855 results for Thesis, 2008

  • The impact of patents on New Zealand's biotechnology and genetics services sectors

    Green, Aphra (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    x, 155 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 151-155. University of Otago department: Law

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  • Care ethics and brain injury

    Butler, Mary (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    It is generally supposed that a supportive family can have an influence on outcomes for an adult with severe brain injury, but there is very little known about what effective families actually do. In this research the families of five such individuals were involved in an ethnographic project that lasted for one year. The literature review brought together insights from brain injury, care ethics, disability studies and anthropology. These insights were combined with a process of reflective equilibrium that was applied to the ethnographic material in order to determine the ethics of the carers. Ethics of care in this setting was conceived of as a positive practice ethic, rather than as a series of negative conundrums posed by the brain injury. The practice ethic shared by carers meant that they all conceived of the need created by brain injury in humanistic terms, rather than in terms of pathology. Carers demonstrated virtues appropriate to their practice as they helped the adult with brain injury to connect with aspects of ordinary life. The best outcomes for the adult with brain injury included being able to engage in productive activity and to make a place in the world. These outcomes could only be achieved with due regard for their safety and subsistence. The practice ethic of carers was demonstrated in the skills and concern that ensured a satisfactory outcome for the adult with brain injury. This research is a departure from recent research about families affected by brain injury, which has focused on the burden involved in care. An examination of what carers achieve suggests that burden may be associated with the development of caring practice. The transformative capacity of care, for both the carer and the adult with brain injury, is emphasized. However contextual factors, such as adequate compensation, are connected to the capacity of the carer to engage in good practice and these are explored also in this thesis. In particular, relevant aspects of the relationship between families and the Accident Compensation Corporation are explored.

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  • He ahi kā, he poka rānei : to keep the fire burning or to extinguish the flame : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters degree in Education at Te Kupenga o Te Mātauranga, Massey University College of Education, Palmerston North

    Kenrick, Pani (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    He Ahi Ka, He Pōka Rānei- examines the provision of support offered to beginning teacher graduates of a total immersion Māori pre-service programme. Based on a Qualitative Māori centred approach, the study focuses on the ways in which the induction process, self-efficacy and professional development programmes within various classrooms and educational settings contribute to supporting the beginning teachers in this study. Issues related to access and participation in such support programmes and the contributions of key personnel to the provision of beginning teacher support are also explored. Through researching beginning teacher's, information gathered and analysed could be used when preparing and planning for professional development programmes to support beginning teachers from total immersion pre-service teaching programmes.

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  • Finding a treatment that fits : a grounded theory of adolescent retention in alcohol and drug treatment : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    McKenzie, Heather Lianne (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Compliance with healthcare regimens is becoming an increasingly important area of health research. Depression is thought to be increasing in prevalence world-wide, and so too is the share of the healthcare budget dedicated to treating depression. Research has shown that people tend to discontinue treatments for depression far earlier than recommended. However, very little research has explored why this might be so. Several theories of health behaviour have tried to account for compliance in terms of influential beliefs and attitudes, but generally these theories have not been explored in a mental health context. Additionally, research is only just beginning to consider compliance from a healthcare consumer's perspective. The Compliance Study reported in this thesis adopted a grounded theory methodology to explore compliance with women's treatments for depression. A community sample of 37 depressed women, participating in a 12 week double-blind placebo controlled trial investigating the effects of fish oil as an adjunct to treatments for depression, provided both qualitative and quantitative data on their compliance experiences with treatments for depression generally, and with the supplement trial specifically. The basic social process of compliance that emerged from the data involved a complex and dynamic interaction of mutually influential illness variables, significant relationships, meanings given to depression and its treatments, and cost-benefits analyses. In Finding a Treatment that Fits, women balance competing interests and try to ensure good enough compliance to meet their own goals for wellness. The results from the Compliance Study confirmed important prior findings with respect to compliance with depression treatments, but extended these by looking at underlying reasons for decisions to continue or discontinue treatments. The thesis also considers special issues relevant to the particular circumstances of compliance in the dietary intervention trial, including the impact of placebo effects and attitudes towards non-orthodox treatments. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

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  • Reconstructing debris transport pathways on constructional ridges : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Quaternary Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Mandolla, Stephanie (2008-04-21T03:10:57Z)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    It is generally accepted that Mt Ruapehu, Tongariro National Park, New Zealand, was heavily glaciated during the Pleistocene. Eight small glaciers can still be found on the summit of this active volcano. However, the glaciers have been retreating at a fast rate during the last few centuries. The scientific community has placed its main focus on the volcanic aspects of the region. Although most authors refer to the landforms that appear to be of glacial origin as ‘moraines’, no actual glacial studies have been undertaken so far to provide the necessary evidence that is needed to support this hypothesis. The aim of this study is to use established field techniques in glacial geomorphology to (1) identify the extent of glacial deposits using diagnostic criteria and (2) to reconstruct the transport pathways of the Wahianoa Glacier. Four main diagnostic criteria have been used: clast morphology, macrofabrics, grain size distribution and the surface texture of grains. The Wahianoa valley has a very pronounced U-shape and is likely to be of glacial origin. The valley consists of two elongate debris ridges that are made out of unconsolidated, poorly sorted diamict of varying lithologies. This study has identified that the activity and the composition of the volcano has lead to complex glacial processes. Glacial ice has advanced over a deformable bed and the glacier itself was probably extensively covered by supraglacial debris. The area has been identified as a pre-historic pathway for lahars and the volcano erupts frequently to produce fresh volcanic deposits. As the active vent has changed its position during the eruptive history of the volcano, the quantity and the location of the source rock that fed the glacier has varied greatly. This study is an initial attempt at unfolding the glacial history of Mt Ruapehu. This is based on field analysis of glacigenic sediments, rather than topographic and aerial photo analysis. The results show great complexity and the potential for further studies of other moraine systems on Mt Ruapehu.

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  • Home made : picturing Chinese settlement in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Design at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Lee, Kerry Ann (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Since the first gold-seekers arrived in New Zealand in the 1860s, Chinese have been regarded as outsiders to discussions of national identity. Colonial representations of otherness have left Chinese longing to be recognised as established settlers. Fresh interpretations are much needed to align myth with the longstanding realities of settlement. The absence of a recognisable Chinatown in New Zealand has meant that many of the Chinese customs inherited from the first settlers are observed in private within the family home. This condition coupled with emerging research and exposure on the topic offers a chance to define Chinese spaces and author Chinese stories from within a local community. This research project interrogates the transformation of Cantonese settlers into Chinese New Zealanders through illustration design. By claiming the book as a space, unsung moments of settlement are made visible to challenge stereotypes and forge a new space for Chinese New Zealand stories. The process of collage is used to illustrate the complexities of constructing identity. Home Made is an alternative cultural history told through visual metaphor. Gold was responsible for first transforming the sojourner into the settler, the bowl is used to mediate tradition between home and enterprise in settlement, while the lantern illuminates and celebrates local Chinese spaces. Brought out from home kitchens and backrooms of family businesses, these artefacts represent a longstanding Chinese presence. Home Made activates these metaphors to structure an argument for the longevity and contemporary significance of Chinese settlement in New Zealand.

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  • Lessons learnt from United Nations Peacekeeping Operations : a peacekeeping model for creating and sustaining peace in war torn countries : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for Masters of Philosophy in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University

    Houghton, Vanessa R (2008)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis studies the lessons learnt from United Nations Peacekeeping Operations focusing on four specific case studies, those being Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia-Herzegovina and East Timor. What this study attempts to do is draw together the lessons learnt that are operation or geographically specific, and those that are common across each of the four case studies. This is done with a view to developing a Peacekeeping Model that can be utilised over a wide range of United Nations operations and interventions, regardless of the geographical location of the conflict. In order to explore whether or not a peacekeeping model for creating and sustaining peace in war torn countries can be developed, this thesis draws on the lessons learnt of not only the United Nations, but also the contributing service women and men and coalition partners involved. This thesis is divided into four parts. The Introduction, Chapter 1 and Chapter 2, are written to provide the reader with an overview of the creation of the United Nations, its Charter and mandate, and to introduce some of the key terminology used throughout the thesis. Chapters 3 – 6 focus on the four individual case studies chosen for this research and provide an overview of the history, a breakdown of the United Nations operations, and then flows through the key military considerations identified under each case study. The structure of each of the case studies is focused around the United Nations operational mandate, command and control, intelligence and communications, logistics, pre-deployment training and preparations / deployment / post-deployment. Chapter 7 provides an analytical overview of the lessons learnt that are specific to each of the case studies and discusses in detail the lessons learnt that can be applied across two or more case studies. Chapter 8 discusses the recommended United Nations blueprint or peacekeeping model. It argues that a successful peacekeeping model can be developed and clearly identifies what steps need to be taken for that model to succeed. Chapter 9 provides a conclusion to the study and comments on the way ahead for United Nations peacekeeping operations based on the recommended blueprint or model. Chapter 9 also discusses the future of the United Nations and whether or not the organisation has a viable role to play in the maintenance of international peace and security.

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  • Dissolved organic matter in New Zealand natural waters

    Gonsior, Michael (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xi, 186 leaves :ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. "1st of April 2008". University of Otago department: Chemistry.

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  • Transforming Folk: Innovation and Tradition in English Folk–Rock Music

    Burns, Robert G. H. (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    From a mixed methodology perspective that includes ethnology, musicology and cultural anthropology, I argue that, despite initial detachment from folk revivalism, English folk–rock has moved closer to aspects of tradition and historical status and has embraced a revivalist stance similar to that of the folk revivals that occurred earlier in the twentieth century. Whereas revivalism often rejects manifestations of mass culture and modernity, I also argue that the early combinations of folk music and rock music demonstrated that aspects of preservation and commercialisation have always co–existed within this hybrid musical style. English folk–rock, a former progressive rock music style, has emerged in the post–punk era as a world music style that appeals to a broad spectrum of music fans and this audience does not regard issues such as maintenance of authenticity and tradition as key factors in the preservation process. Rock music has remained a stimulus for further change in folk music and has enabled English folk–rock to become regarded as popular music by a new audience with diverse musical tastes. When folk music was adapted into rock settings, the result represented a particular identity for folk music at that time. In a similar way, as folk music continues to be amalgamated with rock and other popular music styles, or is performed in musical settings representing new cultures and ethnicities now present in the United Kingdom, it becomes updated and relevant to new audiences. From this perspective, I propose that growth in the popularity of British folk music since the early 1970s can be linked to its performance as English folk–rock, to its connections with culture and music industry marketing and promotion techniques, and to its inclusion as a 1990s festival component presented to audiences as part of what is promoted as world music. Popularity of folk music presented at world music festivals has stimulated significant growth in folk music audiences since the mid–1990s and consequently the UK is experiencing a new phase of revivalism – the third folk revival.

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  • Mapping first semester challenges : first-year students making sense of their teaching and learning environments

    van der Meer, Jacques (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis investigates first-year students' challenges in making sense of the learning and teaching environment during their first semester at university. The aims for the research are threefold. Firstly, mapping the range of challenges students at one university faced in their learning and teaching environments in the first semester. Secondly, developing a greater understanding of those challenges. Thirdly, identifying what educational initiatives the university could consider that might assist students to meet those challenges. The challenges were examined in the context of changes in higher education. My interest and motivation for this research project concerns improved practices in the first-year teaching and learning environment, rather than improved students. This means that I did not look for deficits within students, but for indications of what helps or does not help students' introduction to the new environment of academia. By mapping students' challenges in the first semester, I hope to contribute to the understanding of academic staff of the range of challenges students have to deal with. The interpretation of the results and my line of argument are partly influenced and shaped by the theoretical framework of academic literacies, and the notion of de-familiarisation. For this project, two data sources were used. The first source was data from a survey carried out in May 2004 amongst students enrolled in 100-level courses. The second source was data from interviews conducted with first-year students in the same year. In considering the analysis as a whole, a number of key issues could be discerned. These related to communication, academic skills, access to resources and help, and engagement and connection. The results showed that some of these issues had less to do with educational practices, and more to do with contested understandings of the nature of university education, and the nature of students now entering university. I argue that underlying these issues there are contentious questions of who should adjust or adapt to whom: students to the university, or the university to students? Students' reported experiences further suggest that some teachers seemed more aware than others that first-year students face particular challenges. Students did not consider their experiences as reflective of the university as a whole. The university was experienced as an institution with divergent ways of organising courses, of valuing aspects of university learning, and of interpreting seemingly similar things. This suggests that where students experienced challenges, these were not necessarily a function of students' characteristics, or students' attitudes to studying, but of particular course environments. The overall picture that presents itself, then, is that there are challenges that could be considered unnecessary. Whereas few students would experience all of the challenges identified in the results chapters, I argue that there are some aspects that warrant improvement. Improvement initiatives in first-year education, however, are not necessarily considered important by all academic staff. This is another contested issue in universities. A more explicit introduction of first-year students to academia as a range of heterogeneous communities would respond to first-year students' needs for familiarisation and clarity, as well as reflect some of the values that universities could be said to espouse. Successful interventions in first-year education, however, will also depend on ongoing dialogue with staff about various contested issues, the changed and changing context of higher education, and related challenges and opportunities.

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  • Alfred Henry O'Keeffe in retrospect: paint and personality

    Body, Ralph M (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation offers a detailed study of the life and art of the Dunedin artist and teacher Alfred Henry O'Keeffe (1858-1941). It is concerned with establishing an art historical context for his work and exploring its relationship to that of other artists, art institutions and art criticism during his six-decade-long career. It also includes an overview of O'Keeffe's biography and considers his contribution to art education in New Zealand, through his teaching both at the Dunedin School of Art and Design and privately in his studio. Particular attention is given to four areas of subject matter: portraiture and genre subjects, especially those representing the elderly; seascapes; and still lifes, particularly flower paintings. Despite the length of O'Keeffe's career, much of the existing scholarship has tended to emphasise his Victorian paintings at the expense of his later works. Greatest attention is usually given to his association with immigrant artists during the 1890s, such as Petrus van der Velden and Girolamo Nerli, together with his period of study at the Académie Julian in Paris during that same decade. The present dissertation considers the evidence relating to this period and assesses the validity of claims previously made. In doing so, it challenges the widespread assumption that O'Keeffe's work failed to develop in any substantial way beyond the 1890s. Instead, it considers the full breadth of O'Keeffe's lengthy career and reassesses the importance of his late works. It argues that in terms of both quality and quantity O'Keeffe's paintings from the 1920s and 1930s represent his greatest achievement. His relationship to more avant-garde developments in New Zealand art during these decades are also examined, showing that while he was not hostile towards modernism there were certain stylistic features he was reluctant to adopt himself. His own style is best understood as part of a broad trend where the innovations of Impressionism were combined with qualities drawn from the European old masters. However, despite the strong parallels that exist with the works of other artists, O'Keeffe's paintings nonetheless retain distinctive qualities, both in mood and technique. They represent a largely overlooked but by no means insignificant facet of New Zealand art.

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  • Kaupapa Māori [visual communication] design Investigating ‘visual communication design by Māori, for Māori’, through practice, process and theory

    Gardner, Tracey (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This work examines the field of Māori graphic design, and more specifically, kaupapa Māori visual communication design and process. Initially this research was conceptualised through a health communication project, and was extended to include experiences from practising Māori designers and an examination of print material in order to highlight apparent differences in process and practice when design is undertaken from a kaupapa Māori perspective. The research topic was chosen as a response to kaupapa Māori initiatives and Māori renaissance strategies of the twenty first century. The research is presented from a kaupapa Māori perspective and uses a post-structuralist method of enquiry. A ‘by Māori, for Māori’ or kaupapa Māori cultural framework is considered as differing from the current design academy in New Zealand. In order to examine and identify Māori cultural frameworks within a design process, four practicing designers were interviewed. When analysed these interviews offered valuable insight into personal experiences, values, beliefs, practices and processes, which is not necessarily identified in the current literature reviewed. Throughout the thesis, a recurring underlying theme presented itself concerned with the interaction of two world-views, that is, design and Māori epistemologies. It is the synthesis of both world-views and the space where these two intersect and meet that the thesis is specifically interested in. The investigation of kaupapa Māori design is limited to visual communication design; however, the process and specifications documented in this thesis are presented as dynamic and complimentary to other areas of Māori design and creative fields. The thesis also engages with wider discourses and practices through the analysis of practising designers’ narratives, design examples and literature reviewed. Kaupapa Māori design processes link intrinsically and directly with existing cultural protocols held within te ao Māori. These methods and procedures have been re-articulated within design discourse due to a need for cultural understanding when handling and using Māori cultural referents and knowledge. The increased demand for Māori iconography within industries both locally and globally has also initiated recognition of the need for clearer guidelines necessary to maintain the integrity and intent of the visual forms. The powerful and symbolic nature of Māori objects and artwork has instigated an articulation of tino rangatiratanga in order to construct and specify culturally appropriate methods and uses of Indigenous taonga in design industry.

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  • Rheology of the Alpine Fault Mylonite Zone: deformation processes at and below the base of the seismogenic zone in a major plate boundary structure

    Toy, Virginia (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The Alpine Fault is the major structure of the Pacific-Australian plate boundary through New Zealand’s South Island. During dextral reverse fault slip, a dominant slip. Formation of this highly-oriented fabric would have led to significant geometric softening and enhanced strain localisation. During this high strain deformation, pre-existing Alpine Schist fabrics in polyphase rocks were reconstituted to relatively well-mixed, finer-grained aggregates. As a result of this fabric homogenisation, strong syn-mylonitic object lineations were not formed. Strain models show that weak lineations trending towards ~090 degrees and kinematic directions indicated by asymmetric fabrics and CPO pattern symmetry could have formed during pure shear stretches up-dip of the fault of ~ 3.5, coupled with simple shear strains, gamma >=30. The preferred estimate of simple:pure shear strain gives a kinematc vorticity number, Wk>=0.9997. Rapid exhumation due to fault slip resulted in advection of crustal isotherms. New thermobarometric and fluid inclusion analyses from fault zone materials allow the thermal gradient along an uplift path in the fault rocks to be more precisely defined than previously. Fluid inclusion data indicate temperatures of 325±15 degrees C were experienced at depths of ~ 4.5 km, so that a high thermal gradient of ~75 degrees C/km is indicated in the near-surface. This gradient must fall off to -slip quartz CPO fabrics indicate deformation temperatures did not exceed 650 degrees C at >=7.0-8.5±1.5 kbar, ie. 26-33 km depth. During exhumation, the strongly oriented quartzite fabrics were not favourably oriented for activation of the lower temperature basal slip system, which should have dominated at depths 25μm, indicating maximum differential stress of ~55 MPa for most mylonites). It is likely that the preferentially oriented prism slip system was activated during these events, so the Y-maximum CPO fabrics were preserved. Simple numerical models show that activation of this slip system is favoured over the basal system, which has a lower critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) at low temperatures, for aggregates with strong Y-maximum orientations. Absence of pervasive crystal-plastic deformation of micas and feldspars during activation of this mechanism also resulted in preservation of mineral chemistries from the highest grades of mylonitic deformation (ie. amphibolite-facies). Retrograde, epidote-amphibolite to greenschist-facies mineral assemblages were pervasively developed in ultramylonites and cataclasites immediately adjacent to the fault core and in footwall-derived mylonites, perhaps during episodic transfer of this material into and subsequently out of the cooler footwall block. In the more distal protomylonites, retrograde assemblages were locally developed along shear bands that also accommodated most of the mylonitic deformation in these rocks. Ti-in-biotite thermometry suggests biotite in these shear bands equilibrated down to ~500±50 degrees C, suggesting crystal-plastic deformation of this mineral continued to these temperatures. Crossed-girdle quartz CPO fabrics were formed in these protomylonites by basal dominant slip, indicating a strongly oriented fabric had not previously formed at depth due to the relatively small strains, and that dislocation creep of quartz continued at depths =0.98), but require a similar total pure shear component. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in the simple shear component with time, consistent with incorporation of new hanging-wall material into the fault zone. Pre-existing lineations were only slowly rotated into coincidence with the mylonitic simple shear direction in the shear bands since they lay close to the simple shear plane, and inherited orientations were not destroyed until large finite strains (<100) were achieved. As the fault rocks were exhumed through the brittle-viscous transition, they experienced localised brittle shear failures. These small-scale seismic events formed friction melts (ie. pseudotachylytes).The volume of pseudotachylyte produced is related to host rock mineralogy (more melt in host rocks containing hydrated minerals), and fabric (more melt in isotropic host rocks). Frictional melting also occurred within cataclastic hosts, indicating the cataclasites around the principal slip surface of the Alpine Fault were produced by multiple episodes of discrete shear rather than distributed cataclastic flow. Pseudotachylytes were also formed in the presence of fluids, suggesting relatively high fault gouge permeabilities were transiently attained, probably during large earthquakes. Frictional melting contributed to formation of phyllosilicate-rich fault gouges, weakening the brittle structure and promoting slip localisation. The location of faulting and pseudotachylyte formation, and the strength of the fault in the brittle regime were strongly influenced by cyclic hydrothermal cementation processes. A thermomechanical model of the central Alpine Fault zone has been defined using the results of this study. The mylonites represent a localised zone of high simple shear strain, embedded in a crustal block that underwent bulk pure shear. The boundaries of the simple shear zone moved into the surrounding material with time. This means that the exhumed sequence does not represent a simple ‘time slice’ illustrating progressive fault rock development during increasing simple shear strains. The deformation history of the mylonites at deep crustal P -T conditions had a profound influence on subsequent deformation mechanisms and fabric development during exhumation.

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  • Moving beyond acknowledgment : an investigation of the role of spirituality and religion within the professional practice of social work in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Stirling, Blair (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    For the past two decades there has been an ever expanding interest in the implications of spirituality and, or, religion within the professional practice of social work (Anderson and Angell, 1999; Bishop, Avila-Juarbe, & Thumme, 2003; Cornett, 1992; Northcut, 1999; Northcut, 2000; Praglin, 2004 ; Sheridan, Wilmer and Atcheson,1994). Increasingly, scholars and social workers alike have been considering the appropriateness of inclusion and the practical implications involved. This interest has developed to include attention to spirituality within varying ethical codes and definitions of social work. This is evident in international social work organisations such as the IFSW (International Federation of Social Workers) and IASSW (International Association of Schools of Social Work). Both have begun to include religious and, or, spiritual concerns into professional practice principles. In Aotearoa New Zealand the Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers (ANZASW) is a member of these international bodies; thus the profession is bound to the above principles. Additionally, the Aotearoa New Zealand Social Workers Registration Board (SWRB) code of practice reflects the standards and ethical codes of the ANZASW. Moreover, spirituality and, or, religion is an important aspect for different client groups within the Aotearoa social services context. This is particularly so within bicultural frameworks. Despite this, little attention has been given to exploring how social workers and social service agencies in Aotearoa New Zealand integrate this aspect in their work with clients to meet the varying ethical requirements. Additionally, little investigation has been undertaken to explore the implications religion and, or, spirituality might have within the Aotearoa New Zealand Social Services context. To date a number of conversations have occurred with regard to spirituality and religious concerns for Tangata Whenua, and to a lesser degree Tagata Pasifika. This study seeks to address the paucity of information by undertaking a mixed methods investigation of the role religion and spirituality has within Aotearoa New Zealand social work.

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  • Listening through deaf ears : parental experiences of the wired world

    Sawicki, Nina (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Sensorineural hearing loss affects 1 to 3 of every 1000 children born. In most cases the child is non-syndromic (meaning that it is not associated with any congenital features) and the child is well. Sensorineural loss in childhood limits the development of spoken language but with amplification (hearing aids) or cochlear implantation and intensive habilitation these children may develop spoken language. This Master's thesis details a qualitative research study which aimed to examine the experiences of parents throughout New Zealand prior to, and in the years following their child's cochlear implant. The Research Question What are the experiences of parents whose child(ren) undergo cochlear implantation in New Zealand? Method The decision to use qualitative research methods was deemed to be the most appropriate given that the aims of the study were based on exploring the experiences of the parents. A constructivist methodology was used to explore the meaning of these parents' experiences. The study was carried out throughout New Zealand in 2007, and fourteen parents (seven parent pairs) participated in the study. Data for the study were sought through open-ended in-depth interviews. The analysis was iterative, therefore subsequent interviews incorporated issues raised by previous participants. The data from the interviews were analysed using a general inductive approach. Results Several prominent themes were found. Parents reported experiences of profound shock after their child's initial diagnosis, a sense of isolation, and ongoing emotional distress which they did not perceive as being appreciated by the many health and service providers involved in the ongoing management of their child(ren). Many parents found the referral process erratic and the hearing aid trial a source of stress and frustration, with little benefit. Despite the stress of the surgery and the considerable habilitation work involved in the post-implantation period, the parents were overwhelmingly positive about the benefits noted after surgery. All parents described their implanted child as a "normal" child. There was low use of sign language and there was limited contact with the Deaf community. Many parents spoke of the need for sign language but reported a range of difficulties accessing tuition. These issues were more apparent for families in remote communities. Conclusions The implications arising from this study suggest that the management of implanted children by health and education providers needs to emanate from a definitive family oriented paradigm. The needs of siblings and other extended family members also need consideration. Cochlear implantation provides a management tool, not a cure, for childhood deafness and implanted children will continue to face significant challenges in the world of hearing persons. The low use of sign language suggests that these children may not be receiving a holistic and pluralistic approach to their language development. As a consequence of limited contact with the Deaf community, minimal use of sign language, low modelling of its value by parents and increasing demands placed on implanted children to function as "hearing", these children may face additional challenges as they mature.

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  • Reading Comprehension Instruction of Effective Grades 5 and 6 Saint Lucian Teachers

    Sargusingh-Terrance, Lisa Merlene (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study set out primarily to investigate the nature of reading comprehension instruction in Saint Lucia, and to examine the explanations of teachers with regard to the factors that they perceive contribute to Grade 6 students' failure in the main idea comprehension test in the national Common Entrance Examination in Saint Lucia. Four effective Grades 5 and 6 teachers (two per grade) from two Saint Lucian primary schools participated in a total of four individual semi-structured interviews and were observed in their regularly scheduled reading comprehension lessons. A total of 27 lessons were observed and audio tape-recorded to examine the nature of reading comprehension instruction in the classrooms. From this cohort of lessons, a sample of 16 lessons was randomly selected and transcribed to determine the presence of direct instruction in comprehension strategies, and the quality of instruction that took place. This quality was measured and described in terms of the elements of the Direct Instruction Model (Pearson Dole, 1987), the nature of questioning, and time allotted to instruction. This data was also used to make comparisons between Grades 5 and 6 classes. The results show that the four teachers perceived that there are four areas of blame for students' poor performance in reading comprehension: the teacher's inability to instruct, the students' poor decoding and comprehension abilities, the inadequacy of the main idea test, and the teaching materials available for teaching comprehension. However, the main factor perceived by teachers as contributing to the students' poor performance is teachers' inability to instruct. Nonetheless, the observation of the Grades 5 and 6 effective teachers' reading comprehension lessons showed that these teachers were indeed teaching a number of comprehension strategies. They relied predominantly on the question answering strategy in all their lessons which was mainly taught in combination with other strategies. However, it was the teaching of summarization through the main idea that was the dominant strategy more explicitly taught in 7 of the 16 lessons observed, appearing more frequently in the Grade 6 classes. An assessment of the quality of the reading comprehension instruction revealed that 11 of1 6 lessons, included all the four elements of direct instruction, and were rated as 'excellent' in quality. None of the lessons had fewer than two elements identified on the model. An assessment of the types of questions asked also showed that questioning was used both for the purpose of assessment and as an instructional strategy. The timing of the lessons support the quality of instruction, as 90% of the total time observed was allotted to instruction. The greater portion of that time went to guided practice (38%) and independent practice (33%) of reading comprehension strategies. This study shows that explicit comprehension instruction of strategies is evident in the reading comprehension classes of the 4 effective Saint Lucian Grades 5 and 6 teachers. It is therefore recommended that educational officials ensure that similar practices are maintained in other Saint Lucian classes, that the reading comprehension instruction practices of a wider cross section of Saint Lucian teachers be examined, and that future research looks into other probable causes of students' failure on the main idea comprehension test.

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  • The socio-cultural impacts of community based tabu sites on men and women: A case study of Cuvu district, Nadroga, Fiji

    Robinson, Floyd Boy (2008)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This research analyses the impacts of community based Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) or tabu on men and women of Cuvu district in the province of Nadroga, Fiji. The practice of tabu is not an uncommon phenomenon in the South Pacific. Many evaluations have been conducted of such initiatives. However, there appears to be a lack of comparative analysis detailing how gender specific impacts are caused by these resource management regimes. Central to the methodology of this research was the interview of 17 villagers. They were three fishermen, five fisherwomen and nine traditional leaders. By fisher roles, respondents were either classified as artisanal or subsistence fishers. The reactions and responses by respondents and other villagers revealed realities and perceptions that were as diverse as the socially stratified marine resource using communities of Cuvu district. Gender specific impacts were affirmed. Women fished in inshore areas using simple methods and were disadvantaged unlike men who dived and therefore fished along the outer edges of the reef. Geo-spatial impacts were also identified. Artisinal fishers who had wider personalised fishing zones were more receptive to the existing tabu. Different ranks of leadership, furthermore, determined the support, or the lack of it, that chiefs placed on the existing tabu. On the one hand, traditional leaders upheld the high chief's decision and spoke of the benefits for them and their future generations. On the other, few of these leaders offered diplomacy when explaining the challenges faced by their people. Commonalities were not entirely absent. All respondents and villagers in general, regardless of gender and social standing, felt that the involvement of the Turaga Na Kalevu (high chief) brought sanctity and spiritual blessings upon the tabu. The findings of this research reflect the need to better understand and appreciate the heterogeneous make up of communities when introducing resource management regimes such as tabu. To be effective, they must be inclusive of villagers'diversity and their dependence on the marine environment. A TOP model tabu is proposed as it is accommodative of the diverse interests and values that men and women have on the marine environment. It will ensure conservation and simultaneously enable the coastal communities of Cuvu district to meet their daily protein needs as well as preserve their heterogeneity.

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  • Genealogical Family History in Aotearoa-New Zealand: From Community of Practice to Transdisciplinary Academic Discourse?

    Brown, Margaret Mary Selman (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Genealogical Family Historians conduct research in order to reconstruct genealogical families, through the application of a rigorous methodology: weighing the evidence for placing each individual in a family group, linking family groups of the past and making contact with kin of the present. Genealogical Family Historians trace the movements and migrations of identified individuals and family groups; and study the local, national and international social settings of lives lived in families and households in different times and places, over many generations. A large worldwide Community of Practice with many constituent groups, including the New Zealand Society of Genealogists Incorporated, has formed itself around this research activity. In this transdisciplinary study focused on social learning, I have explored and analysed the domain, the practice and the community of Genealogical Family Historians researching in and from Aotearoa-New Zealand during the past 50 years. Genealogical Family Historians meet formally and informally, in small groups or at large conferences to pursue their self-directed learning. The collaborative practice includes publishing and teaching; and the locating, preserving and indexing of records. Many conduct research and communicate with others in the new world of cyberspace. My overarching research question has been: where is the future place for this scholarly discourse? My approach to this study is transdisciplinary: my point-of-view is above and across departments and disciplines. The ethos and vision of transdisciplinarity is attained only through existing disciplines, and transdisciplinary research has the potential to contribute to those disciplines, as I demonstrate in this thesis. The transdisciplinary scholarly discourse of Genealogical Family History owes much to the disciplines of history, geography and sociology; and draws on biology, law, religious studies, linguistics, demography, computer science and information technology. I have also drawn on understandings from my own prior and concurrent disciplinary knowledge and experience for this study. Other Genealogical Family Historians bring different disciplinary understandings to the discourse that is Genealogical Family History. My positionality is that of an insider, an involved member of the Community of Practice for many years. In this study, I have allowed my key informants to speak with their own voices; and I have sought illustration and evidence from documentation and observation in the wider Genealogical Family History Community, past and present. I have used enhanced reflection on my own practice in my analysis and in case studies. This study demonstrates how the Community of Practice has played an important role in developing a transdisciplinary mode of inquiry and suggests that there are some generic features of the field and practice of Genealogical Family History that form the substance of a transdisciplinary discourse ready to take its place in academia.

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  • The Price of Mauri: Exploring the validity of Welfare Economics when seeking to measure Mātauranga Māori

    Awatere, Shaun (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Since the 1980s New Zealand has pursued neo-classical or market-based policies with a particular fervour. Market-based options are seen by resource management decision makers as essential frameworks for efficiently allocating resources, an approach that continues to support the view of the inherent dominance of Western knowledge. This is particularly concerning, given that Māori (the indigenous people of New Zealand), have an important role to play in New Zealand resource management and perceive their own knowledge systems have been marginalised. The primary goal of this thesis is to explore the validity of welfare economics when seeking to measure quantitatively Mātauranga Māori or Māori views of the environment through the contingent valuation method. A contingent valuation study is carried out using three separate samples drawn from the general Māori population in Auckland city, a hāpu/sub-tribe indigenous to the Auckland isthmus, and drivers of motor vehicles in Auckland city. Data collection modes include a postal survey and face-to-face interviews. This thesis challenges the validity of political-legal ethnicity constructs to measure Mātauranga Māori. The search for a central tendency will lead to biased, misleading and inaccurate results. The thesis also challenges the validity of contingent valuation to produce true economic measures and to measure and identify Mātauranga Māori. Despite advances in analytical techniques, economic efficiency measures are always deficient, given the difficulty of capturing and anticipating all impacts and valuing them appropriately. Mātauranga Māori is derived from a Māori epistemology and should be considered or analysed with primary reference to this body of knowledge. Economic analysis is only one important cog in the machinery of resource management policy. Given that an economist's contribution to local and regional resource management is most valuable when focusing on the economic efficiency of the proposed resource allocation, it is appropriate that other perspectives such as Mātauranga Māori be considered.

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  • Evaluating the Effectiveness of Conformance-Based Plans: Attributing Built Heritage Outcomes to Plan Implementation Under New Zealand's Resource Management Act

    Mason, Greg (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    Little is known about the effectiveness of district plans in protecting built heritage, which is a matter of national importance under New Zealand's Resource Management Act 1991 (RMAct). This is despite the fact that the RMAct directs planning agencies to evaluate the effectiveness of plan provisions. This lack of evaluation is not unique to New Zealand or merely symptomatic of heritage planning. Instead, it is a shortcoming in planning theory and practice internationally; a well recognised impediment being that planning lacks a suitable evaluation approach. This thesis aims to address this deficiency by proposing a methodology for evaluating plan effectiveness and applying it to the built heritage provisions of two district plans. The methodology adopted has been shaped by the theory-based and realist evaluation approaches, as developed in the field of programme evaluation. Both approaches share a common ontology regarding claims of causality, which stresses 'knowledge in context'. Thus, a central endeavour of the research is not only to identify the environmental outcomes arising from plan implementation, but also to understand how and why the implementation context promoted or inhibited the achievement of plan goals. In so doing, the causal and implementation theories underpinning the plans' heritage provisions are exposed, modelled and tested. The findings reveal that plan implementation failed to prevent the loss of built heritage values in many instances. While the plans' causal theory was largely sound, key aspects of the implementation theory were not realised during the development control process. Plan quality was a significant factor, as was the commitment and capacity of developers to comply with the plans. The institutional fixation on consent processing speed rather than environmental outcomes was a further impediment. Overall, the theory-based approach provided a useful framework for determining plan effectiveness and holds promise for evaluating plan issues other than built heritage.

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