35 results for Thesis, Use commercially

  • Archaeology and Shell Adzes in Prehistoric Oceania: A Revised Methodological Approach to the Descriptive Analysis of a Solomon Islands Collection

    Radclyffe, Charles (2015-12-09)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation examines archaeological study of shell adzes in the Pacific. It provides a critical review of archaeological methodology and terminology used in descriptive analysis of this artefact class. It raises important problems that are hindering this subject including a lack of clarity and conformity in the selection of criteria used to describe shell adzes, ambiguity in nomenclature, and the restricted capacity of existing criteria to accommodate a wide range of morphological variation of these artefacts. In addition, it argues that archaeologists have focused almost exclusively on describing typological variation for culture historical purposes. This is problematic as it has resulted in the neglect of a wider range of issues important in shell adze study, specifically technology, function and ecology. A revised methodology is proposed to address these problems and is applied in the descriptive analysis of two collections of shell adzes from Solomon Islands: one stored at the Otago Museum in Dunedin, New Zealand and the other at Solomon Islands National Museum in Honiara, Solomon Islands. The morphological and metric characteristics of the different shell adze varieties is described, as well as evidence of manufacturing processes involved in their creation. The findings of this analysis are then discussed in relation to their implications for broadening shell adze analysis by incorporating technological, functional and ecological issues. Problems encountered in the analysis are highlighted, and recommendations are made to further develop methodology in shell adze analysis.

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  • Touchable: Adapting a Haptic Feedback Glove for Use in Rehabilitation Contexts

    Foottit, Jacques

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    With the increasing miniaturisation of computing and sensor technology, it is becoming common for electronics of all kinds to be integrated into clothing and other wearable items. Motion sensing technologies in particular have been used for a variety of consumer fitness and virtual reality applications for able-bodied people. This research explores the potential for affordable motion capture and haptic feedback technologies to be utilised in a rehabilitation context, with a specific focus on the hand. An iterative development process was used to adapt and improve an existing prototype haptic feedback glove in response to the unique challenges facing wearable device users in a rehabilitation context. Collaboration with physiotherapists provided valuable feedback throughout the design process. The result is a significantly different prototype device with major design improvements, and insights into how iterative development processes can be utilised for hardware development.

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  • Satire and Dickens

    White, Richard (1997)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    People have a fundamental need to feel good about themselves, and sometimes we can achieve this at the expense of others. If I can laugh at someone who does something stupid, or feel superior to someone who does something unjust, or rebel against an institution which violates some natural law, then so much the better for me. Essentially, this is why I read satire. Until recently this sort of approach does not seem to have appealed to literary critics - perhaps because it demeans their subject matter - but there are many essential human needs which are satisfied by a reader's imaginative response to satire, and there is nothing ignoble in that. Satire allows us to escape the constrictions that society places on us. When we read satire we can behave badly: we laugh at other people, cackle at their stupidity, and snigger at their pomposity or hypocrisy; we revenge ourselves upon people who have bored, annoyed, or cheated us. All of this misbehaviour is sanctioned by moral propriety, and by the figure who establishes what is proper and what is not, the satirist. It is the satirist who sets up little moral victories for us, made possible by satiric attack. However, when satire becomes part of a novel, it must there vie for ascendancy with other guises of the author. The satirist must compete with the moralist, the comic, or the sentimentalist, and when this happens the reader too must evaluate their satiric victories alongside the other emotions they feel when they read other parts of a novel. Charles Dickens has many such guises, and consequently he particularly challenges the reader to cope with many different responses. This is where satire becomes even more interesting, because the victories are tempered by other, perhaps more noble emotions. The novels of Dickens present the reader with a constant battle between good and bad: both the author's and the reader's.

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  • Ideological choice in the gravestones of Dunedin's Southern Cemetery

    Edgar, Philip Gerard (1995)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    xxv, 136 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology. "December 1995."

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  • Investigating characteristics in a spatial context that contribute to where bicycle accidents occur

    Williams, Thomas

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Encouraging people to cycle more often is well supported in the academic literature due to the numerous positive economic, social and environmental benefits that are associated with the use of bicycles as a form of transportation. Despite these benefits, the use of the bicycle for day to day transportation remains relatively low outside of European and Asian countries, with one of the main barriers to encouraging more people to cycle more often being related to the perceived and actual dangers associated with riding a bicycle. Using a case-control methodology, this research investigated what characteristics contribute to where bicycle accidents occur in proportion to where to people cycle. Logistic regression analysis identified that the probability of being involved in a bicycle-motor vehicle (BMV) accident increases when specific characteristics are present and decreases with the presence of on road cycle lanes. Of the characteristics identified as being significant, accident probability is highest at intersections, with all types of intersections increasing accident probability compared to non- intersection locations. In addition to intersections, this research also identified that accident probability increases with the presence of high traffic volumes, School zones and driveways.

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  • Manipulation of the tillering dynamics in a perennial ryegrass seed crop as a response to sowing date, sowing rate and grazing

    Hewson, Nathan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) seed crop is a profitable option for arable farmers in Canterbury. To achieve optimal yields there is a requirement of the crop to produce 2000 + seed heads/m² which is the result of >2000 reproductive tillers/m². The aim of this experiment is to quantify the effects of manipulating the tillering dynamics of a perennial ryegrass seed crop through the change in sowing date, sowing rate and grazing. Four sowing dates at 3 week successive intervals from the 27th of March with 4 target population densities of 200, 600, 1000 and 1400 plants/m² were sown. Times of sowing one through three with the population density of 200 – 1000 plants/m² reached the target of 2000+ fertile reproductive tillers/m² required for maximum seed yield. As sowing rate increased the number of vegetative tillers/m² also increased while the number or reproductive tillers/m² remained constant, therefore decreasing the proportion of reproductive tillers/m² as sowing rate increased. A reduction in the proportion of reproductive tillers was also seen with later sowings, along with individual reproductive tiller weight. A target population of 1400 plants/m² was impractical as increased self- thinning occurred and resulted in many of the plants dying before reproductive development. Sowing a Perennial ryegrass seed crop as late as 28th of May regardless of population density, tillering could not compensate for lost thermal time in regards to the production of reproductive tillers.

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  • The response of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) to homogeneous and heterogeneous distribution of biosolids in soil

    Reis, Flavia Vilela Pereira

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Potentially, biosolids (sewage sludge) could be added to soil to enhance the growth of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) for the production of honey, essential oils, and ecosystem restoration. Given that manuka is a pioneering species that is adapted to low fertility soils, it was unclear whether there would be a positive growth response to biosolids addition. I aimed to determine the effect of biosolids addition on the biomass, root morphology and elemental composition of manuka. Pots (2.5 L) and Rhizoboxes (15 x 30 x 2.5 cm) were filled with low-fertility soils from Eyrewell Forest (Lismore brown soil) and Kaikoura (sand). Biosolids from Kaikoura (10% of the total weight by mass containing 22g N/kg) were applied either homogeneously or heterogeneously to the surface of the pots and in a 5 cm vertical strip on one side of the rhizoboxes. There was also a control (no biosolids). Each treatment was replicated thrice. Manuka seedlings were grown for 12 weeks and then the biomass, root distribution and chemical composition was determined. The addition of biosolids increased the biomass in both soils. The increases in biomass were not significantly affected by the distribution of the biosolids. However, the distribution of the biomass affected root distribution, with roots proliferating in the biosolids patches in the heterogeneous treatments. In the Kaikoura sand, the addition of biosolids increased the plant concentrations of N, C, P, S, Zn, and Cd, whereas in the Eyrewell soil the biosolids increased N, Zn, Cd and Ni. In Kaikoura there were differences between homogeneous and heterogeneous treatments in plant Zn, Cu and Ni and in Eyrewell differences occurred in Zn and Cd. None of the trace element concentrations in manuka were likely to pose a risk to herbivores or ecosystems. My experiment demonstrated that manuka responds positively to the addition of biosolids and that the positive growth response was not affected by the distribution of biosolids on two soil types. Furthermore, the addition of biosolids did not cause manuka to take up unacceptable concentrations of trace elements. Future research should investigate the performance of manuka over a longer timescale and include treatments where biosolids are applied to the soil surface of existing manuka stands. Root morphology should also be investigated for deeper understanding of foraging behaviour.

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  • Identifying groundwater vulnerability from nitrate contamination: comparison of the DRASTIC model and Environment Canterbury’s method

    Pearson, Stuart

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Groundwater is a crucial natural resource in New Zealand, as it is used to support many environmental, economic, social and cultural aspects of the country. However, in recent years the quality of our groundwater resources has begun to degrade and is now of great concern, especially in the Canterbury region. The degradation of the groundwater has occurred over many years and is the result from a number of direct and indirect effects, but quite notably nitrogen, in the form of nitrates, used in intensive agricultural activities has been identified as one of the major contributors to this degradation. Nitrate contamination in groundwater can cause issues to the environment and to the people that rely on resource. These issues can range from increase in toxic algal blooms, to degradation of aquatic habitat, and it can cause biological effects to humans, such as blue baby syndrome. Local government agencies, such as Environment Canterbury (ECan), have now had to implement strategies and methods to monitor groundwater quality to address this situation. One of these methods that ECan has used is the development of risk maps for identifying groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination, which is based on water quality monitoring data. There are other methods used around the world for predicting vulnerability maps for groundwater contamination, with the most common method being the GIS-based DRASTIC model. This model produces vulnerability values that are reflected on a map, which represent the vulnerability of the groundwater from contamination, such as nitrate contamination. However, ECan has not implemented this model as a method for groundwater vulnerability. This research involves developing a DRASTIC model map for nitrate vulnerability in groundwater for the central and southern Canterbury region and comparing it with the vulnerability map produced by ECan. By doing this research, it will identify whether the DRASTIC map could be a reliable and therefore a viable monitoring tool for nitrate vulnerability in groundwater for the Canterbury region, in order to help manage Canterbury’s crucial natural groundwater resource. This dissertation presents results of a completed DRASTIC map, along with seven key areas that were identified on both the DRASTIC map and the ECan map, which were used for comparison. The comparison identified whether the vulnerability values produced on the DRASTIC map were able to predict reliable results in identifying areas of groundwater that are vulnerable to nitrate contamination based off of the nitrate concentrations represented on the ECan vulnerable map. The results showed that five of the seven key areas used comparison showed reliable results for the DRASTIC mode for the Canterbury region. In these areas the DRASTIC model was able to show that it could be used to predict areas of groundwater that are vulnerable to nitrate contamination that may potentially receive further nitrate contamination in the future. The other two key areas used for comparison showed some unreliable results, as current nitrate concentrations shown on the ECan’s maps were far greater than the vulnerability values provided by the DRASTIC model. From this it was gathered that the DRASTIC model has limitations, as the current nitrate concentrations on the ECan map were a result of current land use activities, which the DRASTIC model does not consider. Overall, from the comparison of these seven key areas, the results suggest that the DRASTIC model could be a useful monitoring tool in the future, which can be used to identify nitrate contamination in groundwater. The DRASTIC model should be used alongside other current methods that are used for monitoring groundwater contamination. The model can also then be applied to the applications of the DRASTIC model that were identified by the EPA, which will be useful for future management of the groundwater resources in the Canterbury region. Therefore it is suggested that the DRASTIC model is a reliable and a viable method as a monitoring tool for identifying areas of groundwater that are vulnerable to nitrate contamination in the Canterbury region.

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  • Population and diet of the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri): molecular approaches

    Emami-Khoyi, Arsalan

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The recent increase in the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) population has given rise to socio-economic concerns regarding the potential conflicts with human interests. Elaboration of a comprehensive management strategy has been hindered by the paucity of solid information concerning New Zealand fur seal ecology. Recent developments in massive parallel DNA sequencing and computational infrastructures were used to address some of the major areas of conflict with human commercial interests. The first focus of the current study was to test a series of non-destructive methods for collecting biological samples for high- throughput DNA analysis. A second focus of the study was application of whole mitochondrial genomes in conjunction with Y chromosome Zinc fingers (ZFY) from New Zealand fur seals throughout the whole range of the species distribution in an Approximate Bayesian Computation framework to reconstruct the recent demographic history of the species. The pristine population size (pre-human colonisation), historical population size after human first arrival and the bottleneck population size were estimated. There was enough variability left in the mitochondrial genomes to detect the 18th -19th- century’s population bottleneck in the species. The pattern observed in ZFY data set was more complicated indicating more subtle population genetics dynamics. Mitochondrial DNA were uniform in its distribution with few distant haplotypes that could represents the presence of old lineages or potential introgression from other sympatric species. The intriguing pattern observed in ZFY data also resulted in the discovery of a rare genomic event called ‘’ectopic gene conversion” between non- recombining parts of Y and X chromosomes in the New Zealand fur seal genome The third focus of the study is on the fine scale population structure of NZ fur seals at a local scale around Banks Peninsula, -South Island, and New Zealand. No evidence of local population structure was found in the area suggesting the presence of substantial gene flow among colonies at a local scale. Moreover, the “spill over“ colony expansion dynamics, suggested previously as a pattern for recolonizing new habitat, was supported at the local scale using genetic data. Most of the newly-established colonies in the area showed the highest degree of genetic structure similarities with older colonies in their vicinity emphasizing the important role of “spill over” dynamics of older colonies in formation of new colonies. The data significantly support multi recolonization events with occasional local recruitment of immigrating individuals. There is a short mitogenomic announcement in chapter five where I used the complete mitogenomes of New Zealand fur seals in addition to three mustelid species (all de novo sequenced in the current research) to re-examine the origin of pinnipeds in the light of new available mitogenomes. The final focus of the study used molecular-based methods to identify the prey and parasite items of the New Zealand fur seal from massive parallel sequencing of faeces and regurgitates. The overlap between the diet of the seals and commercial fisheries were also estimated. Data supported a generalist pattern of feeding behaviour of the New Zealand fur seal. As many as 64 prey species were identified from faecal samples and/or regurgitates in a single colony. Surprisingly, only 10% of species in fur seals diet were species of commercial interest. The population and diet data will provide marine ecosystem managers with an increased knowledge necessary for elaborating any long-term conservation plan for the New Zealand fur seal.

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  • Indigenous biodiversity protection and sustainable management in the Upper Waimakariri Basin

    Snoyink, Nicola Lee

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Human activity, unintentional or purposeful, has an impact on biodiversity health. History, world view and experience influence human activity and behaviour toward the natural world. Despite significant commitment to nature conservation, New Zealand continues to experience biodiversity loss, especially on private land where some of the most vulnerable and under-protected ecosystems occur. Given that indigenous biodiversity protection is embedded in the principles of the Resource Management Act 1991, this research asks to what extent is indigenous biodiversity protection compatible with sustainable management, through a case study of indigenous biodiversity management on private land in the upper Waimakariri basin, in New Zealand’s South Island high country. The research examines the types of indigenous biodiversity conservation practices undertaken by private land managers, and is framed through the lens of ecological literacy and the influence of neoliberal ideology. Adoption and patterns of diffusion of practices are identified through relationships between individuals, organisations, institutions and mechanisms. The research found that indigenous biodiversity enhancement is a part of sustainable management but practices are influenced by biophysical context and location, internal factors such as the world view and experience of the land manager and the local economy and external factors such as the social network, economic drivers, government policy and the availability of additional resourcing. While legal requirements for environmental management are generally met, more insidious impacts on indigenous biodiversity are overlooked, and a lack of co-ordination between government goals creates perverse effects for biodiversity. The research found that private property rights often constrained a broader catchment view and market drivers to increase primary productivity risks further indigenous biodiversity loss. However given that the upper Waimakariri basin contains significant intact though modified tracts of indigenous flora and fauna, naturally occurring lakes and wetlands as well an informed and willing community, there may be an opportunity to trial innovative market mechanisms and alternative land uses to encourage further indigenous biodiversity protection. Conclusions from this research suggest the need to examine the potential utility of a National Policy Statement for Indigenous Biodiversity to clarify planning rules and responsibilities for biodiversity; and the opportunity to examine the potential for use of targeted economic instruments that encourage private landowners to preserve and protect remaining indigenous biodiversity. On doing this New Zealand may be more likely to reduce indigenous biodiversity loss as well as meet its international obligation, while sustaining its international reputation.

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  • Evaluating Trichoderma atroviride and water supply impacts on Miscanthus x giganteus in New Zealand

    Shaw, Victoria

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Miscanthus x giganteus is one of the most promising biofuel feedstocks in the world. This second-generation biofuel source yields 40+ t DM/ha/yr without the need for high inputs of synthetic nitrogen fertiliser. In New Zealand, M. x giganteus is primarily used for the replacement of tree shelterbelts removed for centre pivot irrigation. The perennial, hybrid grass provides at least 16 ecosystem services to a landscape and therefore enhancing its production potential is desired. Trichoderma atroviride is a soil fungus that often functions as a bio-control agent against soil-borne plant pathogens and as a plant growth promoter. Past research indicates that there is potential to use this fungus to enhance plant production. The objective of this glasshouse study was to evaluate whether T. atroviride increases M. x giganteus production and some physiological parameters under varied water conditions: Drought, intermediate to well-watered. Results concluded that water significantly increased all plant variables, which was expected. Well-watered M. x giganteus plants had a mean dry weight of 60.4 g plant-1, producing 238.7% and 756.0% more dry matter than intermediate and drought plants respectively. In contrast, the PR5 T. atroviride strain mix had no effect on any variable compared with plants that were not inoculated. However, there was an interaction between T. atroviride and water in inoculated plants under drought. Inoculated drought plants had a 21.0% higher chlorophyll content and 3.6% higher percentage of total dry matter than plants that were not inoculated. Further research in the field is required to determine the effects of variable soil fertility treatments on M. x giganteus plants with and without T. atroviride. Monitoring the abundance of T. atroviride in roots of M. x giganteus under variable water treatments would also be valuable in determining the competitiveness, effectiveness, growth and survival of the fungus in certain environments.

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  • The effect of pesticides, cultivar selection and soil biofumigation on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, using tomato as a model system

    Bayler, Christine Robyn

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of three different pesticides, three tomato cultivars, and two mustard biofumigants on the establishment and survival of four species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Acaulospora capsicula, A. laevis, Funneliformis mosseae and Scutellospora calospora). In vitro spore germination of the four AMF species at standard rates of two fungicides (carbendazim and captan), the insecticide chlorpyrifos, or water (control) was observed weekly for 21 days. After 21 days higher germination was observed for S. calospora spores compared with F. mosseae, A. capsicula and A. laevis, but no differences were observed between the pesticide treatments and the control. The response of the four AMF species to carbendazim applied as a foliar spray, and captan and chlorpyrifos applied as soil drenches, was tested by examining the presence/ absence of colonisation (18 days post application) in tomato roots samples, grown in low P potting mix. Tomato growth responses (shoot height and diameter and root and shoot dry weight) were also measured. Fewer tomato roots treated with carbendazim and captan were colonised compared with chlorpyrifos and non-treatment control. A second experiment observed the response of two AMF species (F. mosseae and S. calospora) to the three pesticides on tomatoes grown in silt loam harvested at 10 and 28 days post application. At the first harvest there were no differences in tomato growth in response to the pesticide treatments, but the plants inoculated with AMF were larger than the non-inoculated controls in all tomato growth measures. Scutellospora calospora root colonisation at the first harvest was negatively affected by carbendazim and chlorpyrifos compared to F. mosseae. At the second harvest growth measures were affected by both AMF species and pesticides, with all showing increased growth in the AMF inoculated tomatoes compared to the control, and most showed increased growth in response to carbendazim and chlorpyrifos compared to captan and the non-treatment control. At the second harvest F. mosseae had fewer colonised roots than S. calospora and the non-inoculated control, and the chlorpyrifos treatment decreased colonisation overall. The effect of the four species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on three cultivars of tomato, Moneymaker and Aunt Ruby’s German Green and Sweet 100 was studied by examining growth responses and the presence/ absence of colonisation of root samples after 6 and 9 weeks. AMF had no effect on tomato growth at 6 weeks, but at 9 weeks shoot dry weights were lower for F. mosseae and S. calospora. Root colonisation in Sweet 100 was higher than Moneymaker and Aunt Ruby’s German Green. Two mustards (Caliente 199 and Brassica juncea) were grown in silt loam for 35 days before being mulched and incorporated into the top 100 mm of silt loam in 4 L containers. AMF spores, sealed in micromesh bags, were buried at within the mulch layer (50 mm deep) and below the mulch layer (150 mm deep) for 14 days before being recovered and tested for in vitro germination, their ability to colonise and effect on the growth of Moneymaker tomatoes. Fewer Acaulospora capsicula spores were recovered in the Caliente 199 and mustard treatments compared with the non-treatment control. Germination of A. capsicula spores recovered from below the mulch was higher than for those recovered from within the mulch, whilst the opposite was seen for A. laevis. Spores buried below the mulch in the mustard treatment produced taller tomato plants than spores in the Caliente 199 and non-treatment control; and spores buried within the mulch had taller plants than the spores buried below the mulch in the Caliente 199 treatment, but no other differences in tomato growth were observed. A higher number of roots were colonised by AMF spores recovered after burial within the mulch compared with below the mulch. This study has demonstrated the resilience of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal associations to horticultural management practices. Neither the pesticides or biofumigant treatments had any permanent effect on the AMF species, nor did the three cultivars show affiliation for a particular AMF species.

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  • The effect on supply chains of the formation of alternate structured/synergistic logistics networks

    Timney, Nicole J.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This thesis was undertaken to explore and analyse the potential effect on New Zealand’s supply chain of the formation of alternate synergistic logistics networks from a New Zealand perspective. In an attempt to create a more efficient and effective supply chain, a significant New Zealand company formed a logistics company partnership with a collaborative cooperative company. In response to this strategic move another large New Zealand exporter established an alternative supply chain structure. This study provided a unique opportunity to investigate mid-channel horizontal and vertical collaboration in New Zealand. This study gives smaller importers and exporters insight for bettering positioning to create value in their own supply chain if they adopt the same concepts. This research takes a multiple discipline approach with a qualitative case study structure. It utilises value network analysis, a network approach and a resource based view approach as a framework to explain the new landscape that exporters and importers now face to compete globally. The purpose of the case study was to collect and interpret the reaction by providers, producers and exporters to the formation of the logistics company. Also to understand how and why they may or may not react and analyse the possible future effects. The research will look for and highlight any trends and forces as a guide for producers and exporters for future positioning in the supply chain to create value. This study finds that there has been a significant change through the formation of the new logistics company. These changes include altering seaside links with global carriers and landside transportation links on road, rail and land. Critical infrastructure development and land use planning in regions around the country had a direct relationship to the network strategies employed to create change. The utilisation of competitive positioning and relational commitment, when applied to the concept of network strategies, appears to create value and enhance competitive advantage on a global scale. The limitation of the research was the small pool of New Zealand interviewees.

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  • A sustainability assessment of the Waikato River Authority

    Jones, Kristy Maree

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The Waikato River is arguably one of New Zealand’s most important water bodies. It has a rich cultural heritage, and embodies a number of values for all parts of society. The river has been exposed to decades of contamination, exploitation, and degradation, and its current state now paints a sorry picture. The ecological integrity has been eroded, and relationships and values held with the river have been diminished. The creation of the Waikato River Authority in 2009 brought a new era of co-management to the table regarding the management of natural resources. The Waikato River Authority implemented a vision and strategy that would guide the restoration and protection of the health and wellbeing of the river and safeguard it for future generations. This research uses sustainability assessment to assess the potential of the Waikato River Authority to reach its vision, based on the objectives, strategy and actions implemented.

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  • New Zealand public attitudes towards genetically modified food

    Chikazhe, Taisekwa Lordwell

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Pastoral farming is the major land use in New Zealand, utilising about 40 per cent of the total land (Statistics New Zealand, 2009). Pastoral Genomics (PG), an industry-good organisation funded by the Ministry of Science and Innovation, DairyNZ, Fonterra, Beef and Lamb, Deer Research and Agresearch, is developing genetically modified (GM) ryegrass with increased biomass, drought tolerance and high sugar levels. PG is conducting field tests in North America in order to gather the data needed for submission of an application to the New Zealand Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA- now EPA ) for permission for field trials. The purpose of this study was to see if the New Zealand public’s attitudes towards GM food were changing, with the aim of understanding if such development will be acceptable to the public and become a commercial reality. The study was carried out using an online survey to track changes in public attitudes and, through the use of focus groups, to gain a deeper understanding of how, why, and if, attitudes were changing. The questionnaire was derived from Small’s 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2009 studies. This study found that the NZ public’s attitudes towards GM have remained negative. However, there was less opposition to GM food or applications that benefitted human health, compared to just GM food without any human health benefits. The level of opposition also depended on the organism that was being modified. GM animals had less support than GM plants. The implications of the findings of this study were that GM developers needed to engage and reassure the public about the safety of GM.

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  • Evaluating cane pruning decision criteria and the identification of grapevine pruning styles

    Kirk, Andrew

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Winter pruning is the highest yearly expenditure in the typical New Zealand vineyard budget, yet few attempts have been made to bring quantitative measurement tools into its management. The research presented here constitutes first steps towards this end, in tandem with University of Canterbury researchers working towards an artificially intelligent pruning robot. In pursuit of information regarding cane pruning preferences and decision-making criteria, a two-part survey was conducted in the regions of Marlborough, Hawke’s Bay, Waipara and Central Otago. Part One of this survey asked participants to rate a set of already-made cane pruning decisions for one (cv.) Sauvignon Blanc vine. Participants rated these decisions on 24 individual pruning criteria and also provided two overall assessments. One of these overall assessments was recorded before participants rated the decisions on the 24 individual criteria, and a second overall assessment was recorded after such time. All ratings were collected via Qualtrics software, either online or via the Qualtrics offline survey application. Part Two of the survey asked participants to indicate, with highlighter pens on paper, their own preferred pruning decisions for the same vine. Linear Models, based on the relationship between the individual criteria and overall assessments (Part One), have revealed spur and cane position to be the dominant influencing factors in the pruning of the subject vine. Participant first impressions, as measured by the first overall assessment (before the individual criteria ratings), were almost exclusively reflective of participant attitude towards spur and cane position. The dominance of position was corroborated by Correspondence Analysis of the preferred pruning decisions (Part Two), which suggested that the decision to modify the vine’s cane or spur position was a fundamental point of divide within participant responses. In a related finding, results from Principal Component Analysis (Part One) have suggested that overall impressions were a heavy influence throughout the course of participant responses to Part One of this study. By extension, this finding suggested that attitudes towards position, which were strongly linked to participant overall assessments, permeated into participant attitudes towards other aspects of the presented decision set (Part One). Generally speaking, the dominance of a single group of decision-making criteria calls for further investigation into how pruning is conceptualised as a task. Results from this study suggest that there exists a somewhat broad, non-specific, view of whether or not a particular set of spur and cane selections are acceptable. This finding, while perhaps not immediately impactful for practitioners, has considerable implication for the design of future pruning research, as well as for the evaluation of artificially intelligent pruning. This research also reports the detection of pruning preference (Part One and Part Two) groups, based on region and organisational role. Correspondence Analysis and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (Part Two) have revealed that participants from Hawke’s Bay and, particularly, Central Otago tended towards a decision to restructure the subject vine by not leaving a spur from its existing right half. This was in contrast to those participants from Marlborough and Waipara who tended towards a maintaining of the current vine configuration. Aside from these differing propensities to restructure the vine, several regions were associated with unique spur and cane selections. It is unclear at present whether regional differences are due to social influences, regional viticulture conditions, cultivar familiarity, or some unknown factor. Participants also differed in their preferences when grouped based upon their organisational role. Those participants identifying exclusively as labourers were considerably less likely to restructure the vine, compared to those participants identifying as supervisors, managers, or proprietors. Managerial implications of this finding are discussed, with several potential remedies explored.

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  • The gorse pod moth (Cydia succedana Denis & Schiffermüller); is it a successful gorse (Ulex europaeus L.) biological control agent?

    Sixtus, Craig Ronald

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Most weeds that cause issue for agricultural production in New Zealand have been imported. One such imported and well-established weed, Ulex europaeus L. (gorse), was declared a noxious weed in New Zealand in 1900. Since the 1950s, much of the control of this weed has been through herbicide application. However, as the cost of chemicals has risen, along with public concerns about the environmental sustainability of chemical use, there has been an increasing demand for non-chemical control methods. Beginning in the 1980s, a concerted effort was made to find biological control agents for U. europaeus suitable for New Zealand’s conditions. One of those agents, Cydia succedana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (gorse pod moth), was released in New Zealand in 1992. This agent feeds on green U. europaeus seeds and, as it has two reproductive cycles each season, it was thought that it would assist in controlling U. europaeus by reducing seed production. This study investigated the effectiveness of this agent in central New Zealand. Nine South Island sites from Canterbury, Nelson and Marlborough and six North Island sites from Wellington, Manawatu, Taranaki, Hawkes Bay and Bay of Plenty, with differences in climatic conditions and altitude, were used for this research. Aspects investigated included the phenology of U. europaeus, phenology of C. succedana, host-specificity of C. succedana, levels of U. europaeus seed damaged or destroyed by C. succedana and determination of Cydia species attacking gorse in New Zealand. At sites just south of Christchurch, plus Murchison and Conway Flat, Kaikoura U. europaeus only had one reproductive cycle per season. At all other sites there were two reproductive cycles per season. In non-damaged pods, the seed viability averaged 90% over all sites, and there was an overall mean germination of 80%. Phenology of C. succedana was determined by pheromone trapping of male moths at all the sites. C. succedana was bivoltine at all sites, even at sites where U. europaeus was limited to one reproductive cycle. Synchronisation between U. europaeus and C. succedana was poor at most sites, as the peak trapping occurred 2-3 months after the peak of flowering. The host specificity of C. succedana was tested using U. europaeus, Cytisus scoparius L. (Scotch broom), Carmichaelia petriei Kirk (Desert broom), Sophora molloyi Heenan et de Lange (Cook Strait kowhai or Dragons Gold) and Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. (Russell lupin) Only flowers of U. europaeus were entered by C. succedana in a field cage trial. A small number of Lupinus arboreus Sims pods (2/450) were entered by larvae at one site, but their survival until pupation was not known. Pod damage as a result of C. succedana attack varied markedly both within and among sites, ranging from 3% to 55% of all pods produced over one year, with an overall mean of 21%. The seed damage ranged from 1% to 65%, with an overall mean of 27%, although most intact seeds within damaged pods were also dead. At the sites studied, C. succedana was not able to destroy or damage sufficient seeds to have a significant impact on control of this weed. A small region of the mitochondrial DNA was sequenced from samples of larvae, obtained from mature U. europaeus pods from the sites, in order to determine if there was more than one Cydia species attacking gorse in New Zealand. C. succedana was the only Cydia species present. For biological control of U. europaeus in New Zealand to succeed, additional biological agents will be required, especially in the South Island, where C. succedana was less successful than in the North Island. The implications of these results are discussed.

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  • Household livelihood strategies, environmental dependency and poverty: the case of the Vietnam rural area

    Ta, Hong Ngoc

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    This study explores households’ dependency on environmental income for households that engage in different livelihood strategies. This study also investigates the impact of environmental income on rural household poverty and inequality, and identifies factors that determine the choice of rural households’ livelihood strategies in rural communities in Vietnam. A cluster analysis identifies five livelihood strategies: wage dependency; non-farm, non-wage dependency; mixed-income dependency; transfer dependency; and environment dependency. Households engaging in various livelihood strategies differ in their asset endowments. Households engaging in environmental dependency strategy are more likely to have abundant labour, land and physical capital. However, those following more remunerative livelihood strategies, such as mixed-income and non-farm, non-wage dependencies, are more likely to be endowed in financial and social assets. Environmental income accounts for 40.65% of total household income, of which 36.89% comes from agricultural activities and 3.77% comes from common property resources extraction. In addition, the study finds that environmentally dependent households are the most reliant on environmental resources in both relative and absolute terms. Environmental income provides 82.48% of total income to households in this strategy group, which is worth about 11.8 million VND per capita per year. This amount is significantly higher than that of the other strategy groups. The findings confirm the contribution of environmental income to income inequality and poverty reduction. In terms of income inequality, on average, the inclusion of environmental income reduces the Gini coefficient by more than 20%, from 0.598 to 0.475. With respect to rural poverty, environmental income reduces the poverty headcount index, poverty gap and poverty severity by 28.0%, 22.5% and 18.7%, respectively. This study also provides evidence that households’ asset endowments and contextual factors have an important influence on the choice of household livelihood strategy. Family size, agricultural land owned, livestock herds, ownership of productive equipment and distance to all-weather roads all increase the likelihood that a household follows the environment dependency strategy. However, the educational level of the household head, social networks and credit loan accessibility has negative influences on the likelihood that a household is highly dependent on environmental resources. These characteristics constrain households from shifting to strategies that are more remunerative. Other variables also have mixed effects on the choice of household livelihood strategy. In terms of policy implications, the results of this study suggest that policies should focus on enhancing the productivity of agricultural land plots owned by households rather than increasing households’ access to common property resources. In addition, effective pro-poor policies should be targeted towards assisting the poor to shift to higher-return activities, such as wage employment and/or non-wage, non-farm businesses by investing in diploma education in rural areas, improving the road infrastructure and relaxing credit constraints in rural areas.

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  • Credit accessibility: the impact of microfinance on rural Indonesian households

    Santoso, Danang Budi

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    Microfinance enables rural households to accumulate assets, smooth consumption in time of economic shocks, reduce the vulnerability due to illness, drought and crop failures, and better education, health and housing for the borrower’s household. In addition, access to finance may contribute to an improvement in the social and economic position of women participation in family decisions making. Microfinance may have positive spill-over effects such that its impact surpasses the economic and social improvement of the borrower. However, there is still concern whether microfinance performance and outreach eminently reaches the poor household. This study aims to investigate the credit accessibility and significant characteristics of rural households who are users of microcredit loans versus non-users of microcredit loans. The study also surveys the welfare impact of microfinance on rural households in Indonesia. The study administered a structured questionnaire to 605 rural households in Bantul District, Yogyakarta Province in Indonesia. Binary Logistic regression is used to investigate credit accessibility of the surveyed respondents. The results reveal that age of borrowers, household income, interest rates, and loan duration are key determinants affecting credit accessibility in the surveyed area. Similarly, binary logistic regression is used to investigate characteristics of the surveyed respondents, based upon whether they used or did not use microcredit. The empirical results suggest that age, marital status and education attainment siginificantly affect characterics of clients and non-clients of microfinance. The multinomial logit model (MNL) is used to assess the welfare impacts of microcredit in term of households income, monthly expenditure and total assets of borrowers. In term of the borrowers income, the MNL shows that age of borrowers, monthly expenditure and occupation are significant factors influencing the increase in income of the borrowers after they have accessed microcredit. In term of borrower’s total assets, the MNL model reveals that more highly educated borrowers are more likely to increase their total assets after accessing microcredit. The MNL model also reveals that only expenditure per month of borrowers has a positive correlation with the increase of welfare impacts of the clients’ expenditures.

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  • European expert buyers perceptions of New Zealand products and businesses by level of knowledge and experience: an investigation of the food and beverage industry

    White, Jeremy

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    As a country, New Zealand’s economy is dependent on its export markets. This is especially true for the food and beverage industry. With exporting so vital to the nation’s economy, it should be imperative to understand how the country’s products and businesses are perceived from a buyer’s standpoint. This is especially true for the European Union, as it is New Zealand’s third largest trading partner. Together, the European Union members take around 11.5 percent of New Zealand’s exports (in value terms) (Statistics New Zealand, 2014). For New Zealand businesses, being able to understand how the European buyers perceive your performance should be of great importance. Knowing this would allow businesses to allocate resources more efficiently, and meet the needs of the buyers easier. This research will draw on key theory from buyer-seller relationships and the country of origin theory. There have been very few studies addressing this topic from a New Zealand context, but no studies that have looked specifically at perceptions of New Zealand businesses and products from an expert buyer’s point of view. Also yet to be researched, is whether there are any differences in how buyers perceive New Zealand products and businesses across different levels of knowledge and experience. For this study, a quantitative approach was used to discover the perceptions held by the European expert buyers. Bipolar adjective scales were used to test product and business attributes. This led to a comparison of means for the sets of scales to see how the European buyers perceived New Zealand products and businesses. One-way ANOVA’s and least significant difference post hoc tests were selected as the best methods to examine whether perceptions change as European buyers gain experience with New Zealand’s products and/or businesses. The 132 respondents were able to provide a diverse sample in terms of the countries they were from, industries they were in, size of their business, and experience with New Zealand’s products and businesses. The perceptions of New Zealand’s products and business attributes showed how well they were preforming. Largely, they were viewed as being excellent in the European market. These findings differed somewhat to what the previous literature had shown. Generally, New Zealand businesses were viewed more positively than products by the European buyers. It was also found that perceptions do change across attributes as European’s gain experience with New Zealand’s products and/or businesses. The ANOVA and least significant difference post hoc tests showed that perceptions about New Zealand products and businesses do change depending on level of experience/knowledge. Although, that change varies between seven product and thirteen business attributes and the level of experience (low, medium and high). It was found that the more experience a buyer has the more positively they would rate the attribute. Overall, it was concluded that with New Zealand preforming exceptionally in the European marketplace, trading should be increased. Awareness of New Zealand products and businesses inside the European marketplace needs to be increased, and perceptions should match that of the European buyers who have high experience/knowledge with New Zealand.

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