeds from the controlled environment experiment. Both reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2) and lipid peroxidation were measured. H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) were both significantly higher in heat stressed seeds than in non- stressed seeds. Loss of seed vigour was associated with an accumulation of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation. H2O2 in heat stressed seeds was strongly correlated with seed vigour loss, suggesting that lipid peroxidation was not the only cause of seed deterioration. Seed vigour loss was also characterized by a marked decrease in the ROS scavenging antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities following heat stress. A significant negative effect of heat stress on the adenine nucleotides pool and adenylate energy charge (AEC) was recorded which indicated the altered metabolic system. This was mainly due to a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), resulting in a decrease of AEC. Electron microscopy revealed significant cellular damage in heat stressed seeds, particularly in the cell membranes and mitochondria. The decreased level of nucleotides and energy levels, and higher electrolyte leakage recorded in heat stressed seeds was associated with this structural damage. Mitochondrial ATP synthesis provides an important source of energy to complete the germination process. The mitochondrial damage in this study as a result of heat stress suggests that the mitochondria were unable to synthesize sufficient energy for the active oxidative phosphorylation required to complete successful germination.

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  • The effect of irrigation practice on drainage and solute leaching under spray irrigation on a stony soil

    Robertson, Balin Burns

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Research was conducted to assist in the improvement of irrigation efficiency on the shallow stony soils of Canterbury and identify the effect of current irrigation practice on the redistribution of solute within the soil profile. Irrigation treatments were measured using twenty-four undisturbed monolith lysimeters containing a stony Eyre shallow silt loam soil. Treatments included 15/10, 15/15, 30/20, 30/30, 60/40 and 60/60, being the respective soil deficit irrigation trigger/irrigation depth combinations (mm). The trial was split into three experiments. Experiment 1 began with a surface application of bromide tracer before exposing the lysimeters to the irrigation treatments for three months. Experiment 2 and 3 were designed to examine how the bromide had been redistributed within the pores during Experiment 1. Experiment 2 irrigated 250 mm depth continuously at 50 mm/hr to drain bromide in the macropores, while Experiment 3 irrigated 500 mm depth continuously at 2 mm/hr to drain bromide in the soil matrix. Over the three experiments, leachate was collected regularly and analysed for bromide. Preferential flow dominated solute leaching, occurring in the first drainage event irrespective of the application volume and frequency of irrigation, with leached bromide moving predominately through the macropore fraction of the soil. Treatments with greater irrigation quantities corresponded with more extensive preferential flow, drainage and for the most part, leaching in Experiment 1. Treatments irrigated to field capacity (FC) had greater leaching and drainage as well, as uniform irrigation of lysimeters in a treatment meant soil heterogeneity caused some lysimeters to exceed FC before others. Generally, there were no significant treatment effects on the cumulative bromide leached across the experiments, reflecting the dominance of preferential flow under the irrigation conditions studied. There was evidence that bromide distribution in the profile at the end of Experiment 1 was affected by treatments, with moisture status after irrigation having an effect on the bromide peak mass readings in Experiment 2, while the moisture deficit irrigation trigger influenced the bromide peak mass and cumulative mass readings in Experiment 3. However, effects were not consistent across treatments and experiments, making interpretations difficult. The results indicate that irrigation practices on Eyre shallow silt loam soils at 50 mm/hr needs to be adjusted for preferential flow, which has a dominant influence on solute distribution within the soil profile. Results imply that the 15/10 treatment had the least leaching as less extensive preferential flow means solute remains within the profile and has a greater opportunity to be immobilised.

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  • Investigating characteristics in a spatial context that contribute to where bicycle accidents occur

    Williams, Thomas

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Encouraging people to cycle more often is well supported in the academic literature due to the numerous positive economic, social and environmental benefits that are associated with the use of bicycles as a form of transportation. Despite these benefits, the use of the bicycle for day to day transportation remains relatively low outside of European and Asian countries, with one of the main barriers to encouraging more people to cycle more often being related to the perceived and actual dangers associated with riding a bicycle. Using a case-control methodology, this research investigated what characteristics contribute to where bicycle accidents occur in proportion to where to people cycle. Logistic regression analysis identified that the probability of being involved in a bicycle-motor vehicle (BMV) accident increases when specific characteristics are present and decreases with the presence of on road cycle lanes. Of the characteristics identified as being significant, accident probability is highest at intersections, with all types of intersections increasing accident probability compared to non- intersection locations. In addition to intersections, this research also identified that accident probability increases with the presence of high traffic volumes, School zones and driveways.

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  • Manipulation of the tillering dynamics in a perennial ryegrass seed crop as a response to sowing date, sowing rate and grazing

    Hewson, Nathan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seed crop is a profitable option for arable farmers in Canterbury. To achieve optimal yields there is a requirement of the crop to produce 2000 + seed heads/m² which is the result of >2000 reproductive tillers/m². The aim of this experiment is to quantify the effects of manipulating the tillering dynamics of a perennial ryegrass seed crop through the change in sowing date, sowing rate and grazing. Four sowing dates at 3 week successive intervals from the 27th of March with 4 target population densities of 200, 600, 1000 and 1400 plants/m² were sown. Times of sowing one through three with the population density of 200 – 1000 plants/m² reached the target of 2000+ fertile reproductive tillers/m² required for maximum seed yield. As sowing rate increased the number of vegetative tillers/m² also increased while the number or reproductive tillers/m² remained constant, therefore decreasing the proportion of reproductive tillers/m² as sowing rate increased. A reduction in the proportion of reproductive tillers was also seen with later sowings, along with individual reproductive tiller weight. A target population of 1400 plants/m² was impractical as increased self- thinning occurred and resulted in many of the plants dying before reproductive development. Sowing a Perennial ryegrass seed crop as late as 28th of May regardless of population density, tillering could not compensate for lost thermal time in regards to the production of reproductive tillers.

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  • LC/MS method development for the separation of anthocyanins and anthocyanin-derived pigments in red wines

    Frey, Alistair S. P.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    LC/MS method development was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting the separation of anthocyanin-3-O-glucosides in fractionated wine samples. The type and concentration of acid used to lower the pH of the HPLC solvents was found to be the most critical factor, with formic acid producing far better separations than acetic acid. The choice of solvent gradient, column temperature and flow rate were also found to affect separation. The methods thus developed were successfully applied to the separation (by HPLC) and identification (by PDA/UV-Vis and MS) of a number of anthocyanin-3-O-glucosides, anthocyanin- 3-O-acylglycosides, pyranoanthocyanins and polymeric pigments in young Pinot Noir and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. The relative amounts and proportions of anthocyanin-3-O-glucosides were compared between young wines vinified from four varieties of grape (Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot and Syrah) sourced from the Marlborough region of New Zealand.

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  • New Zealand public attitudes towards genetically modified food

    Chikazhe, Taisekwa Lordwell

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Pastoral farming is the major land use in New Zealand, utilising about 40 per cent of the total land (Statistics New Zealand, 2009). Pastoral Genomics (PG), an industry-good organisation funded by the Ministry of Science and Innovation, DairyNZ, Fonterra, Beef and Lamb, Deer Research and Agresearch, is developing genetically modified (GM) ryegrass with increased biomass, drought tolerance and high sugar levels. PG is conducting field tests in North America in order to gather the data needed for submission of an application to the New Zealand Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA- now EPA ) for permission for field trials. The purpose of this study was to see if the New Zealand public’s attitudes towards GM food were changing, with the aim of understanding if such development will be acceptable to the public and become a commercial reality. The study was carried out using an online survey to track changes in public attitudes and, through the use of focus groups, to gain a deeper understanding of how, why, and if, attitudes were changing. The questionnaire was derived from Small’s 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2009 studies. This study found that the NZ public’s attitudes towards GM have remained negative. However, there was less opposition to GM food or applications that benefitted human health, compared to just GM food without any human health benefits. The level of opposition also depended on the organism that was being modified. GM animals had less support than GM plants. The implications of the findings of this study were that GM developers needed to engage and reassure the public about the safety of GM.

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  • The response of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) to homogeneous and heterogeneous distribution of biosolids in soil

    Reis, Flavia Vilela Pereira

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Potentially, biosolids (sewage sludge) could be added to soil to enhance the growth of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) for the production of honey, essential oils, and ecosystem restoration. Given that manuka is a pioneering species that is adapted to low fertility soils, it was unclear whether there would be a positive growth response to biosolids addition. I aimed to determine the effect of biosolids addition on the biomass, root morphology and elemental composition of manuka. Pots (2.5 L) and Rhizoboxes (15 x 30 x 2.5 cm) were filled with low-fertility soils from Eyrewell Forest (Lismore brown soil) and Kaikoura (sand). Biosolids from Kaikoura (10% of the total weight by mass containing 22g N/kg) were applied either homogeneously or heterogeneously to the surface of the pots and in a 5 cm vertical strip on one side of the rhizoboxes. There was also a control (no biosolids). Each treatment was replicated thrice. Manuka seedlings were grown for 12 weeks and then the biomass, root distribution and chemical composition was determined. The addition of biosolids increased the biomass in both soils. The increases in biomass were not significantly affected by the distribution of the biosolids. However, the distribution of the biomass affected root distribution, with roots proliferating in the biosolids patches in the heterogeneous treatments. In the Kaikoura sand, the addition of biosolids increased the plant concentrations of N, C, P, S, Zn, and Cd, whereas in the Eyrewell soil the biosolids increased N, Zn, Cd and Ni. In Kaikoura there were differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous treatments in plant Zn, Cu and Ni and in Eyrewell differences occurred in Zn and Cd. None of the trace element concentrations in manuka were likely to pose a risk to herbivores or ecosystems. My experiment demonstrated that manuka responds positively to the addition of biosolids and that the positive growth response was not affected by the distribution of biosolids on two soil types. Furthermore, the addition of biosolids did not cause manuka to take up unacceptable concentrations of trace elements. Future research should investigate the performance of manuka over a longer timescale and include treatments where biosolids are applied to the soil surface of existing manuka stands. Root morphology should also be investigated for deeper understanding of foraging behaviour.

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  • Population and diet of the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri): molecular approaches

    Emami-Khoyi, Arsalan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The recent increase in the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) population has given rise to socio-economic concerns regarding the potential conflicts with human interests. Elaboration of a comprehensive management strategy has been hindered by the paucity of solid information concerning New Zealand fur seal ecology. Recent developments in massive parallel DNA sequencing and computational infrastructures were used to address some of the major areas of conflict with human commercial interests. The first focus of the current study was to test a series of non-destructive methods for collecting biological samples for high- throughput DNA analysis. A second focus of the study was application of whole mitochondrial genomes in conjunction with Y chromosome Zinc fingers (ZFY) from New Zealand fur seals throughout the whole range of the species distribution in an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework to reconstruct the recent demographic history of the species. The pristine population size (pre-human colonisation), historical population size after human first arrival and the bottleneck population size were estimated. There was enough variability left in the mitochondrial genomes to detect the 18th -19th- century’s population bottleneck in the species. The pattern observed in ZFY data set was more complicated indicating more subtle population genetics dynamics. Mitochondrial DNA were uniform in its distribution with few distant haplotypes that could represents the presence of old lineages or potential introgression from other sympatric species. The intriguing pattern observed in ZFY data also resulted in the discovery of a rare genomic event called ‘’ectopic gene conversion” between non- recombining parts of Y and X chromosomes in the New Zealand fur seal genome The third focus of the study is on the fine scale population structure of NZ fur seals at a local scale around Banks Peninsula, -South Island, and New Zealand. No evidence of local population structure was found in the area suggesting the presence of substantial gene flow among colonies at a local scale. Moreover, the “spill over“ colony expansion dynamics, suggested previously as a pattern for recolonizing new habitat, was supported at the local scale using genetic data. Most of the newly-established colonies in the area showed the highest degree of genetic structure similarities with older colonies in their vicinity emphasizing the important role of “spill over” dynamics of older colonies in formation of new colonies. The data significantly support multi recolonization events with occasional local recruitment of immigrating individuals. There is a short mitogenomic announcement in chapter five where I used the complete mitogenomes of New Zealand fur seals in addition to three mustelid species (all de novo sequenced in the current research) to re-examine the origin of pinnipeds in the light of new available mitogenomes. The final focus of the study used molecular-based methods to identify the prey and parasite items of the New Zealand fur seal from massive parallel sequencing of faeces and regurgitates. The overlap between the diet of the seals and commercial fisheries were also estimated. Data supported a generalist pattern of feeding behaviour of the New Zealand fur seal. As many as 64 prey species were identified from faecal samples and/or regurgitates in a single colony. Surprisingly, only 10% of species in fur seals diet were species of commercial interest. The population and diet data will provide marine ecosystem managers with an increased knowledge necessary for elaborating any long-term conservation plan for the New Zealand fur seal.

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  • Indigenous biodiversity protection and sustainable management in the Upper Waimakariri Basin

    Snoyink, Nicola Lee

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Human activity, unintentional or purposeful, has an impact on biodiversity health. History, world view and experience influence human activity and behaviour toward the natural world. Despite significant commitment to nature conservation, New Zealand continues to experience biodiversity loss, especially on private land where some of the most vulnerable and under-protected ecosystems occur. Given that indigenous biodiversity protection is embedded in the principles of the Resource Management Act 1991, this research asks to what extent is indigenous biodiversity protection compatible with sustainable management, through a case study of indigenous biodiversity management on private land in the upper Waimakariri basin, in New Zealand’s South Island high country. The research examines the types of indigenous biodiversity conservation practices undertaken by private land managers, and is framed through the lens of ecological literacy and the influence of neoliberal ideology. Adoption and patterns of diffusion of practices are identified through relationships between individuals, organisations, institutions and mechanisms. The research found that indigenous biodiversity enhancement is a part of sustainable management but practices are influenced by biophysical context and location, internal factors such as the world view and experience of the land manager and the local economy and external factors such as the social network, economic drivers, government policy and the availability of additional resourcing. While legal requirements for environmental management are generally met, more insidious impacts on indigenous biodiversity are overlooked, and a lack of co-ordination between government goals creates perverse effects for biodiversity. The research found that private property rights often constrained a broader catchment view and market drivers to increase primary productivity risks further indigenous biodiversity loss. However given that the upper Waimakariri basin contains significant intact though modified tracts of indigenous flora and fauna, naturally occurring lakes and wetlands as well an informed and willing community, there may be an opportunity to trial innovative market mechanisms and alternative land uses to encourage further indigenous biodiversity protection. Conclusions from this research suggest the need to examine the potential utility of a National Policy Statement for Indigenous Biodiversity to clarify planning rules and responsibilities for biodiversity; and the opportunity to examine the potential for use of targeted economic instruments that encourage private landowners to preserve and protect remaining indigenous biodiversity. On doing this New Zealand may be more likely to reduce indigenous biodiversity loss as well as meet its international obligation, while sustaining its international reputation.

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  • Evaluating Trichoderma atroviride and water supply impacts on Miscanthus x giganteus in New Zealand

    Shaw, Victoria

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Miscanthus x giganteus is one of the most promising biofuel feedstocks in the world. This second-generation biofuel source yields 40+ t DM/ha/yr without the need for high inputs of synthetic nitrogen fertiliser. In New Zealand, M. x giganteus is primarily used for the replacement of tree shelterbelts removed for centre pivot irrigation. The perennial, hybrid grass provides at least 16 ecosystem services to a landscape and therefore enhancing its production potential is desired. Trichoderma atroviride is a soil fungus that often functions as a bio-control agent against soil-borne plant pathogens and as a plant growth promoter. Past research indicates that there is potential to use this fungus to enhance plant production. The objective of this glasshouse study was to evaluate whether T. atroviride increases M. x giganteus production and some physiological parameters under varied water conditions: Drought, intermediate to well-watered. Results concluded that water significantly increased all plant variables, which was expected. Well-watered M. x giganteus plants had a mean dry weight of 60.4 g plant-1, producing 238.7% and 756.0% more dry matter than intermediate and drought plants respectively. In contrast, the PR5 T. atroviride strain mix had no effect on any variable compared with plants that were not inoculated. However, there was an interaction between T. atroviride and water in inoculated plants under drought. Inoculated drought plants had a 21.0% higher chlorophyll content and 3.6% higher percentage of total dry matter than plants that were not inoculated. Further research in the field is required to determine the effects of variable soil fertility treatments on M. x giganteus plants with and without T. atroviride. Monitoring the abundance of T. atroviride in roots of M. x giganteus under variable water treatments would also be valuable in determining the competitiveness, effectiveness, growth and survival of the fungus in certain environments.

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  • The evolution of total energy inputs in the New Zealand dairy industry

    Podstolski, Marcel

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    In 1998, Wells (2001) conducted a national study of the total energy inputs of New Zealand dairy farms. The study demonstrated the superiority in energy efficiency of New Zealand dairy production compared to that of European farms. Over the past decade, New Zealand’s dairy industry has transformed. With the growth of the industry in nontraditional regions, as well as a significant increases in irrigation, nitrogenous fertilisers, and supplementary feeds, there has been a substantial growth in milk production driven by an increasingly commodified export market. While the industry has experienced significant changes in the past 10 years, these changes have not yet been reflected in research. As a consequence, the impacts of these developments on the energy requirements of milk production are not yet fully documented. This study addresses that gap in data. This study is the first comprehensive, national assessment of energy requirements of New Zealand dairy farms since 1998. In this study, the total energy inputs of 135 New Zealand farms were calculated to determine their energy intensity and efficiency. Results were compared with energy input records from 1978 and 1998. Results of this study suggest that, in comparison with historical data, dairy farm energy intensity has significantly increased in all regions of New Zealand; energy efficiency has worsened in all but one geographical region. Despite this, New Zealand dairy farms are still more energy efficient than those of other major international competitors, which suggests the competitive advantage still remains. This research identifies the key drivers of changes to energy inputs, and offers recommendations for reducing the energy consumption of dairy production, to safeguard against energy vulnerability, and to reduce the environmental impacts of the dairy industry.

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  • The long-term effectiveness of the New Zealand Green Prescription primary health care intervention on Christchurch residents

    Yule, Elise

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the long term effectiveness of the ‘Green Prescription’ programme, (GRx) in encouraging an increase in physical activity levels in previously inactive individuals, between Janurary 1st 2012 – May 1st 2014. Participants were a non-randomised subset of a larger GRx population. Prescribed Christchurch residents were seperated into two groups, the intervention group (discharged-independently active from the programme) and the control group (discharged-not registered-declined programme and discharged-registered-declined programme). These groups were then randomly selected using Microsoft Excel. A retrospective survey was administered and conducted via telephone. Completed surveys were attained from 147 of 498 participants, a total response rate of 29.9% between the two groups. Forty-one percent of participants in the intervention group reported increases in physical activity levels since being prescribed the GRx programme, 23.1% meet the national physical activity guidelines, and 73.6% were classified as non-sedentary. A higher proportion of the control group (46.4%) were classified as sedentary and only 16.1% met the national physical activity guidelines. Participants who had completed a GRx averaged 146.9 ± 173.5 (mean ± SD) physical activity minutes per week in comparision to the control group 83.1 ± 100.3. A decrease in meeting physical activity guidelines was observed the longer participants were off the Green Prescription Programme. Participants in the intervention group also reported higher levels of energy, increased mobility, a decrease in medication, body weight and aches and pains, had fewer breathing difficulties, felt stronger and more mentally relaxed compared to those in the control group.

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  • Making the (in)visible, visible: a post-disaster case study of social networks in the suburb of Sumner, Christchurch.

    Marquet, Michelle Rose

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The social dimension of disaster recovery has, in recent times, gained attention in the literature in the fields of social capital, community-based recovery, wellbeing and resilience. Social networks are a consistently recognised component across this scholarship. While there has been a great deal of research around the role and value of social networks, there has been an insufficient amount of work carried out on identifying the social networks themselves. This has resulted in the dominance of some networks (visible networks) and the (in)visibility of others - networks that are recognised, but not assigned enough significance. This thesis presents the results of research that sought to explore this gap by identifying the form and diversity of social networks and exploring their meaning in the post-disaster suburb of Sumner Christchurch. This qualitative case study approach utilised in-depth interviews, open-ended questions and observation. Findings reveal the existence of many more informal social networks than the visible networks typically identified in the literature. Moreover, these (in)visible networks held a variety of meanings for residents of Sumner that were significant for disaster recovery. It can be concluded that (in)visible networks are a valuable form of social network in disaster recovery, and worthy of greater attention.

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