1,681 results for Thesis, Share

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • Disrupting the binary: a space for gender diversity

    Harris, Kathryn (2015)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    It is by now almost self-­‐evident that binary models of the highly nuanced concept of gender are at best incomplete, and limit understanding of the diversity of gender expression. In this work, I summarise and critique standard models of gender. I discuss three broad approaches to gender: biological, social and biosocial. A central problem inherent in these approaches is that they almost always revert to a form of binary discourse — even as they critique such an approach — because the fundamental understanding of gender is rooted in discrete classifications. Drawing on theoretical discourse from prominent theorists, I explore an alternative approach to gender classifications and experiences. I suggest that new approaches and alternate models are needed to express ideas and data of gender more inclusively and with greater accuracy. This work includes my research and discussion of a gender spectrum as represented by a colour-­‐wheel. I introduce the Colour-­‐ Wheel of Gender Diversity and its practical applications. Exploration of diversity and its implications in both the personal realm and the social are essential in the quest to move towards ideals of fairness and equality. I believe that it is important to problem-­‐solve issues of non-­‐representation that cause oppression in our society and to enable legitimate understandings of a continuum of gendered realities.

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  • Archaeology and Shell Adzes in Prehistoric Oceania: A Revised Methodological Approach to the Descriptive Analysis of a Solomon Islands Collection

    Radclyffe, Charles (2015-12-09)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation examines archaeological study of shell adzes in the Pacific. It provides a critical review of archaeological methodology and terminology used in descriptive analysis of this artefact class. It raises important problems that are hindering this subject including a lack of clarity and conformity in the selection of criteria used to describe shell adzes, ambiguity in nomenclature, and the restricted capacity of existing criteria to accommodate a wide range of morphological variation of these artefacts. In addition, it argues that archaeologists have focused almost exclusively on describing typological variation for culture historical purposes. This is problematic as it has resulted in the neglect of a wider range of issues important in shell adze study, specifically technology, function and ecology. A revised methodology is proposed to address these problems and is applied in the descriptive analysis of two collections of shell adzes from Solomon Islands: one stored at the Otago Museum in Dunedin, New Zealand and the other at Solomon Islands National Museum in Honiara, Solomon Islands. The morphological and metric characteristics of the different shell adze varieties is described, as well as evidence of manufacturing processes involved in their creation. The findings of this analysis are then discussed in relation to their implications for broadening shell adze analysis by incorporating technological, functional and ecological issues. Problems encountered in the analysis are highlighted, and recommendations are made to further develop methodology in shell adze analysis.

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  • Touchable: Adapting a Haptic Feedback Glove for Use in Rehabilitation Contexts

    Foottit, Jacques

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    With the increasing miniaturisation of computing and sensor technology, it is becoming common for electronics of all kinds to be integrated into clothing and other wearable items. Motion sensing technologies in particular have been used for a variety of consumer fitness and virtual reality applications for able-bodied people. This research explores the potential for affordable motion capture and haptic feedback technologies to be utilised in a rehabilitation context, with a specific focus on the hand. An iterative development process was used to adapt and improve an existing prototype haptic feedback glove in response to the unique challenges facing wearable device users in a rehabilitation context. Collaboration with physiotherapists provided valuable feedback throughout the design process. The result is a significantly different prototype device with major design improvements, and insights into how iterative development processes can be utilised for hardware development.

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  • Satire and Dickens

    White, Richard (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    People have a fundamental need to feel good about themselves, and sometimes we can achieve this at the expense of others. If I can laugh at someone who does something stupid, or feel superior to someone who does something unjust, or rebel against an institution which violates some natural law, then so much the better for me. Essentially, this is why I read satire. Until recently this sort of approach does not seem to have appealed to literary critics - perhaps because it demeans their subject matter - but there are many essential human needs which are satisfied by a reader's imaginative response to satire, and there is nothing ignoble in that. Satire allows us to escape the constrictions that society places on us. When we read satire we can behave badly: we laugh at other people, cackle at their stupidity, and snigger at their pomposity or hypocrisy; we revenge ourselves upon people who have bored, annoyed, or cheated us. All of this misbehaviour is sanctioned by moral propriety, and by the figure who establishes what is proper and what is not, the satirist. It is the satirist who sets up little moral victories for us, made possible by satiric attack. However, when satire becomes part of a novel, it must there vie for ascendancy with other guises of the author. The satirist must compete with the moralist, the comic, or the sentimentalist, and when this happens the reader too must evaluate their satiric victories alongside the other emotions they feel when they read other parts of a novel. Charles Dickens has many such guises, and consequently he particularly challenges the reader to cope with many different responses. This is where satire becomes even more interesting, because the victories are tempered by other, perhaps more noble emotions. The novels of Dickens present the reader with a constant battle between good and bad: both the author's and the reader's.

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  • Ideological choice in the gravestones of Dunedin's Southern Cemetery

    Edgar, Philip Gerard (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xxv, 136 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology. "December 1995."

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  • “Essentially a woman’s work”: A history of general nursing in New Zealand, 1830-1930

    Sargison, Patricia Ann (2001)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: viii, 285 leaves: illustrated; 30 cm.

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  • How does the concept of cultural competence affect the practice of bioethics and health law

    Gray, Ben (2014-05-17)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Cultural Competence is one of the competencies required of all Health Practitioners in New Zealand since the enacting of the Health Practitioners Competence Assurance Act in 2003. This dissertation examines what relationship there is between this concept and Bioethics and Health Law. The dissertation argues that the need for the concept of Cultural Competence comes from the failure of the Bioethics community to adequately address the fundamental ethical issue that non-dominant cultural groups frequently receive inferior care, and have significantly worse health outcomes, than people who are part of the dominant cultural group. The definition of Cultural Competence is not agreed upon in the literature so I have examined the policies of the sixteen Health Practitioner Registration Authorities in New Zealand to develop a New Zealand definition to work from. The most important triggers for the development of Cultural Competence were the fact that there were significant health outcome disparities affecting non-dominant cultural groups, and people from non-dominant cultural groups do not receive care that is cognisant of their values, beliefs and ways of living. Cultural Competence is particularly important in New Zealand because we have an increasingly diverse community and there are significant health outcome disparities, some of which are caused by inequitable access to healthcare services. Practising in a culturally competent way is important for non-dominant cultural groups, but also for many people within the dominant cultural group. This is because of the cultural distance between many people and their health care providers, where the explanatory model of clinician and patient are not congruent. An important indicator of this is the level of non-compliance of patients with investigation and treatments recommended by their clinicians. Most bioethics problems are complex, and if complexity science is applied to them it becomes clear that bioethical judgements are based on an uncertain factual base, change with time and need to be made by the people involved in the problem. The concept of frame of reference is usefully applied to bioethics problems, understanding that every person will approach a problem from a different (sometimes slightly different, sometimes significantly different) frame of reference. An understanding of the frame of reference of all parties involved in a problem is essential to good decision making. I will argue that both Cultural Relativism and Moral Objectivism are inadequate positions to deal with a multicultural society and develop a concept of Complex Principlism as a framework for analysing bioethical problems. Bioethics is a relational activity and it is essential to focus on maintaining a functional relationship with all involved in the problem and understanding how to establish and maintain trust and utilise fair process, rather than just focussing on analysing what you as an individual believe is the right answer to the problem. We live in a multicultural society but do not value multiculturalism, although New Zealand does value biculturalism between Maori and the dominant cultural group. There is strong evidence in favour of putting the valuing of multiculturalism at the centre of our governance. This would contribute significantly to improving health outcome disparities and is an essential strategy to learn how to live successfully in the modern world.

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  • The Old Testament as Christian scripture: three Catholic perspectives

    Stachurski, Michael R (1998)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: viii, 114 leaves ; 30 cm.

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  • Farming Out Our Responsibilities for Animal Welfare: Does the New Zealand Animal Welfare Act Meet Our Obligations to Animals?

    King, Michael Robert (2010-12-18)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    What, if any, moral obligations we have to animals is a matter of intense debate. Views in moral and political philosophy vary from those that give animals no moral status in themselves, to those that give animals a fundamental moral status equal to humans. These theories are reviewed and critiqued. Despite the disagreement among these theories, common moral judgments concerning animals are found. These are that: animals have direct moral status (or should be treated as if they do); and animal suffering is a moral concern. These lead to two obligations: a negative prima facie duty to avoid harming animals; and a positive prima facie duty to improve the welfare of animals that are suffering. The New Zealand Animal Welfare Act (1999) is reviewed and critiqued in light of these moral judgments. It is found that the provisions in the Act and related policy are insufficient to satisfy both duties in significant respects. In particular, monitoring and enforcement of the Act is largely funded through public charity, which is unsatisfactory. The duties are developed further, their normative implications are examined, and objections are addressed.

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  • The Changing Language Learning Motivations of Learners from Mainland China Studying English in New Zealand

    Bowen, Sarah (2008-04-10)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This study investigates the motivations to learn English of Chinese second language students studying in New Zealand. It also examines their views of the New Zealand language learning (LL) environment and explores the influence of Confucian Heritage Culture (CHC) and educational background on these views. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and essays from two male and two female students at three points during their first six months of study in New Zealand. The main findings about motivation are: they had both instrumental and integrative motivations for learning English; the instrumental and integrative paradigms were inadequate for describing the motives that they exhibited; these motives changed over time; culture played an important role in shaping motivation; environmental prejudice had a negative impact on motivation. It is concluded that previous process models of motivation are inadequate to account for the variety of motivations and motivational influences described by participants. The main findings about the New Zealand LL environment are: they had both positive and negative views of the New Zealand LL environment; their views tended to become more positive as they saw the utility of this environment in supporting their learning goals. Qualitative data of this kind could be complemented by classroom observations. Implications for teachers, theorists, and New Zealand schools are discussed in the conclusion.

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  • Feedback and revision: A protocol analysis

    Rajoo, Margaret (2009-10-20)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Written feedback is a widespread practice and has garnered considerable positive and negative attention. The responses that teachers provide on students’ writing are essential to encourage and develop students’ writing. However, an in-depth understanding of the thought processes of student writers as they attend to written feedback is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the thought processes and reactions of student writers towards written teacher feedback. Using a case study methodology, verbal protocols of eight postgraduate students were recorded as they attended to teacher feedback on their essays. Written texts, written teacher comments, and a questionnaire survey supplemented the data. The findings from this study indicate that the participants attended to written feedback recursively. Second, the act of thinking aloud led to noticing the disparities highlighted in the feedback. Finally the results suggest that students’ engagement with written teacher feedback is a social activity that encompasses a complex and dynamic interpersonal process between student writers and their feedback provider. This study concludes by raising several implications for teaching and learning. It suggests that it is important for teachers to be aware of the impact of feedback. Additionally, this study proposes that the think-aloud technique is useful as an implement in teaching writing, being a means of helping students reflect on feedback and develop their writing. Finally, it points out that both cognitive and sociocultural approaches to think-aloud data offer insights into the thought processes of writers.

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  • Effects of Exercise Training Modalities on Fat Oxidation in Overweight and Obese Women

    Phillips, Vicky (2009-11-27)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    View Appendix J of this thesis via the DOI provided in this record: Phillips, V.K., Legge, M., & Jones, L. M. (2008). Maximal Physiological Responses between Aquatic and Land Exercise in Overweight Women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40, 959-964.

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  • A Perceptual Basis for Noun Phrase Syntax

    Walles, Hayden (2009-06-25)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Human language is the result of both biological and cultural evolution. To have the best chance of understanding language we must seek all the constraints of that evolution. In the first part of my thesis I propose the general hypothesis that the sensorimotor system is one of those constraints and argue that regardless of whether language is the result of biological evolution, cultural evolution, or both, we should expect idiosyncrasies of the sensorimotor system to be reflected in linguistic structure. The bulk of the thesis explores a particular version of this hypothesis – namely that visual attention and classification of objects are reflected in noun phrase syntax. Within the noun phrase the noun stem (e.g. “dog”) and number morphology (e.g. “-s”) are contributed by separate syntactic elements; I argue that this reflects a separation of functionality in the sensorimotor system. To begin an exploration of this hypothesis I draw upon existing models of visual attention by Itti and Koch (2000) and object classification by Mozer and Sitton (1998), adapting and combining them into a new computational model. The key new idea in the model is that object classification is cardinality blind which means its output is the same whether presented with one token of a class or many tokens of the class. This allows groups of similar objects to be handled at once. I implement a model of classification which, like primate object classification, is location invariant. In my model cardinality blindness emerges naturally from location invariance. I argue the same thing happens in primates, reviewing neurophysiological evidence for this. To cater for a cardinality-blind classifier I also implement extensions to a standard model of visual attention. The combined classifier and attentional models elegantly reproduce a number of human results, including Gestalt grouping by similarity, global precedence (Navon, 1977) and the role of stimulus similarity in visual search (Duncan and Humphreys, 1989). These results show that the model does useful work in an account of the visual system. With the visual foundation established I propose a simple model of the interface between visual cognition and noun phrase syntax. Within my model the information corresponding to the noun stem is produced by the classifier and is cardinality blind so carries no number information. The information corresponding to singular or plural number morphology is produced separately by the attentional system. The decomposition of information in my model corresponds to the same decomposition of information in noun phrases. I conclude that cardinality blindness in the visual system can explain this aspect of noun phrase syntax, supporting the general hypothesis that natural language syntax reflects properties of the sensorimotor system and inviting further theories of this nature.

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  • Epigenetic Programming and In Vitro Fertilisation

    Oliver, Verity Frances (2010-04-08)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    In vitro fertilisation (IVF) potentially provides a profoundly abnormal environment for an embryo. Studies with mice, sheep and cattle have indicated that the culture environment of the embryo can affect the imprinting of genes and the phenotype of the animal. Recent studies have suggested that IVF causes a small but increased risk of epigenetic imprinting aberrations such as Angelman syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Our previously published IVF cohort is taller, has higher levels of growth hormones and a better lipid profile than age-matched controls. Mosaicism for the imprinting defect at SNRPN has been observed in Angelman syndrome. We hypothesised that mosaic imprinting defects may be present in phenotypically normal individuals conceived using IVF. DNA samples from peripheral blood were obtained from 66 IVF-conceived children and 69 matched controls. DNA methylation of CpG sites within the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome region (H19, KCNQ1OT1 and IGF2) and the Angelman syndrome region (SNRPN) were quantified using methylation-sensitive restriction digest followed by real-time quantitative PCR (MSQ-PCR). Global DNA methylation was also examined by using MSQ-PCR on Satellite 2 repeats. No differences in the percentage of methylation between the IVF and naturally conceived children were observed at H19 (P = 0.75; unpaired t-test), KCNQ1OT1 (P = 0.98), SNRPN (P = 0.33), IGF2 (P = 0.44) or Satellite 2 (P = 0.79). These results were confirmed using bisulfite sequencing. An individual with Prader-Willi syndrome was identified during the recruitment of this cohort. Five Prader-Willi syndrome cases have previously been identified in the IVF population. The underlying cause of Prader-Willi syndrome was identified to be a deletion of the chromosome 15q11-q13 region. This case did not provide evidence that aberrant methylation can occur during IVF. Pyrosequencing technology was used to measure the methylation at multiple CpG sites within H19. No methylation defects were identified at H19 in the IVF group compared to naturally conceived controls. This technology proved to be prone to inaccuracies and was not used for subsequent analyses. Genome-wide methylation analysis was examined using microarray technology and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP). Thirteen candidate differentially methylated genes between the IVF-conceived and control children were identified. Detailed examination of candidate genes using the Sequenom MassARRAY® EpiTYPER® system did not reveal any differential methylation at these genes assessed in the IVF and naturally conceived children. Although anthropomorphic and endocrinological data suggested a phenotypic difference between IVF and naturally conceived children, no differentially methylated genes were identified that could account for these differences. We concluded that low-level imprinting errors are not a common occurrence in children conceived using IVF. Our data also provides reassurance that IVF-associated epigenetic errors are sporadic and rare.

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  • The Influence of Contextual Factors on Revision Strategies: The Case of Four Malaysian Native Speakers of English in a Mainstream E.S.L. Classroom

    Mallan, Vijay Kumar (2005-07-27)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This case study explored the revision strategies of four Malaysian native speakers of English when they composed aloud while writing an argumentative essay. Think aloud verbal protocols were analysed using the grounded theory approach in conjunction with written texts. The findings suggest that contextual factors influenced classroom practices. The contextual factors included a teacher who was not provided with adequate training, administrative policies which did not provide support for the development of writers based on their abilities, writing instruction which viewed revision as a process of error correction and public assessment practices which were non-transparent. These classroom practices influenced the participants' beliefs about revision. These beliefs affected the quality of their essays as judged by Malaysian public examiners. Additionally, the findings suggest a mismatch between classroom instruction and public examination. Suggestions are made to address these concerns by considering the theoretical underpinnings of the cognitive process, socio-cultural and community of practice models of writing and learning. These include instruction on revision strategies, considering alternative assessment practices, providing formative feedback, ability streaming, focussing on critical reading skills and providing adequate support to the teacher.

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  • The Brain of Melchizedek: a Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Spirituality

    Davis, Jeffery Jonathan Joshua (2009-03-30)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    A new paradigm for the study of consciousness and spirituality.

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  • An unexpected journey: the biogeography and conservation ecology of the trapdoor spider genus Cantuaria Hogg, 1902

    Smith, Victoria Rose

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The genus Cantuaria consists of 42 currently recognised species, all of which are endemic to New Zealand (NZ). Cantuaria spiderlings build their burrows near to their mothers, and usually remain there for life. Cantuaria’s sedentary life history is at odds with its distribution, which reaches from Stewart Island up to Whanganui. Cantuaria’s sister genus Misgolas Karsch, 1878 is found in Australia. In this thesis, I used a dated multilocus Bayesian phylogeny to reconstruct [1] when the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Cantuaria diverged from Misgolas, and [2] the distribution history of Cantuaria within NZ. My results showed that Cantuaria and Misgolas shared a MRCA as recently as 18 million years ago, indicating long distance dispersal in Cantuaria’s biogeographic history. However, there was also evidence to suggest that vicariant geographic barriers interrupt dispersal, as species to the east and west of the Southern Alps share a most recent common ancestor approximately 5-8 million years ago. The genus appears to have originated in the southern part of the South Island, before moving gradually northwards. Cantuaria phylogenies were used to delimit species using the Poisson tree process, and 12 new species are described. Morphology and phylogeny do not concur, and geographic location combined with DNA are the most reliable methods for identifying Cantuaria species. Due to Cantuaria species’ small populations (defined as a semi-isolated individual or group of individuals) and lack of dispersal ability, I hypothesised that they would be susceptible to habitat loss and disturbance. My research investigated how different types of habitat and disturbance affect Cantuaria population presence/absence. I also assessed the threats that may be facing individual populations. A taxon that is easily susceptible to changing environmental parameters may be less likely to survive and colonise new territory after a long-distance ocean crossing. My results show that Cantuaria, surprisingly, are able to breed and reproduce in a variety of habitat types, but they are found less often in areas with very high rainfall, and in high elevation areas. Some populations appear to contain very few individuals, and may be threatened by habitat destruction. The threats to Cantuaria populations include climate change (which may increase rainfall in some areas) and urbanisation. A meta-analysis of biogeographical research from the last decade for all taxa investigated the factors that may affect a species’ biogeographic history in NZ and found no evidence to suggest that characteristics, such as dispersal ability, affect a species’ biogeographical history over evolutionary time.

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  • Investigating characteristics in a spatial context that contribute to where bicycle accidents occur

    Williams, Thomas

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Encouraging people to cycle more often is well supported in the academic literature due to the numerous positive economic, social and environmental benefits that are associated with the use of bicycles as a form of transportation. Despite these benefits, the use of the bicycle for day to day transportation remains relatively low outside of European and Asian countries, with one of the main barriers to encouraging more people to cycle more often being related to the perceived and actual dangers associated with riding a bicycle. Using a case-control methodology, this research investigated what characteristics contribute to where bicycle accidents occur in proportion to where to people cycle. Logistic regression analysis identified that the probability of being involved in a bicycle-motor vehicle (BMV) accident increases when specific characteristics are present and decreases with the presence of on road cycle lanes. Of the characteristics identified as being significant, accident probability is highest at intersections, with all types of intersections increasing accident probability compared to non- intersection locations. In addition to intersections, this research also identified that accident probability increases with the presence of high traffic volumes, School zones and driveways.

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  • Manipulation of the tillering dynamics in a perennial ryegrass seed crop as a response to sowing date, sowing rate and grazing

    Hewson, Nathan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seed crop is a profitable option for arable farmers in Canterbury. To achieve optimal yields there is a requirement of the crop to produce 2000 + seed heads/m² which is the result of >2000 reproductive tillers/m². The aim of this experiment is to quantify the effects of manipulating the tillering dynamics of a perennial ryegrass seed crop through the change in sowing date, sowing rate and grazing. Four sowing dates at 3 week successive intervals from the 27th of March with 4 target population densities of 200, 600, 1000 and 1400 plants/m² were sown. Times of sowing one through three with the population density of 200 – 1000 plants/m² reached the target of 2000+ fertile reproductive tillers/m² required for maximum seed yield. As sowing rate increased the number of vegetative tillers/m² also increased while the number or reproductive tillers/m² remained constant, therefore decreasing the proportion of reproductive tillers/m² as sowing rate increased. A reduction in the proportion of reproductive tillers was also seen with later sowings, along with individual reproductive tiller weight. A target population of 1400 plants/m² was impractical as increased self- thinning occurred and resulted in many of the plants dying before reproductive development. Sowing a Perennial ryegrass seed crop as late as 28th of May regardless of population density, tillering could not compensate for lost thermal time in regards to the production of reproductive tillers.

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