1,938 results for Thesis, 2012

  • Understanding and Improving Stroke Recovery for Māori and Their Whānau

    Harwood, Matire Louise Ngarongoa (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis sought to understand ethnic disparities in stroke within Aotearoa, New Zealand, from the perspectives of Māori. Stroke burden is greatest for Māori, the indigenous peoples of New Zealand, who have higher rates and worse outcomes compared with non-Māori. Importantly for Māori with stroke, the disparity in outcomes (including dependence and quality of life) compared with New Zealand Europeans increases significantly in the 12 months after being discharged from hospital into the community. Reasons for this are not clear. The study’s aims were twofold—to provide a deeper understanding of the stroke experience for Māori with stroke and their Whānau; and to design interventions that could potentially improve stroke outcomes. A qualitative approach to the research was taken in order to gain an understanding of people’s experience, attitudes and beliefs. Constructivist grounded theory was utilized to ensure a wider focus on societal influences. The project also involved Māori as researcher and researched and sought to make a positive difference for Māori with stroke and their Whānau. These concepts fit within the Kaupapa Māori research framework which also guided the research. Five themes explaining the stroke experience were constructed from data collected from in-depth interviews with 18 Māori with stroke and nine people who identified themselves as Whānau caring for Māori with stroke. Personal context, optimal stroke care, Whānau wellbeing, a stand against discrimination and taking charge occur in isolation, or combine, to influence stroke recovery or Māori with stroke and their Whānau. The five themes were presented to three key stakeholder focus groups of Māori with stroke, Whānau of Māori with stroke, and stroke funders and providers. Two practical interventions were proposed by the groups: a DVD of role models and a person- and Whānau-centred assessment designed to engage the patient and their family in the process of recovery. This research suggests that inequity of indigenous health and rehabilitation outcomes in stroke requires a comprehensive and multi-faceted response. A stroke strategy that achieves the aspirations of Māori to take charge is required.

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  • Creating and sustaining an “effective” rural school: The critical triad – leadership, curriculum, and community

    Wright, Anne (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis examines the professional practices of rural school principals in the province of Otago, New Zealand, to describe what it is about their practices that creates and maintains effective rural schools. The underlying question for this research was, The leadership and management of effective, small, rural schools appears to pose unique problems and issues from that in larger rural and urban schools. What makes that difference? A mixed methods approach was taken, using a survey designed for the study and administered to 63 principals of rural schools in Otago. Observations of six purposively chosen principals representing a large rural school (with a role of 150 or above) and a small rural school (with a role of 60 or below) from each of the three areas of Otago: Coastal (East), South Otago, and Central Otago; and, interviews with the six principals who were observed. The survey was factor analysed and showed strong psychometric properties. It yielded background and demographic information regarding the sample, their perceptions regarding their ideals for their schools as compared to the actual situations in their schools, and their views on developing a local curriculum and the factors that made an effective rural school. The survey informed the following observation schedules and questions for the interviews, which were conducted with 6 principals chosen to represent a cross section of types of rural schools. Main findings from the study were that context mattered – small rural school leadership was shown to be different from that in large rural schools, and that for small rural schools, a local curriculum using the local community and environment for content was essential. The results are discussed in terms of the implications they have for the profession and the future training of rural educationalists, and how the results both relate to the literature, and extend the current knowledge base about rural schools.

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  • Cataclastic Processes within the Alpine Fault Zone

    Scott, Hannah Rosaline (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Interloan of Geology theses must first be approved by the Geology Department.

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  • The impact of post-exercise protein-leucine ingestion on subsequent performance and the systematic, metabolic and skeletal muscle molecular responses associated with recovery and regeneration : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Health), Massey University

    Nelson, Andre Richard (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The objective was to determine the effect of post-exercise protein-leucine coingestion with carbohydrate and fat on subsequent endurance performance and investigate whole-body and skeletal-muscle responses hypothesised to guide adaptive-regeneration. Methods. Study-JA Twelve trained-men ingested protein/leucine/carbohydrate/fat (20/7.5/89/22 g· h- 1 ) or carbohydrate/fat (control, 119/22 g· h- 1 ) supplements after intense cycling over six days. Glucose and leucine turnover, metabolomics, nitrogen balance and performance were examined. Study-] B Immune-function responses to supplementation were investigated via neutrophil 0 2- production, differential immune-cell count, hormones and cytokines. Study-2A Twelve trained-men ingested low-dose protein/leucine/carbohydrate/fat (23 .3/51180/30 g), high-dose (70115/180/30 g) or carbohydrate/fat control (274/30 g) beverages following 100- min of intense cycling. Vastus lateralis biopsies were taken during recovery (30-min/4-h) to determine the effect of dose on myofibrillar protein synthesis (FSR), and mTOR-pathway activity infened by western blot. Study-2B The transcriptome was intenogated to determine acute-phase biology differentially affected by protein-leucine dose. Results. Protein-leucine increased day-1 recovery leucine oxidation and synthesis, plasma and urinary branch-chain amino acids (BCAAs), products of their metabolism, and neutrophil-priming plasma metabolites versus control. Protein-leucine lowered serum creatine kinase 21-25% (±90% confidence limits 14%) and day 2-5 nitrogen balance was positive for both conditions, yet the impact on sprint power was trivial. Protein-leucine reduced day-1 neutrophil 02- production (15-17 ±20 mmol·02-·celr1 ) but on day-6 increased post-exercise production (33 ±20 mmol·02-·celr1 ) having lowered pre-exercise cortisol (21% ±15%). The increase in FSR with high-dose (0.103%· h-1 ± 0.027%· h-1 ) versus low-dose (0.092%· h-1 ± 0.017%· h-1 ) was likely equivalent. High-dose increased serum insulin (1.44-fold x/+90% confidence limits 1.18), 30- min phosphorylation ofmTOR (2.21-fold x/+1.59) and p70S6K (3.51-fold x/+1.93), and ii 240-min phosphorylation of rpS6 ( 4.85-fold x/-d .37) and 4E-BP1-a (1.99-fold x/-d .63) versus low-dose. Bioinformatics revealed a biphasic dose-responsive inflammatory transcriptome centred on interleukin (IL)-1~ at 30-min (high-dose) and IL6 at 240-min (highdose, low-dose) consistent with regulation of early-phase myeloid-cell associated muscle regeneration. Conclusions. Protein-leucine effects on performance during intense training may be inconsequential when in positive nitrogen balance, despite saturating BCAA metabolism, protein synthesis, and attenuating cell-membrane damage. 24 g of protein and 5 g leucine near saturated post-exercise myofibrillar FSR and simulated an early inflammatory promyogenic transcriptome common to skeletal muscle regeneration that was accentuated with 3-fold higher protein-leucine dose.

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  • The impact of anxiety, depression, and cognitive factors associated with anxiety, on everyday risk taking behaviour : a thesis presented in partial fulfilments [sic] for the degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Hunt, Brett David (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Research into risk taking behaviour (RTB) reveals that depression and anxiety (in particular) are associated with risk aversive behaviour, for many different types of risks, including gambling, simulated risk taking tasks, and everyday risks. There has, however, been little research into the relationship between cognitive factors associated with anxiety, and RTB. This is in spite of research in this area finding that perceived risk had a stronger relationship with a cognitive factor (worry) than with anxiety. The present research is investigating the everyday RTB associated with depression, anxiety, and cognitive factors associated with anxiety. Everyday risks are the type of risks being investigated as these are decisions people make on a daily basis that involve risk that cannot easily be avoided, and being overly avoidant of these risks can lead to negative consequences. This research is split into two studies, with the first study split into two sections. The first part of study one is the continued development of a measure of everyday RTB across multiple domains. All existing measures of everyday RTB either do not measure RTB in different domains, or have psychometric problems. Therefore, the development of a measure suitable for use in this research project is required. The second part of the first study is investigating the relationships of anxiety and depression level with everyday RTB, across multiple domains. Study one used three samples, New Zealand community and tertiary student samples, and an international internet sample. The second study is investigating the relationship between cognitions associated with anxiety (e.g. worry and metaworry) and everyday RTB. This study used two samples, a New Zealand tertiary student sample, and an international internet sample. Results from the development of the everyday risk taking measure indicate that the measure that underwent further development, the Everyday Risk Inventory – Expanded (ERI-E) is a reliable measure of everyday RTB, for general community samples in particular. Cronbach’s alpha values for the community sample were all above 0.7, but in some domains for the student sample were just below 0.6. Confirmatory factor analysis showed the fit for both the multiple domain and single domain models were moderate to good. Results from the second part of study 1 showed that the relationships of anxiety and depression, with everyday RTB were weak, with few significant results from either correlational or multiple regression analysis. In particular, depression has a minimal impact on RTB. Sociodemographic factors, particularly age, gender and income had more significant impacts on everyday RTB, with people on lower income, and older people, being risk averse. Gender differences varied between domains, with females significantly more risk averse for risks involving personal danger and risks to others. The concept that differences in people’s sense of power within their society affects RTB was supported, as in general socio-demographic differences associated with increased power (e.g. higher income and being male) led to people being less risk averse. Results from study two showed that everyday RTB has a stronger association with cognitive factors associated with anxiety than to anxiety level. In particular it has high correlations with worry and intolerance of uncertainty (IU). Structural equation modelling found that a model with cognitive factors leading to anxiety and differences in everyday RTB was an almost perfect fit for the model, and anxiety had no direct effect on RTB. It was also found that the relationship between everyday RTB and cognitive factors was stronger for high anxiety levels than low anxiety levels. Further research is required to determine the reason why cognitive factors associated with anxiety affect everyday RTB, rather than anxiety level. The present research contributes to knowledge in this area by showing that cognitive factors impact on RTB, rather than anxiety level. It also found that socio-demographic characteristics, particularly age, were more important in explaining differences in RTB than was found in previous research.

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  • Non-parametric estimation of geographical relative risk functions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Statistics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Fernando, W. T. P. Sarojinie (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The geographical relative risk function is a useful tool for investigating the spatial distribution of disease based on case and control data. The most common way of estimating this function is using the ratio of spatial kernel density estimates constructed from the locations of cases and controls respectively. This technique is known as the density ratio method. The performance of kernel density estimators depends on the choice of kernel and the smoothing parameter (bandwidth). The choice of kernel is not critical to the statistical performance of the method but the bandwidth is crucial. Di erent bandwidth selectors such as least squares cross validation (LSCV) and likelihood cross validation (LCV) are chosen to control the degree of smoothing during the computation of the density ratio estimator. An alternative way of estimating this relative risk function is local linear regression approach. This deserves consideration since the density ratio estimator can be less natural when the relative risk has a global trend, as one might expect to see when there is a line source of risk such as a polluted river or a road. The use of local linear regression for estimation of log relative risk functions per se has not been examined in any detail in the literature, so our work on this methodology is a novel contribution. A detailed account of local linear approach in the estimation of log relative risk function is provided, consisting of an analysis of asymptotic properties and a method for computing tolerance contours to emphasize the regions of signi cantly high risk. Data driven bandwidth selectors for the local linear method including a novel plug-in methodology is examined.A simulation study to compare the performance of density ratio and local linear estimators using a range of data-driven bandwidth selectors is presented. The analysis of two speci c data sets is examined. The estimation of the spatial relative risk function is extended to spatio-temporal estimation through the use of suitable temporal kernel functions, since time-scale is an important consideration when estimating disease risk. The extended version of the kernel density estimation is applied here to compute the unknown densities of the spatio-temporal relative risk function. Next we investigate the time derivatives of the space-time relative risk function to see how the disease change with time. This discussion provides novel contributions with the introduction to time derivatives of the relative risk function as well as asymptotic methods for the computation of tolerance contours to highlight subregions of signi cantly elevated risk. LSCV and subjective bandwidths are used to compute these estimators since it performs well in density ratio method. The analysis on a real application to foot and mouth disease (FMD) of 1967 outbreak is employed to illustrate these estimators. The relative risk function is investigated when the data include a spatially varying covariate. The discussion produces the introduction to generalized relative risk function in two ways and also asymptotic properties of estimators for both cases as novel works. Generalized kernel density estimation is used to replace the unknown densities in the relative risk function. Asymptotic theories are used to compute tolerance contours to identify the areas which show high risk. LSCV bandwidth selector is described in this estimation process providing the implicit formulae. We illustrate this methodology on data from the 2001 outbreak of FMD in the UK, examining the e ect of farm size as a covariate.

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  • The applicability of 'voice of the customer' tools to an indigenous organisation in a developing country : a thesis submitted to Massey University in partial fulfilment for the degree of Masters in Philosophy (Quality Systems), Massey University of Manawatu, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Lewis, Janice Ann (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The value and applicability of western management theories and practices to the developing world is rarely discussed within the current rush to globalise the world economies, capture untapped wealth and seek to establish businesses within indigenous societies. This is especially relevant to the use of Voice of the Customer (VOC) methods and tools when applied to indigenous peoples and service organisations, where customer information is used to design or improve services. There has been limited concentration and much debate as to whether VOC tools are as effective as anticipated, and can solve the unique problems that appear when used in unfamiliar diverse cultures in developing countries. A risk when using a particular method or management technique is the desire and expectation that it will be transferable for use in similar businesses in other countries. Service quality is reliant on what the customer feels and often cannot be measured easily. This can be compounded in a developing nation scenario, by the fact that methods are usually developed, implemented, interpreted and validated through a western ‘lens’. Armstrong and Pont et al (2011, page 6 -7) describe these issues succinctly when they state… ‘a survey of the leading academic journals suggest that well over 90% of the articles published are concerned with establishing basic causality behind certain phenomena. Very few studies investigate whether a certain method used by management is effective or not …. as practitioners we are more interested in what works than the intricacies of causality’. This research specifically explored the use of VOC tools in the Bougainville Village Court (VC) to identify service elements customers considered important to the functioning of the VC in their village communities. Tools that were used included quantitative measurement tools - a combined Garvin–SERVQUAL tool, the RATER model, and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) principles, and the more qualitative New Zealand Business Excellence Criteria (NZBEC). The research demonstrated that the quantitative VOC methods used did not fully fit, or account for some service elements important to the customer in this particular context, where societal trust and continuous contact are important service elements. The methods used were thus, unable to completely capture the full humanistic elements and contributing causal factors. In this research study cultural context in the form of history, environment, tradition, community relationships and structures, played a vital role in determining what the customer considered were important service elements. It was found that these elements were more easily captured through use of the more qualitative NZBEC as it enabled collection of more diverse perspectives through its open question structure. Generic VOC ‘western developed’ quantitative tools did gather VOC information. However, they were only effective after adaptation to each VC location and after cultural input. Cultural analysis from indigenous people to interpret the data is recommended as a prerequisite and standard part of VOC methodology in a developing country scenario. This research suggests assessment and analysis based solely on ‘western’ VOC methods and statistics will not capture the VOC fully and could lead to misinterpretation or fail to acknowledge the real voice of the customer and the causal and contextual factors contributing to customer responses.

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  • Co-therapy in a group setting : benefits and challenges in facilitating co-therapy music therapy in a small group setting : exegesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Music Therapy, New Zealand School of Music

    Katz, Yair (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study provides my findings on the issue of co-therapy in music therapy practice with children and young adults, based on my personal experience in placement during my final year as a student practitioner for music therapy. The study discusses co-therapy from the point of view that, like any other example of team work, co-therapy has advantages and benefits, as well as disadvantages, difficulties and challenges. The study looks at the practice of co-therapy in detail, to reach conclusions about those benefits and challenges. It uses examples of co-therapy with small groups of clients with a range of different needs, to provide a wide picture of how co-therapy could be used effectively in music therapy, but also to discuss the issues that occurred when co-facilitating. The results of the analysis are presented in the findings section and discussed in the subsequent section. It is important to note that these results, as in other qualitative research studies, are based on personal interpretations and should not be viewed as facts. They can, however, serve as recommendations and points for consideration for students, new and experienced practitioners who might consider co-therapy as a practice.

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  • Exclusive breastfeeding : mothers' awareness and healthcare providers' practices during antenatal visits in Mvomero, Tanzania : a thesis presented for the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Human Nutrition at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Mbwana, Hadijah Ally (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Chronic child malnutrition is high in developing countries such as Tanzania where approximately 42% of children below five years are stunted as a result of chronic malnutrition. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) may give the best start as an effective strategy to protect infants from malnutrition which causes 60% of infant deaths worldwide. Therefore, intentions to breastfeed, feeding practices decided and antenatal visits give a prime opportunity to provide counselling to ensure optimal practices. The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of exclusive breastfeeding among first time pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and breastfeeding counselling practices of healthcare providers in comparison with the WHO recommendations. A cross sectional study of eighty first time pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Mzumbe Health Centre which is located in a town near main roads and Tangeni dispensary which is located in a remote area far from the main roads, and six out of eight nurses providing antenatal care in these facilities was carried out. Questionnaires were used to evaluate women’s breastfeeding knowledge and future intentions to breastfeed and nurses’ breastfeeding knowledge and counselling practices. About 94% of women intended to breastfeed, among these, only 23.8% intended to do so exclusively for six months. Women’s knowledge in EBF was generally limited; about 94% of women had never received breastfeeding counselling at the antenatal clinic, 61% received BF information from their mothers, grandmothers and mothers-in-law, 37.5% said glucose water should be given immediately after delivery. Common reasons for introducing solids were; baby will be old enough (55%), baby will be hungry (32.5%), advised by the nurse (7.5%). There were no differences in breastfeeding knowledge between the two facilities, that is being located near the main roads did not change or influence women’s knowledge in breastfeeding. Nurses had satisfactory knowledge of how to solve breastfeeding problems and breastfeeding in special situations. Much of this knowledge appeared to be based on personal and clinical experience as only nurse had received training in breastfeeding. However, nurses’ knowledge on WHO breastfeeding recommendations was limited. Only three nurses said they train mothers about exclusive breastfeeding and it is only these three who knew the recommended age for introduction of solid foods. Three nurses said they would recommend exclusive breastfeeding until four months and only two nurses were able to identify the correct picture of latching on and attachment of the baby to the breast. Generally pregnant women and the nurses had limited knowledge in EBF matters. Although the antenatal visits provide an excellent opportunity to ensure that pregnant women are aware of optimal breastfeeding practices, the nurses who provide care during these visits had limited knowledge on the recommendations. Findings highlight a need to focus on information and education to women and nurses.

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  • Hei whenua papatipu : kaitiakitanga and the politics of enhancing the mauri of wetlands : a thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Maori Studies, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Forster, M. E. (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The intent of this doctoral study is to develop a better understanding of the dynamics and complexities of the contemporary practice of kaitiakitanga. There are two specific foci: Māori relationships with whenua, and; Māori-state resource management relations. Together these foci provide a platform to identify implications for the future development and practice of kaitiakitanga. Two interrelated research questions were developed to explore the contemporary practice of kaitiakitanga: what factors shape kaitiakitanga of wetland ecosystems, and; what are the affects of legislating for culture on the practice of kaitiakitanga? A case study of kaitiakitanga of Whakaki Lake, qualitative interviews with active kaitiaki and an evaluation of state environmental policies and laws were used to address these questions and theorise the dynamics and complexities of contemporary kaitiakitanga. This study begins by arguing that customary relationships between hapū and whenua and the ability of hapū to practice kaitiakitanga have been significantly influenced by the introduction of European notions of land tenure and land use. Although the ancestral landscape has changed considerably since annexation of Aotearoa New Zealand, landscapes generally and waterways specifically remain highly valued and continue to contribute significantly to the spiritual well-being and cultural identity of hapū. Transformation of the ancestral landscape, loss of native biodiversity and environmental degradation, however, continue to threaten customary relationships with whenua and the integrity of indigenous ecosystems. As a consequence, protecting the mauri of natural ecosystems has become a key priority for contemporary kaitiakitanga. Protecting the mauri of natural ecosystems is an extension of social responsibilities that emerge from a customary understanding of the environment based on mauri and whakapapa. Therefore it is argued in this study that mauri tū: restoring the balance of fragmented and degraded ancestral landscapes is an imperative that has emerged from a whakapapa-based understanding of the environment and associated relationships with whenua. In situ real life experiences of active kaitiaki involved in this study confirmed the importance of mauri tū as a tribal imperative and provide exemplars of acts of kaitiaki that enhanced or restored wetlands, lakes, waterways and associated natural resources. This study demonstrates that hapū possess a strong sustainability culture or toitūtanga, to ensure that the ancestral landscape continues to nurture the hapū and remains as a cultural and spiritual base for future generations. Tikanga tiaki or guardianship customs that facilitated environmental protection were used by the participants in this study to realise hapū obligations and responsibilities to wetland ecosystems. This demonstrated that contemporary kaitiakitanga is fluid, adaptive and has evolved into highly organised and strategic activities. New derivations of kaitiakitanga such as ecological enhancement and restoration were able to contribute to improved environmental outcomes for fragmented and highly modified wetland and waterway ecosystems. Exercising kaitiakitanga has become synonymous with participation in the state resource management system. Participation however, has only led to a limited range of opportunities for addressing Māori environmental interests. Therefore, this study argues that engagement with the state currently only provides for a limited expression of tino rangatiratanga and kaitiakitanga. The incorporation of the customary concept of kaitiakitanga into statute has resulted in the co-option of kaitiakitanga as state definitions and provisions for Māori relationships with whenua are inadequate for fully realising Māori environmental interests. Furthermore, the state controls the types of activities that can emerge, and by extension regulates Māori participation in resource management which includes the customary practice of kaitiakitanga. Therefore, by participating in the state resource management system, Māori energies are diverted away from hapū environmental priorities, obligations and responsibilities. Critical issues of ownership and addressing environmental degradation are subsumed by the state agenda. The hapū-based restoration experiences explored in this doctorate indicate that it is possible to contest the limitations that exist within current local authority practice and transform the resource management system to provide for a fuller expression of kaitiakitanga. Engagement with the state, constant political pressure and critical reflection of the integrity of the practice of kaitiakitanga are vital if Māori are to transform existing practice. Change is essential if Māori environmental interests are to receive greater attention and to ensure that local authorities are more responsive to hapū understandings of what it means to be an active kaitiaki. Māori-state contests, therefore, are critical to transform state systems, processes and practices towards greater recognition and provisions for core Māori environmental interests and kaitiakitanga.

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  • Kua tae kē tatou? : Tikanga ā rua i roto i ngā kura auraki o Āotearoa = Are we there yet? Biculturalism in New Zealand mainstream schools : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education (Adult Education) at Massey University

    Snowden, Mary Jennifer (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The rationale for conducting this research is embedded in the articles of The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tīrītī o Waitangi 2.3), the cornerstone of the partnership between Māori and Pākehā. Te Tīrītī promotes research set in a peculiarly Āotearoa New Zealand context where biculturalism is seen as promoting a dignified, respectful coexistence of Māori and Pākehā in which both languages cultures and ways of life are acknowledged and valued (Vasil, 2000). In the context of this work the word biculturalism concerns the cultural being of Māori and Pākehā alike. Though the word biculturalism appears in the New ZeaIand Curriculum, the works explored in the process of undertaking this research did not name biculturalism as existing in New Zealand schools, hence the paucity of up-to-date references. Using aspects of Kaupapa Māori (Smith, 1997) as the research method the research aimed to develop a better understanding around the implementation of te reo Māori and tikanga Māori to promote biculturalism in Āotearoa New Zealand mainstream schools today. The historical context that foregrounds biculturalism and the educational policy that influenced the growth and development of biculturalism were also taken into account. In endeavouring to understand and define the shape and form of biculturalism a small group of teachers (Te Whānau Rangahau) agreed to share their ideas around the tensions, successes, enablers and challenges involved in ‘creating a space’ for the implementation of te Māori (Māori language) and tikanga Māori (Māori culture and values) to nurture and assist biculturalism. Keeping within the framework of Kaupapa Māori the kairangahau (researcher) felt ‘kanohi ki te kanohi’ (face to face discussion) was both relevant and appropriate. The use of focussed conversations and individual interviews provided a unique opportunity to identify key influences on teacher willingness to engage in discourse around biculturalism. An opportunity to determine essential elements that need to be present to allow biculturalism to be nurtured through to fruition was also captured. This thesis found that the perception of including te reo Māori and tikanga Māori in Āotearoa New Zealand mainstream schools to encourage true biculturalism continues to be complicated and worked through institutional and social practices. These create, maintain and perpetuate a dominant ideology that maintains a monolingual, monocultural Pākehā curriculum.

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  • The use of thermal nociceptive threshold testing to assess the effect of analgesic drugs on the pain response of dairy cattle : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Veterinary Science in Veterinary Clinical Sciences at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Barrett, Lorelle Anne (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Painful procedures are routinely performed on cattle and the use of analgesia can abate this pain. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing is used to assess pain sensitivity and the effect that painful conditions and analgesia have on this. However, little work has used TNT testing in cattle for these purposes. This research was carried out to determine if TNT testing could be used to assess the effects of analgesic drugs in both pain-free cattle and those that had undergone liver biopsy. A carbon dioxide laser was used as the noxious thermal stimulus. In the first experiment, the effects of an alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonist (medetomidine) and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketoprofen) were compared with the effect of saline on TNTs of pain-free cattle. TNTs were measured 20 minutes before treatments were administered, then again at 20, 40 and 60 minutes after treatment. Medetomidine significantly increased the cows’ TNT at 60 minutes post-treatment. This increased TNT may be due to the central analgesic properties of the drug. Ketoprofen had no effect on TNTs. In the second experiment, TNTs were measured to determine if different analgesic protocols moderated central sensitisation that may have occurred after liver biopsy. Behavioural observations were also used to assess pain in the post-biopsy period. Cows were assigned into one of four groups: control (local anaesthetic (LA) + sham-biopsy); LA + biopsy; LA + ketoprofen + biopsy; LA + meloxicam + biopsy. TNTs were measured 1 day before liver biopsy was performed, and once daily on the 3 days post-biopsy. Behavioural observations were made in the 4 hours after biopsy and on the 3 days post-biopsy. TNTs of biopsied cows did not differ from sham-biopsy cows. This may be because liver biopsy did not induce central sensitisation, or because the TNT method used did not reflect localised hyperalgesia. Behaviour also did not differ between treatment groups. These findings suggest that liver biopsy as it was performed here does not induce significant pain in cattle. It is concluded that TNT testing may be useful to investigate the effects of some analgesics on the acute pain response of pain-free cattle, but it has not been useful in demonstrating central sensitisation after liver biopsy. Further development and refinement of the methodology is required in order for this technique to be of future use for similar research in cattle.

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  • Development of an autonomous kiwifruit harvester : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Industrial Automation at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand.

    Scarfe, Alistair John (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The already intensive labour requirements within the New Zealand kiwifruit industry are increasing. Furthermore, ZESPRI Group Limited is targeting a threefold increase in industry return by 2025 (from approximately $NZ1Billion to $NZ3Billion). Development of autonomous mechanised solutions to assist manual labour is emerging as a strategic necessity. The objective of this research was to develop a commercially viable autonomous kiwifruit harvester (AKH). The AKH must be capable of operating within variable and complex on-orchard environments to minimise manual labour requirements. Successful completion required development and integration of autonomous: 1. Fruit identification and localisation 2. Custom robotic arms with soft fruit extraction harvesting hands 3. Custom robotic arm for soft fruit handling 4. Transportation platform with navigational sensing and strategies 5. Storage bin collection and drop-off The AKH has four robotic harvesting arms with hands specifically designed to mimic the human fruit harvesting action. Remotely mounted stereoscopic vision identifies and localises fruit. The fruit locations are mapped into the harvesting arms’ coordinate space allowing fruit extraction. The presented system configuration resolves the slow harvest rates experienced by other systems. Practical on-orchard testing identified additional environmental complexities that present the greatest challenge to consistent fruit identification. These are mainly from natural lighting effects. Stereoscopic machine vision (SMV) was investigated as the primary navigation sensor. However, diverse environmental conditions (lighting and structure appearance) made consistent object detection unreliable. Consequently, a light detection and ranging/SMV combination was used to achieve reliable navigational object detection and fruit storage bin identification. Practical on-orchard testing and analysis verified AKH operational ability (testing was limited due to a vine killing bacterial (Psa-V) outbreak restricting orchard access): 1. Fruit identification (83.6% of crop) with combined localisation and extraction accuracy of 3.6mm in three-dimensional space 2. More gentle fruit harvesting and handling than humans harvesting 3. Reliable object detection and path planning for navigation. Over the twenty metre scanning range 96% of the in-row objects were correctly classified to reliably determine the drive path 4. Reliable fruit storage bin identification and localisation (98% correct classification) 5. Commercially viable manufacture cost less than $130,000 per unit 6. Although full commercial operation was not achieved, modifications are identified to rectify the limitations Key system improvements are presented for: 1. High intensity artificial lighting for increased fruit identification rates. Natural sunlight variations affected identification ability, minimising this affect will increase identification rates 2. Alter the storage bin filling arm geometry to permit complete storage bin filling 3. Sensing the robotic arms’ position to resolve positioning errors Furthermore, ZESPRI Group Limited is targeting a threefold increase in industry return by 2025 (from approximately $NZ1Billion to $NZ3Billion). Development of autonomous mechanised solutions to assist manual labour is emerging as a strategic necessity. The objective of this research was to develop a commercially viable autonomous kiwifruit harvester (AKH). The AKH must be capable of operating within variable and complex on-orchard environments to minimise manual labour requirements. Successful completion required development and integration of autonomous: 1. Fruit identification and localisation 2. Custom robotic arms with soft fruit extraction harvesting hands 3. Custom robotic arm for soft fruit handling 4. Transportation platform with navigational sensing and strategies 5. Storage bin collection and drop-off The AKH has four robotic harvesting arms with hands specifically designed to mimic the human fruit harvesting action. Remotely mounted stereoscopic vision identifies and localises fruit. The fruit locations are mapped into the harvesting arms’ coordinate space allowing fruit extraction. The presented system configuration resolves the slow harvest rates experienced by other systems. Practical on-orchard testing identified additional environmental complexities that present the greatest challenge to consistent fruit identification. These are mainly from natural lighting effects. Stereoscopic machine vision (SMV) was investigated as the primary navigation sensor. However, diverse environmental conditions (lighting and structure appearance) made consistent object detection unreliable. Consequently, a light detection and ranging/SMV combination was used to achieve reliable navigational object detection and fruit storage bin identification. Practical on-orchard testing and analysis verified AKH operational ability (testing was limited due to a vine killing bacterial (Psa-V) outbreak restricting orchard access): 1. Fruit identification (83.6% of crop) with combined localisation and extraction accuracy of 3.6mm in three-dimensional space 2. More gentle fruit harvesting and handling than humans harvesting 3. Reliable object detection and path planning for navigation. Over the twenty metre scanning range 96% of the in-row objects were correctly classified to reliably determine the drive path 4. Reliable fruit storage bin identification and localisation (98% correct classification) 5. Commercially viable manufacture cost less than $130,000 per unit 6. Although full commercial operation was not achieved, modifications are identified to rectify the limitations Key system improvements are presented for: 1. High intensity artificial lighting for increased fruit identification rates. Natural sunlight variations affected identification ability, minimising this affect will increase identification rates 2. Alter the storage bin filling arm geometry to permit complete storage bin filling 3. Sensing the robotic arms’ position to resolve positioning errors

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  • e-Learning systems success in an organisational context : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management Information Systems at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Samarasinghe, Samantha Malkanthi (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Issues around effective implementation, management, and success of e-Learning systems have drawn the attention of many researchers. However, e-Learning systems success research still lacks models and frameworks addressing organisational dimensions along with instructor and learner dimensions, particularly in the New Zealand higher education context. Hence, the purpose of this research was to explore the dimensions of e-Learning systems success in an organisational context. Based on a broad review of literature, I formulated a multidimensional framework of e-Learning systems success in the organisational context and used the framework to develop two e-Learning success models: a model from the instructor perspective and a model from the learner perspective. To test the framework and to explore the dimensions of e-Learning systems success, I conducted three empirical studies. First, a preliminary study with 43 e-Learning experts was carried out to confirm the content validity of the measurement instruments. The e-Learning systems success models were then tested in the organisational context of New Zealand universities by fitting the instructor model to data collected from 204 instructors engaged in e-Learning and by fitting the learner model to data collected from 189 students with e-Learning experience. The study identified quality of the e-Learning development and implementation process as a dimension of e-Learning systems success. This study was the first to formulate and to test a measure for e-Learning development and implementation process quality. An insight into the instructor views of this dimension was obtained by qualitative analysis of their free-text comments. Moreover, the study was the first to formulate and to test a multidimensional e-Learning systems success model based on DeLone and McLean’s (2003) IS success model focusing on instructors as the stakeholders. The study investigated the effect of organisational dimensions on other dimensions of e-Learning systems success, accounting for both instructor and learner perspectives in the same organisational context. Of the organisational dimensions considered, quality of the e-Learning system was the most influential. Quality of the e-Learning development and implementation directly affected other organizational dimensions, system quality and institutional support to the instructors, and affected instructor dimensions indirectly.

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  • The investigation of Parenteral Nutrition - Aotearoa (IPNA) : setting up the 1st phase of a clinical audit of the delivery of parenteral nutrition (PN) in New Zealand (NZ) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Larsen, Sue (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Nutrition support administered as Parenteral Nutrition (PN) is given to patients that have a non-functioning gut. Parenteral nutrition is the administration of nutrients and fluids into the venous system and is potentially associated with life-threatening complications. It is therefore essential that the care and management of PN is co-ordinated by clinicians that have the specialist knowledge and expertise to ensure it is given safely and appropriately. This is a Phase one regional pilot study which aims to examine the current standard of PN care in hospitals in New Zealand using a clinical audit process. A secondary aim is to identify if any remediable factors are found in the care of patients receiving PN which can then be used to improve patient care, focussing on the following themes: • Indication for PN • Type of PN • Prescribing PN • Catheter choice, insertion and care • PN associated complications • Nutrition teams Six local hospitals from four large district health boards covering a population of 1.64 million were enrolled. Included were adult, paediatric (<1yr) patients receiving PN in hospital during the period of Jan 1st to June 31st 2011. Patients receiving PN in the home were excluded, even if they were admitted into hospital within the study period. iv 620 cases of PN use (288 adult, 68 paediatric, 264 neonates) were identified within the study period. 151 cases (70 adult, 17 paediatric, 64 neonates) were purposely selected for expert peer review. There were, 66 adults (94%), 7 paediatric (41%), 49 neonates (76%) questionnaires returned, of these, de-Identified clinical records were also available for 100% of the adult and 41% of the neonate cases for expert review. Data for 66 adults (34 male: 32 female) were returned and peer reviewed by advisor assessors however only 65 completed advisor assessor questionnaires were returned. The results of the adult cases examined showed that only 12.7% of cases were deemed to involve Good Practice- defined as the standard for which advisors would consider being acceptable and in accordance to the recommended guidelines. Sixty five per cent of cases demonstrated that there was room for improvement in the care provided. Nineteen per cent of cases examined were considered to be of a less than satisfactory standard. A limitation of this study included lack of sufficient paediatric/neonate experts available for peer review.

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  • Improving soluble chemical oxygen demand yields for anaerobic digester feedstock using leaching : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Environmental Engineering, School of Advanced Technology and Engineering, College of Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. EMBARGED until 25 February 2018

    Ralphs, John (2012)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Waste biomass is often a liability to many municipalities. Technologies exist that can turn this biomass into energy which can then be sold. Anaerobic digestion is one of the important technologies that utilises this biomass to turn it into biogas. One of the factors that affects the rate that biogas can be produced is the speed that suitable organic compounds can be delivered to methanogenic microorganisms. These organic compounds such as sugars and amino acids are released from plant material at different rates depending on their availability. A portion of the compounds are readily soluble in water and are immediately available, some of the compounds are locked up inside the plant cells and some of the compounds such as cellulose are not soluble and need to be hydrolysed into sugars before they can be converted into methane. Hydrolysis is usually the rate limiting step in anaerobic digestion. Leaching of green waste was investigated as a form of pre-treatment to externalise the initial stages in anaerobic digestion that makes soluble organic compounds available for the consecutive mthanogenic stages of anaerobic digestion. The added benefit of leaching is it removes the complexity of solids handling from inside anaerobic digester. Many various forms of leaching technologies that are coupled to anaerobic digesters have been trialled with grass and silage, little research was found on leaching green waste and few trials had used the simplified unheated flooded tank system as tested here. Pilot and laboratory leaching trials were conducted on shredded green waste as well as grass clippings to establish the efficiency of leaching by measuring the COD yields in the leachate. Additionally, rumen contents from cattle rumen were added to grass clippings in order to investigate if the leaching efficiency from the grass could be improved. Leaching was tested at a pilot scale in an open to the air reactor tank in ambient temperature in a temperate climate. Hydraulic retention times ranging from 4 hours to 7 days were tested to establish the most effective leaching strategy. The laboratory trials were conducted with the temperature controlled at 25°C to simulate ambient environmental conditions in a temperate climate. The effect of storing feedstock was tested to see how changes in handling times affected the process. Gas production from the leachate was tested using 2 L CSTR (Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor) anaerobic digesters to confirm the usability of the leachate as a feedstock in an anaerobic digester. Pilot scale trials of shredded green waste and grass clippings gave maximum COD concentrations of 5.4 ± 0.5 and 47±4 g COD / L of leachate respectively. Pilot trials of shredded green waste and grass leachate reached a maximum total COD yields of 53 ± 2 and 410 ± 20 kg COD / tonne VS respectively. Laboratory scale trials of shredded green waste and grass clippings gave maximum COD concentrations of 7.0 ± 0.1 and 49 ± 2 g COD / L of leachate respectively. Laboratory trials of shredded green waste and grass leachate reached a maximum total COD yields of 132 ± 8 and 410 ± 20 kg COD / tonne VS respectively. Laboratory trials are indicative of how pilot trials will behave and differences are likely to be due to an increased bulk density in solids in pilot trials. Shredded green waste and grass leachate gave maximum 3.7 and 7.8 g BOD / L respectively. Nutrients in the leachate were tested: nitrogen levels in shredded green waste and grass leachate reached maximum levels of 51 and 460 mg / L respectively; DRP (Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus) levels in the shredded green waste and grass leachate reached maximum levels of 6 and 85 mg / L respectively. The leaching tanks produced gas while leaching was taking place; a sample of this gas was captured and the levels of CH4, CO2 and H2 were measured as 0%, 25.5% and 5.0% respectively. Gas production from anaerobic digestion of shredded green waste and grass in a CSTR at 35°C produced 0.23 ± 0.01 and 0.534 ± 0.005 m3 biogas / kg COD respectively. Use of grass that is fresh gives much higher yields of dissolved organic compounds in the leachate than when the grass is stored in covered area for 30 days. Leaching grass with an HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time) of 1 day gave optimal results in terms of concentration and yields of dissolved organic compounds in the leachate compared to leaching trials with an HRT of 4 hours or 7 days. Green waste gave much lower concentration and yields of COD than grass and an HRT of 7 days was the most suitable for gaining the best concentration and yield of dissolved organic compounds compared to a 4 hour or 1 day HRT. The overall mass transfer of organic compounds when leaching freshly shredded green waste is most likely limited by a combination of hydrolysis and the rate that soluble compounds are released from within plant cells as the cell membranes degrade. In trials of fresh and stored grass and stored shredded green waste, shortening the HRT increases the total yield of dissolved organic compounds leached into the leachate; however, this is at the expense of increased concentrations of dissolved organic compounds within the leachate. The lower leachate concentrations with the shorter HRTs means that the leachate is less suitable to uses as a feedstock for an anaerobic digester. Anaerobic digestion of grass leachate produced much more biogas / kg COD than anaerobic digestion of shredded green waste leachate, this may be a result of an inhibiting compounds such as tannins, additionally to this the material that the shredded green waste is composed of will have higher levels of lignocellulose materials that are not readily soluble. The leachate was found not to degrade when stored at 25°C in an open top container, this maybe a result of low pH inhibiting degrading micro-organisms, this has significant benefit as the leaching process can be separated from the anaerobic digestion process without degrading the quality of the leachate while it is being stored.

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  • HIV prevention, treatment, and care in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Crump, Andrew John (2012)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Description: xi, 296 pages : illustrations, map ; 30 cm. Notes: Thesis (M. D.)--University of Otago. Includes bibliographical references.

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  • NATO after the Cold War: Explaining the Durability of the Atlantic Alliance in a New Global Context

    Burton, Joe (2012)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    NATO was established in 1949 at the beginning of the Cold War to counter the perceived threat of the Soviet Union. But the eventual demise of the superpower confrontation in the late 1980s did not mark the end of the Atlantic Alliance. To the surprise of many observers, NATO proved to be enormously durable in the face of serious external and internal challenges associated with the emergence of a new post-Cold War era. This PhD thesis examines the reasons for NATO’s durability in the new global context. Drawing on three major theoretical approaches for understanding alliances – realism, liberalism and social constructivism – the study examines the post-Cold War development of NATO and then relates this experience to the aforementioned paradigms. The thesis argues that, on balance, liberalism is the most effective and comprehensive conceptual framework for explaining NATO’s durability in the post-Cold War era. The framework more precisely focuses on the management of domestic politics and public opinion in NATO member states, and the alliance has found that its political values and commitment to democracy have formed a powerful foundation from which to confront new security challenges. The institutional characteristics of the alliance, such as its strong political leadership and consensus based decision making, have also galvanised its members, and NATO’s institutional assets, such as the integrated military command, have been invaluable in responding to conflicts in Bosnia, Kosovo, and Afghanistan. NATO, as a multinational alliance, has also been relatively well placed to respond to the demands of a globalised security context in which multilateral solutions to security challenges are arguably more important than they have ever been.

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  • Media Representations of Crime: the Case of International Tourists in New Zealand

    Morales Garcia, Hebe Alejandra (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Pagination differs in bound and electronic versions

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  • Perianal Crohn's Disease in Canterbury, New Zealand

    Eglinton, Timothy Wilfred (2012)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    No Abstract

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