1,282 results for Thesis, 2010

  • Metadata_Photography and the construction of meaning : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts to [i.e. at] Massey University, College of Creative Arts, School of Fine Arts, Wellington, New Zealand

    Nishioka, Mizuho (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Photographic technology is increasingly respondent to a desire for the production and consumption of information. The current age of photography not only possesses the ability to capture the image, but also to capture photographic metadata as supplemental information. Engaging in the premise that the photographic image exists as an incomplete medium to the transfer of information, this research identifies the acquisition of data as a means to resolve interpretation and quantify the photographic image. Inhabiting a complex territory within this structure, the photographic image manifests multiplicity and operates as source, production, and capture of information. This work challenges the perceptions of how to engage with the dialogues created between the photographic image, and the externally appended metadata.

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  • Teacher cognition about technology-mediated EFL instruction in the Thai tertiary context : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Second Language Teaching at Massey University

    Suwannasom, Thitirat (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Drawing on theories of teacher cognition and sociocultural frameworks, this study investigates Thai university English lecturers’ cognition about integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in English language instruction and writing instruction in Thai tertiary contexts. A more specific goal is to investigate technology-using teachers’ personal principles and practices in their teaching contexts. The study was guided by the following research questions: What is the nature of Thai tertiary teacher cognition about the use of technology in EFL instruction? What is the nature of Thai tertiary teacher cognition about the use of technology in EFL writing instruction? How do Thai tertiary teachers perceive their practices and roles in relation to their technology-mediated EFL instruction in particular settings? In Thai tertiary education, what are the sociocultural aspects that shape teacher cognition and practice about technology-mediated EFL teaching? A teacher cognition questionnaire was designed and administered to 47 Thai EFL lecturers in seven public universities; semi-structured interviews and scenario-based tasks were conducted with seven lecturers; unstructured interviews and observations were carried out with three teachers who used technology in their classroom teaching in order to gain a better understanding of their situated perceptions about the use of technology in particular teaching and learning contexts. The results reveal that university EFL teachers’ views of technology are highly shaped by both their teaching environment and individual beliefs about English language learning. When teachers apply technology in their instruction, they also apply their personal principles or maxims that guide their practices. In addition, a number of sociocultural aspects emerged in teachers’ views about technology use in their EFL teaching contexts giving rise to theoretical implications about how teacher cognition is conceptualised. Some of the major implications for practice include: the need to encourage EFL teachers to reflect on their teaching principles relevant to their working contexts; the value of providing teachers with models of technology use in tertiary EFL teaching; and the maximisation of the use of available technology to support local practices. Implications for methodology include the use of multiple context-specific instruments and methods to elicit teachers’ underlying beliefs and perspectives about technology-mediated teaching.

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  • The development of a music therapy school consultation protocol for students with high or very high special education needs : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Music, New Zealand School of Music

    Rickson, Daphne Joan (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Music therapy school consultation is positioned to become a significant practice for music therapists. Historically, music therapy work with children who have special education needs in New Zealand has focused on those who attend special schools or units and, according to the published literature, seems to have taken place in clinic settings or withdrawal rooms. The current emphasis on inclusive education demands that music therapists consider other ways of working. Further, a paucity of music therapists and the geographic isolation of many students who attend their local schools suggest that the large majority of students who would benefit are unable to access music therapy services. The aims of the current study therefore were for a music therapist to empower members of special education teams to use music experiences which had been especially planned to assist children to meet individual developmental or academic goals, and to describe how the process was perceived, understood, used, and valued by participants. A further aim was to develop and trial a protocol for music therapists undertaking consultation work. Eight registered music therapists interviewed in stage one of the study, to aid the development of the initial protocol, had differing views and attitudes about consultation, and findings confirmed the need to clearly define the practice. The initial protocol was therefore fragile, based on limited understandings from sparse music therapy consultation literature and the author‟s previous experience of working with team members in isolated areas. In stage two, four consecutive case studies enabled the protocol to be trialled in the field and, using an action research approach, to be developed further. Accumulated learning outcomes led to the development of a music therapy school consultation protocol based on social learning theory which emphasises the interdependent relationships between the consultant‟s (music therapist), consultees‟ (identified team members), and clients‟ (students) behaviour, their internal personal factors, and environmental factors. The establishment of collaborative relationships, and an ecological assessment which is based on the theory that human development is influenced by environmental systems (Bronfenbrenner, 1989), are critical components of the protocol. Thus the music therapist spends a full week at each student‟s school. Findings demonstrate that interacting with team members as they went about their daily lives led to deeper understanding of their needs and in turn enabled pragmatic, accessible, and meaningful music activities and strategies to be successfully implemented. A „clinical‟ music therapy session remains an important part of the protocol, but findings suggest its primary significance is in highlighting students‟ strengths so that team members develop fresh understandings and increasingly positive views of students that enhance their mutual relationships. Team members became more motivated, energised, self reflective, and able to support as well as challenge their students‟ development. They were thus able to continue to use, develop and evaluate their use of music strategies, after the music therapist left the field. Music therapists are currently unprepared for the triadic relationships and the emphasis on adult empowerment that is fundamental to consultation. The findings therefore have significant implications for music therapy practice and training. These implications, including areas for future research, are discussed herein.

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  • Interactions of whey protein isolate and human saliva, as related to the astringency of whey protein beverages : a thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirement of the degree of Master of Technology in Food Technology at Riddet Institute, Massey University, New Zealand

    Streicher, Christina (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Interactions between 3 different proteins (lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin and Whey Protein Isolate) and human saliva were determined. Lactoferrin and whey proteins are known to be astringent at low pH. Astringency is defined as the tactile sensation, mainly on the tongue, caused by astringent compounds when in contact with human saliva. Proline-rich proteins are already known to be directly involved in the astringency of polyphenols. Whey proteins do not contain polyphenols. However, because whey proteins at low pH develop an astringent sensation when consumed, it was expected to detect proline-rich proteins in the interaction between Whey Protein Isolate (WPI) and saliva as well. The protein solutions were adjusted to different pH-levels, ranging from neutral to high acidic, where a part of each protein solution was heat-treated. All solutions were mixed with human saliva in the same ratio (w/w). One part of all mixtures was pH-readjusted. Additionally, WPI model solutions were prepared, adjusted to different pH-levels, heat-treated and then consumed by voluntary participants, who swirled each solution in their mouth for at least 10 seconds. These mixtures of WPI and saliva were collected for further analysis. After consuming the WPI model solutions, followed by rinsing the mouth with water, tongue swabs were taken to determine the particle sizes and zeta-potentials of the remaining material on the tongue. Control tongue swabs of the clean tongue were taken by the participants before any consumption of the WPI model solutions. All mixtures as well as lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin (beta-lg), WPI and saliva on their own, were analysed for particle size, zeta-potential and turbidity, which may give an indication for possible aggregation/precipitation of the proteins as well as the analysis of the SDS-PAGE profile of the sediments of the sample mixtures. Saliva is negatively charged between neutral pH and 3.0, whereas lactoferrin has a positive charge below pH 8.0. WPI has a positive charge below pH 5.1; the same applies to beta-lg. None of the proteins themselves showed aggregation/precipitation at pH-levels 6.8, 3.6, 3.4, 3.0, 2.5 or 2.0. However, after the proteins were mixed with saliva, the pH of mixtures shifted towards neutral pH. The mixtures of lactoferrin (unheated/heat-treated) and saliva neither showed any significant increases in particle size nor the presence of turbidity. Salivary proteins were not detected in any mixtures at any observed pH either, despite the known fact that lactoferrin causes astringency. The mixtures of beta-lg (unheated/heated) and saliva displayed high particle sizes below final pH 3.6, whereas the high turbidities of both mixtures were measured between final pH 3.6 and 3.4. Furthermore, only at final pH 2.8 were salivary proteins (mainly glycosylated proline-rich proteins and alpha-amylase) detected. However, higher concentrations of salivary proteins were measured when heat-treated beta-lg was mixed with saliva. The mixtures of WPI and saliva presented the strongest interaction compared to lactoferrin and beta-lg. High aggregation/precipitation occurred in the mixtures between pH 4.3 and 3.0, where significantly high particle sizes and turbidities were detected. The pH-readjusted mixtures of lactoferrin/beta-lactoglobulin/WPI and saliva showed similar values in particle size and turbidity as the mixtures of the proteins and saliva without pH-readjustment at similar pH-values. Furthermore, the pH-readjusted mixtures of the proteins and saliva showed in their sediments the presence of alpha-amylase and glycosylated proline-rich proteins.The mixtures of heat-treated WPI and saliva, collected from the mouth after taking a sip (ratio unknown), revealed that the strongest interactions occurred when WPI-solutions were adjusted to pH 3.6 and 3.4. Similar observations were made for heat-treated WPI-solutions, which were adjusted to pH 3.6 and 3.4, when mixed with saliva 1:1 (w/w). However, additionally to the glycosylated proline-rich proteins and alpha-amylase, faint bands of mucin as well as basic proline-rich proteins were detected in the mixtures collected from the mouth. The proteins of the material remaining on the tongue followed the consumption of WPI-solutions and rinsing with water showed that the particle size measurementswere not reliable. However, pH-levels between 6.8 and 5.7 occurred and negative charges were measured on the tongue after rinsing the mouth twice with water. The strongest interactions between the proteins and human saliva occurred when the proteins, in particular beta-lg and WPI, were positively charged and then mixed with saliva (negative charge). Concluding from that it is suggested that electrostatic interactions may cause the astringent sensations. However, since no evidence could be found that salivary proteins were involved in the interaction between lactoferrin and saliva (without pH-readjustment), it is suggested that other interactions than electrostatic interactions cause the astringent sensation of lactoferrin.

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  • Tourism policy implementation in the Philippines, 1973-2009

    de la Santa, Edieser (2010)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: xv, 362 leaves : ill., maps ; 30 cm. Notes :University of Otago department: Tourism. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Otago, 2010. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Remineralisation of decalcified tooth enamel consequent to orthodontic treatment

    Lam, Emily (2010)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: xx, 253 leaves : col. ill ; 30 cm. Notes: “A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Clinical Dentistry in Orthodontics, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand”. "August 2010". University of Otago department: Oral Sciences. Thesis ( D. Clin. Dent. )--University of Otago, 2010. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • Analysis of fungal inteins

    Bokor, Annika Anna Maria (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xxvi, 298 leaves :col. ill ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Biochemistry. "November 1, 2010"

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  • Rich and well, poor and sick? The relationship between income and self-rated health from the New Zealand household panel Survey of Family, Income and Employment (SoFIE)

    Imlach Gunasekara, Fiona Helen (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Background This thesis investigates the relationship between income and health in New Zealand adults, using longitudinal data from the household panel Survey of Family, Income and Employment, 2002 to 2005. Evidence for a cross-sectional relationship between income and health is strong, but may be affected by confounding. Longitudinal data, with repeated measures on the same individuals, can be analysed to control for much of the confounding that biases cross-sectional analyses, giving a more accurate estimate of the causal impact of income on health. Methods and Results The outcome used was self-rated health (SRH), a five-level ordinal variable. The primary analytical method used was fixed effects regression modelling, which controls for time-invariant confounders, but applying this method to an ordinal outcome was challenging. Two fixed effects ordinal models were compared. These found that an increase in income of $10,000 increased the odds of better SRH by 0.6% (95% confidence interval -0.3% to 1.5%; ‘hybrid’ proportional odds model) to 0.9% (95% confidence interval -0.4% to 2.3%; amalgamated conditional logistic regression model). Random effects proportional odds models, which did not adequately control for bias from unmeasured time-invariant confounders, gave larger and statistically significant income estimates. Conclusions A modest (and statistically insignificant) association of changing income with changing SRH in New Zealand adults was found over the short-term, having controlled rigorously for confounding. The small size of the income estimate was consistent with results from other longitudinal studies. However, this thesis (and similar research) may have underestimated the putative causal association between income and health due to measurement error in income and changes in income over time. Likewise, SRH, as a general health measure, prone to ceiling effects and measurement error, may not be an ideal repeated measures outcome. Changes in SRH over time occur in response to changes in both mental and physical health and short term income changes may have different effects on mental and physical health outcomes. Long term income rather than short term income changes may be more relevant for health and time lags longer than one year between changes in income and effects on health were not accounted for.

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  • The influence of skill and low back pain on peak and cumulative spine loads during wool harvesting

    Pal, Poonam (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Sheep shearing is a physically demanding occupation, with high energy expenditure, spinal loads and risk of back injury. The cost of injury compensation and rehabilitation for this workforce is considerable. Although research shows the use of a commercially available trunk harness will significantly reduce spinal loads, there has been no investigation of worker skill on spinal loads and risk of injury. A higher skill level is accepted by the wool harvesting industry as improving quality of work and productivity. Others within the industry consider that increased skill lowers risk of injury by improving animal control and working in less demanding postures. Some research has shown a positive effect of skill within other occupations and tasks; such as a reduction in energy expenditure, spinal cumulative loads and asymmetric movements while others have shown no such effect. The aims of this research are to quantify lumbo-sacral cumulative and peak forces experienced by workers in the wool harvesting industry, and to determine how skill and a history of low back pain requiring clinical intervention (LBP-Clin) impact on these loads. Following ethical approval a total of 140 participants (80 shearers and 60 wool handlers) were recruited and surveyed during formal shearing and wool handling competitions in Southern New Zealand. Each subject was then video-taped while executing 3 to 5 consecutive trials (dependent on skill level and competition requirements) of their normal task cycle. These video clips were analysed by using posture binning and load analysis software (3D Match) that incorporated 3D kinematics, external hand forces and anthropometric data to calculate the peak and cumulative loads on the L4/L5 segment. Cumulative loads were then extrapolated to an 8-hour work day. Correlation analysis was performed to determine collinearity between e xplanatory (independent) variables. Univariate linear regression models were initially used to determine the individual influence of skill and LBP-Clin on cumulative and peak spinal forces while multivariate linear regression models were used to determine the combined influence of skill and LBP-Clin on cumulative and peak spinal forces. For shearers mean peak lumbo-sacral compression, joint anterior shear, joint anterior reaction shear, and extensor moments for shearers were 3828.7N, 230N, 458.3N, and 185.1Nm respectively. For wool handlers these peak lumbo-sacral loads were 3194.2 N, 189.2 N, 391.4 N and 165.1 Nm. Mean cumulative compression, force weighted compression, joint anterior shear, joint anterior reaction shear, and extensor moments for shearers were 82.6 MN.s, 84.8 MN.s, 5.4 MN.s, 11.8 MN.s and 4.2MNm.s while these mean cumulative scores were considerably less for wool handlers at 48.7 MN.s, 48.9 N.s, 2.53 MN.s, 5.7 MN.s and 0.023 Nm.s. Skill was associated with decreased peak catch and drag compressive force for junior, intermediate and senior shearers and also decreased cumulative extensor moments for junior and senior wool handlers. LBP-Clin was only associated with an increased peak extensor moment during the catch and drag for shearers while LBP-Clin had no significant influence on any peak or cumulative force for wool handlers. The interaction variable for skill and LBP-Clin also showed no significant influence on peak or cumulative forces for either shearers or wool handlers. Although this study demonstrates minimal influence for skill or LBP-Clin (or their interaction) on cumulative and peak cumulative and anterior shear forces, the prevalence of LBP-Clin within each skill level increases considerably (particularly for shearers). Interestingly increased skill is also strongly predictive of a considerable increase in productivity (or tally). Thus increased skill appears to be primarily beneficial in terms of increased wool production and task efficiency. Further research with a larger within-skill sample size and prospective design is needed to confirm these results. Other biomechanical factors such as body position within working postures, time spent in different postures, harvesting techniques, and non-sagittal postures and forces (medio- lateral shear and reaction forces) may also be linked to skill and LBP-Clin. Exploring the effect of these other biomechanical factors continues within the occupational biomechanics research team at the University of Otago. Similarly personal and psychosocial factors are recognised as being linked to injury and injury risk within the overlapping fields of ergonomics and occupational health. The part they play in injury risk within the wool harvesting occupations is unknown and is also under exploration. A recommendation for the wool harvesting industry is to continue with formal skill training as it does not appear to expose the worker to increased cumulative or peak spinal loading and it is strongly associated with productivity. However the marked increase in working lifetime prevalence of LBP-Clin in this physically demanding occupation is clearly a problem and it may be that exposure to such high compressive and shear forces (independent of skill) exceeds yet to be determined cumulative loading thresholds that lead to risk of low back injury. While postural demands and non-sagittal forces during traditional shearing also need to be investigated, development of alternative upright posture wool harvesting strategies is an industry identified direction for reduction of injury risk that is biomechanically sound and now under investigation.

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  • The associations between magnesium and the metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese women randomised to an energy-restricted high protein or high fibre diet

    Levers, Megan Tara (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Background: Dietary magnesium intake has reduced in developed countries over the last century, and consequently average magnesium intakes in New Zealand are well below the recommended dietary intake. Plausible biological mechanisms and a large body of cross sectional research have indicated a link between both dietary magnesium intake and magnesium status and cardiovascular risk factors and individual components of the metabolic syndrome. However, dietary interventions to modify magnesium intake and status and examine the effect on cardiovascular risk have not been previously carried out. Methods: A randomised controlled weight-loss trial was carried out to examine the effect of a hypocaloric high carbohydrate, high fibre diet compared with a hypocaloric high protein diet on dietary magnesium intake and status, and to examine corresponding modifications in cardiovascular risk and individual components of the metabolic syndrome. Eighty-three overweight and obese women, who were free from medicated diabetes and dyslipidaeamia, took part. Fasting plasma magnesium was measured, and dietary magnesium intake was assessed using a three-day diet record at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: Over eight weeks of follow-up, plasma magnesium and dietary magnesium intake did not change significantly in either diet group. In the high fibre diet group, an increase in 100mg of dietary magnesium daily was associated with a 1.3kg reduction in weight (p=0.005), an 8% reduction in fasting insulin concentration (p=0.043) and an 8% reduction in HOMA-IR (p=0.015). An increase in plasma magnesium concentration by 1mg/L in the high protein diet group was associated with a 600g weight loss (p=0.013), 350g reduction in trunkal fat (p=0.016) and an increase in McAuley IS (p=0.020). Conclusions: Increases in both dietary magnesium and plasma magnesium were associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk factors and individual components of the metabolic syndrome. This study suggests that weight loss in conjunction with an increase in magnesium intake and improvements in magnesium status, may work synergistically to reduce cardiovascular risk in an at risk population.

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  • Who talks more? How the satisfaction - word of mouth relationship varies across services

    Lang, Bodo (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis is about word of mouth (WOM), which is informal communication between consumers about a product or a service, with no party being formally rewarded. This thesis focuses on the relationship between customer satisfaction and WOM. Research has found support for three competing relationships: A positivity bias, where highly satisfied customers engage in more WOM than highly dissatisfied customers; a negativity bias, where highly dissatisfied customers engage in more WOM than highly satisfied customers; and lastly a symmetric relationship, where highly satisfied customers and highly dissatisfied customers engage in similar amounts of WOM. This thesis uses a taxonomy of service encounters to resolve these conflicting findings. The taxonomy is based on three variables: the duration of an encounter, the level of affect (emotional arousal) during the encounter, and the spatial proximity between staff and the customer during the encounter. The two extreme encounters in this taxonomy can be described as EAI (i.e. enduring, affectively charged and intimate distance) and BRD (i.e. brief, rational and public distance). This thesis proposes that the shape of the satisfaction – WOM relationship (positivity bias, negativity bias or symmetric) depends on the type of service encounter. Specifically, BRD encounters are predicted to result in a negativity bias, whereas EAI encounters are expected to exhibit a positivity bias. A mixed methods approach was used to investigate the satisfaction - WOM relationship. The qualitative phase consisted of semi-structured interviews and the data was analysed with a number of techniques. Results confirmed satisfaction as a key driver of WOM and also showed that the satisfaction – WOM relationship varied across different types of services. Importantly, a previously unconsidered variable, WOM's entertainment value, was discovered and shown to be highly associated with consumers’ WOM activity. During the quantitative phase a new measure of WOM intentions was developed and the measure showed high levels of validity and reliability. A Multiple Analysis of Variance (N = 281) supported the positivity bias for EAI encounters and the negativity bias for BRD encounters, thus reconciling the conflicting findings in the WOM literature. This can be considered as the major empirical contribution of this thesis. A Multiple Analysis of Covariance documented the strong impact of entertainment value on WOM activity, which confirms the importance of this construct in WOM research. Similar results were obtained in a second sample (N = 158). Results were explained using the self-serving bias (SSB), where consumers use positive WOM to enhance their self esteem and how other consumers perceive them, thereby engaging in a lot of WOM about highly satisfactory EAI encounters. Conversely, consumers attempt to reduce the potential self-threat of WOM, thus they talk less about highly dissatisfying EAI encounters. This thesis casts doubts over the widely-held misbelief that highly dissatisfied customers engage in more WOM than highly satisfied customers. Instead, this thesis suggests a more subtle relationship: In some categories (e.g. EAI services) highly satisfied customers will engage in more WOM, while in other categories (e.g. BRD services) highly dissatisfied customers are likely to engage in more WOM.

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  • Ship to shore: The cruise industry's perception of economic risk

    London, Wendy (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis considers a variety of economic risks which could potentially threaten New Zealand’s position as a competitive and sustainable cruise destination. The risks are those articulated by stakeholders from the cruise, broader tourism (including port and shipping agent representatives) and government sectors. More specifically, these stakeholders include cruise industry representatives; cruise ship officers and staff; representatives from RTOs, local and regional councils; and port officials. In addition, the views of two New Zealand government representatives were also solicited. The views of these stakeholders are subsequently interpreted by the author of this thesis who is an avid cruise passenger and also involved in a commercial project to develop a website to promote New Zealand goods and experiences to cruise passengers visiting New Zealand. The economic risks considered in this thesis are those which are evaluated and factored into cruise lines’ decisions as to whether to send their ships and passengers to any given destination and the destination’s capacity to host these ships and their passengers. These risks are presented as falling into five distinct categories or phases of a cruise sector lifecycle, i.e. (a) product development; (b) infrastructure development; (c) distribution; (d) use and consumption; and (e) disposal. Each of the risks discussed is within the destination’s capacity to manage those risks if appropriate mechanisms and strategies are put into place. The cruise sector in New Zealand presents an interesting context in which to examine economic risks and a selection of countermeasures which can be implemented to manage them, thereby providing competitive opportunities and the potential for future sustainability for the sector. New Zealand is a remote cruise destination which represents only a very small proportion of the global cruise market. However, its cruise activity continues to experience rapid growth despite the recent economic downturn. According to many of the stakeholders interviewed for this thesis, this growth remains largely unmanaged because there is no apparent structured framework for the ongoing management and future development of “cruise” in New Zealand. Furthermore, they argue that a failure to provide an appropriately managed cruise sector means that the risks which currently face New Zealand will continue to grow and may ultimately threaten New Zealand’s goal of becoming an increasingly competitive and sustainable cruise destination. Five mechanisms or strategies for managing the current and potential risks to the New Zealand cruise sector are suggested by the author. Each of these strategies was signalled during the author’s research and further developed by her based on her own cruise experience in New Zealand waters and drawing from her previous work as a lawyer and IT professional developing best practice and risk management strategies and systems. The five strategies are the formation of a properly funded over-arching coordinating committee; the cultivation of a discernible cruise culture; implementation of appropriate education and training; the creation of a national cruise manual; and the design, development and implementation of a New Zealand cruise brand. Each of these strategies is based on an approach to risk management which calls for a positive view of risk and how it can be transformed into opportunity for competitive success. The traditional notion of risk as something to be avoided or which can be insured against or eliminated is rejected in part because it is counter-productive to treat risk in that way and also because such treatment leads to a silo approach where risks are considered individually and not how their collective influence can impact upon the whole. The silo approach precludes adopting a strategic approach to the identification and optimisation of risk. In other words, a tactical approach to risk indentification and risk management will very likely result in an underperforming and unsuccessful cruise sector. Therefore, the author concludes that a well-considered strategy needs to be adopted and appropriately funded to ensure New Zealand’s continued existence as a competitive and sustainable cruise destination.

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  • The benefits of peer support for online learners

    Galvin, Raylene June (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    In recent years the increased availability of online postgraduate papers has attracted a diverse range of learners. Many learners, due to their physical location, family or employment commitments, are unable to enrol in an on-campus paper. Online learners can experience feelings of isolation from other class members, the lecturer, learning community and the wider university. Peer support is a voluntary partnership where learners provide each other with informal feedback, encouragement and/or engage in discussions about the content of their paper. It has the potential to provide a layer of support for learners, in addition to that already available from the lecturer or the university. A qualitative design was used to explore the research question: How does peer support benefit online learners? Two sub-questions were also addressed: (1) What issues do peer support partners face? and (2) In what ways does peer support meet partners’ needs? Six participants worked with a partner, known as their ‘study buddy’ for one university semester. Data from two focus group interviews, individual interviews, diaries and/or contact charts and a questionnaire was presented in three case studies. This study showed that participants benefited from using peer support. They jointly constructed knowledge, gave and received scaffolding that helped them clarify their ideas and had access to another perspective about the paper content. Some of the issues participants faced during their learning, such as finding information about assessment requirements were resolved through interaction with a peer support partner. The results suggested that peer support partnerships were effective when participants received feedback, advice, encouragement and answers to their questions. They appreciated having another learner who was able to provide support for them during their academic study. It would be valuable to investigate whether the patterns emerging from this study were similar for other online learners in different courses and universities.

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  • The Making of New Zealanders: The evolution of national identity in the nineteenth century

    Palenski, Ronald Allan (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This study examines the gradual development of New Zealand identity, the process during which immigrants in the nineteenth century began to think of themselves as New Zealanders rather than as transplanted Britons or immigrants from other overseas shores, including most particularly the other Australasian colonies. It contends that this process was made manifest earlier than has hitherto been postulated. Events held earlier as breakthroughs in a sense of national identity, such as the federation of Australia in 1901, the Boer War of 1899-1902, the rugby union team’s tour of the United Kingdom and France in 1905-06 and the Gallipoli campaign in 1915, were rather outward affirmations of the identity that had already taken shape. It studies some aspects of mid-nineteenth century New Zealand history that have rarely been remarked upon in the historiography, such as an early opposition to the fledgling country becoming a penal colony and to the introduction of a uniform time for the whole of the country. These are held to have been early markers of an evolving national identity. Others, such as the role of Māori, provided a unique dimension and led to a fused national identity between the indigenous and the recent arrivals. Māori in fact provided the lead in the sport that came to be regarded as “the national game,” rugby union. Landmark legislation, especially the world-first giving the franchise to women on a national basis, is also seen as having significant impact on the evolution of national identity. While some of the legislative change was also adopted elsewhere, it was an aggregation of the changes that made New Zealand distinctive and to be seen as a “social laboratory.” While the concept of national identity may have become passé among historians, and even be seen as being misleading and applying to a few rather than to the many, post-modern thinking cannot change what happened; it can only change interpretations of events of the past. This thesis is about the British and others who migrated to New Zealand from the 1840s, how they came to see themselves as New Zealanders and the various agencies that brought about that change. Whether that was right or wrong, or whether national identity is a devalued concept, is a debate for another time and another place. This is about the making of New Zealanders.

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  • Tourism Recovery after the 2009 Tsunami in Samoa

    Tagomoa-Isara, Tupe (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    On September 29th 2009, the 8.3 magnitude earthquake off of the southern coast of Samoa in the Pacific Ocean generated massive tsunami waves resulting in severe devastation for many villages and contamination of their coastal areas. The disaster greatly impacted the tourism infrastructure, economy, environment, water quality and psychological aspect of the residents in the affected areas. The aim of this thesis was to examine the recovery of tourism after the September 2009 tsunami. The objectives were to: 1) explore the immediate impacts tourism businesses suffered from the tsunami; 2) identify the emergency responses that occurred in the aftermath; 3) explain the issues and challenges arising from the recovery process and; 4) examine the strategies and opportunities that tourism operators and relevant organisations are using to recover tourism in the district. This involves examining the preparedness programs for future disasters. A qualitative approach was used to accomplish the objectives of the study. Four tourism businesses that were affected in the Safata district were selected for this research. Experiences and views of the affected tourism businesses were presented and analysed through media reports and document review, semi-structured interviews and site observations. Interviews were also carried out with key informants from relevant tourism organisations that were involved in the tsunami response and recovery efforts. This author believes that this is the first tourism study carried out on tourism recovery after the 2009 tsunami and specifically a study which presents a tourism case study from the Safata district. It intends to provide insight on the issues facing the tourism businesses hoping to recover, as well as finding out their preparedness programs and disaster plans for future disasters. Results show that there was no disaster plan for the tourism industry before the tsunami. The tsunami has caused severe damage to tourism businesses such as premises being demolished, equipment destruction, psychological effects and environmental damage. Results also show the rapid response of the local communities, government and overseas agencies. It was also clear that although the affected tourism businesses did not have any disaster plans before the tsunami, they showed willingness to develop and become proactive in implementing a disaster plan as a means of preparing for future disasters. This research will help tourism businesses and relevant organisations set strategic actions or procedures towards developing a disaster plan to prepare for and mitigate future disasters.

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  • eCommerce Website Evaluation framework: An Owner's Perspective

    Ghandour, Ahmad (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    In New Zealand, many businesses are investing in setting up their websites to sell goods and services as online trading becomes more popular. This action has caused disillusionment for some companies as it is difficult to clearly articulate the real benefits which could be derived from being online. This is may be due to the lack of an evaluation framework that enables owners to diagnose the performance of their eCommerce website. Current evaluative approaches presented in the literature are based on the users’ experience and fail to address the owner’s concerns. The research presented here is focussed on how to evaluate eCommerce websites based on the owner’s experience point of view. In order to be able to evaluate eCommerce websites, this study: (a) proposed a conceptual framework for eCommerce website evaluation, (b) developed measurement scales for the conceptual framework, (c) collected data based on owners’ perceptions (experience) with their websites, (d) tested the scale in businesses implementing eCommerce websites, and (e) investigated the relationship between the dimensions in the conceptual framework. The proposed research model is based on the current conceptualisation of Information Systems (IS) success models which suggest that success is a multidimensional construct. However, the customer experience is the dominant view taken in these success models. In the proposed model, and in order to address the concern of businesses setting up a website, evaluation is considered from the owner point of view. That is, a process model which links website offer to its payoffs through usage. Extra theoretical perspectives were necessary to account for the shift to the owner’s experience. Since the evaluation is based on the owner’s process understanding of creating a website, the owner satisfaction is included in the process as a contextual variance. This will enable factors in the evaluation model to be clearly linked in causal relationships that lead to owner satisfaction as an ultimate favourable result. Data was collected from 225 New Zealand businesses that have an eCommerce website through an online survey. The research model was tested using the two-step approach of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) where the structural model and measurement model were separately analysed. A set of measurement models was used to determine indicators that capture each construct and a structural model was used to determine the relationships between concepts. Each measurement model was tested in isolation, then factors forming the endogenous variables, followed by factors forming the exogenous variables were each separately tested, and finally a collective network was determined and tested. The key findings of this research showed that there are four factors that explain the change of performance in the website. These factors are: website offer, usage, financial returns, and owner satisfaction. The study concluded that websites could be evaluated along those four factors the effectiveness of which could be monitored along their measurement scales. It is also premised on the same variable that these factors function in a serial manner and the ultimate measure of effectiveness is owner satisfaction. The study also concluded that these factors explain the success of a website; each factor is necessary but not sufficient on its own to explain the success of a website.

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  • The effects of altering macronutrient composition on diabetes risk

    Te Morenga, Lisa Anne (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    The metabolic syndrome describes a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Nutritional approaches which favourably influence these factors might be expected to reduce the risk of T2DM. Two dietary intervention studies have been undertaken to examine the effects of macronutrient composition on clinical and metabolic determinants associated with the metabolic syndrome. Previous research suggests that moderately high-protein diets may be more appropriate than conventional low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets for individuals at high risk of T2DM. However in most such studies sources of dietary carbohydrate were not specified or may not have been appropriate. Thus in the first study two weight-loss diets – one moderately high in protein and the other high in fibre-rich, minimally-processed cereals and legumes – were compared to determine whether a relatively high-protein diet has the potential to confer greater benefit. Eighty-three overweight or obese women were randomised to either a moderately high-protein diet (HP) or to a high-fibre, relatively high-carbohydrate diet (HFib) for 8 weeks. Energy intakes were restricted. Participants on both diets lost weight (HP: -4.5kg; 95% confidence interval (CI):-5.4, -3.7kg and HFib: -3.3kg; 95% CI: -4.2, -2.4kg), reduced body fat and showed improvement in other markers of metabolic risk. However participants on HP lost more body weight (-1.3 kg; 95% CI: -2.5, -0.1kg) and total fat (-1.3kg; 95% CI: -2.4, -0.1). Diastolic blood pressure decreased more on HP than on HFib. Dietary approaches to reducing risk of T2DM typically emphasise fat and energy restriction, but for many achieving and maintaining weight loss is difficult. Diets that focus on substantially altering macronutrient distribution rather than energy restriction are promising alternatives. The second study examined the effects on body composition, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic risk factors, of dietary advice including moderate increases in protein and fibre, without specifying energy intake compared with standard dietary recommendations. Eighty-nine women at risk of T2DM were randomised to either a standard low-fat, highcarbohydrate diet (StdD) or to a relatively high-protein, high-fibre diet (HPHFib) for 10 weeks. Participants on the HPHFib diet lost more weight (1.3 kg; 95% CI 0.7, 1.9) and fat (1.0 kg; 95% CI 0.2, 1.8) than participants on StdD. Total and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were also significantly lower after the HPHFib diet. In contrast insulin sensitivity was reduced on HPHFib (-17.8%; 95%CI -28.6%, -5.3%) compared with StdD after adjustment for weight loss. In conclusion a moderately high-protein, weight-reducing diet was associated with greater benefits when compared with an appropriate high-carbohydrate, high-fibre diet in high risk women, confirming the advantages of high-protein diets that have been observed by others. An ad-libitum diet high in both protein and fibre also improved body composition and markers of metabolic risk compared with standard dietary advice, although a decline in insulin sensitivity was observed. The consequences of the apparent impairment in insulin sensitivity are uncertain. Further research is needed to better understand the effect of macronutrient composition on insulin sensitivity.

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  • Assessing the effect of up-grading playgrounds on children’s physical activity

    Quigg, Robin (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Playgrounds are facilities that may increase children’s physical activity. Territorial authorities provide playgrounds in public parks. The link between children’s needs for physical activity and subsequent provision of play equipment was acknowledged in the Dunedin City Council’s (DCC) 2006 Play Strategy. Implementation of the Strategy through planned up-grades in a spatially-defined area provided an opportunity to test whether children’s physical activity increased with improved play facilities. Two playgrounds were up-graded by the DCC in early 2008 providing the opportunity to conduct a natural experiment study known as LOCATE (Location of Children's Activity in Their Environment) set in Dunedin, New Zealand (NZ). The Location Of Children’s Activity in Their Environment Study (LOCATE) was a natural experiment, set in Dunedin, New Zealand (NZ). At baseline (October - December 2007), 184 children, aged five to ten years old, were recruited from participating schools in intervention and control communities with comparable demographic and spatial characteristics. There were 156 participants at follow-up (15% attrition). There were two phases: a baseline assessment and the follow-up assessment, with 12 months between each assessment. To obtain parents/guardians perceptions of their neighbourhood and other information associated with physical activity, a self-administered questionnaire was developed and tested for reliability in a pilot study. It was mailed to each participant’s home when they began each assessment phase. Participants’ heights and weights were measured, and age- and sex-standardised BMIs determined. Mean Total Daily Physical Activity (TDPA), measured by an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer, was matched with location data collected at one minute intervals using a GlobalSat DG-100 Global Positioning System Data Logger. A regression model was used to compare the log-transformed mean TDPA at follow-up, with baseline scores included as a covariate. All models controlled for repeated measures and clustering by schools by using random effects. Univariate screening was carried out using p<0.1 for inclusion in the model with a priori exploratory subgroup analyses by sex, age, and BMI performed by using interactions between these variables and the community. Non-linear associations were explored and fractional polynomial models were used where appropriate. There was evidence of statistically significant associations with mean TDPA at follow-up for participant age, sex and ethnicity; school day and usual mode of travel to school. Statistically significant interactions were found between sex and ethnicity; community and BMI z-score. Compared to the control community, participants in the intervention community did not have a statistically significantly different mean TDPA (p=0.456). Compared to baseline data, integrated location and physical activity follow-up data indicated a small, but statistically significant increase in median TDPA located at the two up-graded playgrounds in the intervention cohort (4,196 counts; Wilcoxon signed-rank test p=0.040). There was also evidence of statistically significant differences in the distance from home to the nearest up-graded playground, between those who visited following the playground up-grades, and those who did not. For each 100 metre increase in distance from the closest up-graded park, logistic regression indicated a 15.6% decrease in the odds of using that park (95% CI: 1.0, 28.0, p=0.037). These findings suggest that although playgrounds are promoted as facilities which support community physical activity, in NZ, they may have less influence than initially estimated. Nevertheless, playgrounds should be considered as one in a range of opportunities provided in communities for promoting physical activity amongst children.

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  • Health seeking and health related behaviour for type 2 diabetes mellitus among adults in an urban community in Tanzania

    Nguma, Lucy Kinavi (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Early in the 20th century, diabetes mellitus was considered to be a rare medical condition in African countries, and mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the past 30 or 40 years however, the situation has changed. Diabetes is now regarded as a major public health problem throughout Africa particularly among urban communities. The disease is little understood in the general population and is often poorly detected. Previous research, for example, shows about 50 percent of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Tanzania are unaware of their condition and more than 80 percent diabetes cases are undiagnosed. This thesis aims to explore factors influencing health-seeking and health related behaviour among adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in an urban community in Tanzania. It seeks to answer the following key question: What are the key factors influencing health seeking and health related behaviour and care management for type 2 diabetes mellitus? Data collection was carried out from March to June 2007 in two diabetes clinics in Dar es Salaam, the commercial capital city of Tanzania. The main study population consisted of patients aged 35 years and above who had been diagnosed with the disease more than one year before the time of the current study. In-depth interviews were carried out with 20 frequent and 10 infrequent clinic attendees, their 14 caregivers, and seven health care workers; while key informant interviews were carried out with six key national health officials. Furthermore, eight focus group discussions were carried out with people with diabetes and selected community members. Multiple influences on health-seeking behaviour were identified, many of which affected clinic attendance, adherence to treatment programmes, and outcomes. These influences included poor accessibility to diabetes drugs and other services at the clinics, lack of financial resources for transport to the clinic and purchasing of drugs, overcrowded and inadequate public transport, lay beliefs and models of disease causation and treatment which accentuate the role of traditional healers, and poor organisation of the clinics leading to long queues and waiting times. The findings suggest that improving the delivery of care to people with diabetes will require action to address a range of structural, financial, cultural, and administrative issues. These might include improving the distribution and accessibility of essential diabetes drugs, as well as the accessibility and affordability of health care services, patient and public education, involvement of traditional healers, better provision of public transport and more patient-centred organisation of care in public health clinics. The findings have significant policy implications. First, the government needs to decentralise the current diabetes services from regional and district facilities to primary health care centres and existing dispensaries, along with procuring adequate drugs, equipment and health care providers to enhance access to services. Second, the government should develop mechanisms for working with traditional health practitioners as a strategy to enhance early referral of people with diabetes by these practitioners to biomedical care facilities to improve the rates of early diagnosis and management of this disease. Finally, the government needs to acknowledge the growing threat of NCDs such as diabetes and develop national prevention and control strategies including general public education about the disease.

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  • Treatment for People with Coexisting Problems: Opinions and Practices of Alcohol and Other Drug Workers

    Gilbert, Claire Violet (2010)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Little is known about the opinions and practices of the New Zealand addiction workforce in addressing coexisting problems with individuals accessing alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment, despite coexisting problems being the norm in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to survey the New Zealand addiction workforce about workers' opinions and practices in addressing coexisting problems with individuals accessing AOD services. More specifically, the objective was to investigate the mental health assessment and treatment practices of workers. It also sought to explore gender differences in regard to workers' opinions and practices of coexisting problems. Finally, it sought to identify the mental health training needs of workers that would build their capability in addressing coexisting problems with individuals. Specific questions for this study were included in the 2008 National Telephone Survey of the addiction workforce undertaken by the National Addiction Centre. Independent interviewers conducted phone interviews with 232 AOD workers. This sample comprised an aging, stable workforce of predominantly New Zealand pakeha as well as 15% indigenous Maori workers. A third of the workers described themselves as 'in recovery' from a substance use problem. Counsellors comprised the largest professional group (58%). Close to half of the sampled workforce held a postgraduate qualification and nearly two-thirds possessed an AOD specific qualification. Findings from this study highlighted several differences in the opinions and practices of workers in addressing coexisting problems with clients. Primarily, workers' reported assessment practice did not match what they perceived to be optimal assessment practices or their reported mental health treatment practices. Less than a third of workers who undertook a comprehensive assessment asked about all five listed coexisting mental health disorders. This substantial underdiagnosis is cause for concern given the wide recognition and best practice guidelines emphasising the necessity of screening for these coexisting problems during a comprehensive AOD assessment. Workers reported routinely using a broad range of mental health interventions when addressing coexisting problems with clients and strongly endorsed most interventions as part of the optimal treatment of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, as a group they were significantly less likely to endorse referral to mental health support groups, referral to counselling or provide gender-specific treatment as part of the optimal treatment for depression and PTSD. Workers' opinions and practices were significantly associated with their previous formal education relating to mental health issues, qualification level, professional group and ethnicity as well as with how frequently they reported addressing clients' coexisting problems. Formal education relating to mental health issues appeared to have mixed effects on practice. Formal education relating to mental health assessment failed to predict workers' assessment practice, whereas, formal education about mental health interventions and coexisting problems strongly predicted workers' mental health intervention practices. The only significant gender difference observed was that women reported that they were more confident, in comparison with their male colleagues, in addressing coexisting problems with clients, suggesting, overall, that male and female workers are similar in their practice. However, little is known about the influence of gender on workers' practice and, therefore, requires further investigation. Most AOD workers wanted further education about coexisting problems to assist them in their practice. However, taken overall, the findings from this study and the broader literature suggest up-skilling the workforce is complex and requires workforce development strategies to address the factors influencing practice at both individual and organisational levels. Implications for clinical practice, workforce development and research are discussed with attention to building the capabilities and competences of the AOD workforce in accordance with the overall goal of providing effective comprehensive treatment for individuals with coexisting problems.

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