2,007 results for Thesis, 2013

  • Evaluation of utilisation of the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Programme in Central province, Kenya

    Ngugi, Catherine Njeri (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The PMTCT HIV programme has been one of the most successful HIV preventive interventions towards HIV-free future generations. However, even though the programme is virtually effective in developed countries, many developing countries are reporting child HIV infections due to the MTCT. The programme has existed in Kenya for more than a decade, yet in 2011, 12,894children were HIV infected due to MTCT Objective: To evaluate the PMTCT programme, especially the HIV testing from the antenatal period to the postnatal period among expectant parents attending Nyeri Provincial General Hospital in Central Province, Kenya. Design: Retrospective analysis of the hospital registers. Methods: Three hospital registers were analysed for the period from July 2009 to September 2012. The registers were for antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care respectively. Each register documented the utilisation of PMTCT services by the expectant parents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were produced to analyse data from the registers. Results: The PMTCT services utilisation was sub-optimal. Of the 504 expectant mothers who attended the antenatal clinic, 59.9% came once, 80.4% had their first visit in the third trimester (between weeks 28 and 40) and only 6.9% were accompanied by their partners. All the women were HIV tested in their first visit but only 12.1% were rescreened after three months, and only 3.8% had been tested prior to the current pregnancy (p=0.000). No expectant mother was tested for HIV intrapartum or postpartum. The children of the 504 mothers who were HIV tested were those whose parent/s were known to be HIV positive or who had presented to a child welfare clinic with recurring symptoms suggestive of a failing immune system. Conclusion: Public health programs need to strengthen the PMTCT and HIV prevention programmes to ensure that HIV testing preconception and in pregnancy is fully implemented and strengthened, alongside continued education of the public through community programmes and the media. To avert further horizontal and vertical transmission of HIV, there is a need to address urgently the identified missed opportunities in the PMTCT program. These programmatic challenges require health system redesign and strengthening, resource allocation, addressing research gaps and reassessing the current PMTCT policies.

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  • Active participation of marginalized people in community development and the role of World Vision Myanmar : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in International Development at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Chit, Zeyar (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the participation of the marginalized people in community development, and specifically how World Vision Myanmar facilitates that participation. The Area Development Programme implemented by World Vision in Thabaung Township was selected as a case study. Employing theoretical continuums of participation in conjunction with qualitative research methods, the nature and level of participation of marginalized people and the factors influencing their participation, as well as the role of World Vision Myanmar in promoting their active participation, were investigated. Before the 1990s, the dominant modes of top-down and externally-induced development failed to provide the hoped-for results in reducing poverty. As a result, a more people-oriented approach to development was encouraged and the participation of the previously ignored beneficiaries of development initiatives is now seen as vital in achieving and sustaining development outcomes. However, community participation in development initiatives does not mean that all segments of a community have an equal role in development programmes and share benefits equally. This study found that nearly all community members participate in community development projects initiated by World Vision Myanmar but that the form of their participation varies. Three socioeconomic categories (the rich, the middle-class and the poor) were present in each research village, and the results showed that the poor were marginalized from active participation in important aspects of community development, especially in leadership and decision-making. The poor were characterized by a cluster of disadvantages. This study noted that the decision-making power remained mostly in the hands of the powerful people in the community. However, leadership styles differed between research villages, demonstrating that the poor can contribute to decision-making processes when the leadership style in the communities is inclusive of the marginalized. In contrast, when the leadership style is authoritative and individualized, the poor remain marginalized from development processes. World Vision Myanmar has policy documents and guidelines that encourage the participation of every segment of the community, especially the poor. However, there is still room for the organization to make these guidelines more accessible for Community Based Organizations (CBOs) so that they can apply them more effectively in their communities,

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  • The implementation of trauma informed care in acute mental health inpatient units : a comparative study : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Health at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Ashmore, Toni Rae (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Trauma informed care (TIC); particularly related to interpersonal violence, is a burgeoning topic for mental health services in both New Zealand and Australia. This thesis compares the implementation of trauma informed care, particularly in relation to interpersonal violence, in an acute mental health inpatient unit in New Zealand and a similar unit in New South Wales, Australia. A policy analysis was undertaken of current policy documents that guide each unit, along with semistructured interviews with ten senior staff, five from each unit to investigate implementation of key features of trauma informed care, particularly in relation to interpersonal violence. Results showed a difference in overall implementation between the two units. Single interventions rather than a whole of service change of philosophy were evident. Differences were identified in relation to policies referring to interpersonal violence, staff knowledge and understanding of trauma informed care, access to training and resources, how safety was provided for, collaborative care arrangements and workplace power dynamics for both clients and staff. Across both units were identified a lack of guidance to inform implementation of TIC, consumer involvement and practice around diversity. Contributing factors for TIC implementation include having a clear definition of TIC, commitment at all governance levels, access to TIC training for all staff, and policies underpinned by TIC. Further research investigating these results may enhance service delivery, resulting in better outcomes for the promotion of recovery and healing of those with histories of interpersonal violence.

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  • Archdeacon Anaru Takurua : ko tōna whakapapa, whakapono me tōna whakapono me tōna whakatika : "I am what I am" : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Māori Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Keelan, Ngaio Petra (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Archdeacon of Waiapu Anaru Takurua from Te Whanau-a-Ruataupare in Tokomaru Bay was an accomplished kapa haka exponent in his time, with over 60 years of kapa haka experience. He was also a Mihingare priest for Te Pihopatanga o Aotearoa for over 40 years, and a tutor of Te Hokowhitu-a-Tu kapa haka. However, up till now there had been no full-length biography written about him, due to the dearth of published literature. This research explores the history and background of Anaru focussing on the themes whakapapa, whakapono and whakatika. This thesis is organised in a chronological structure centred on the thematic selection based on the rationale that they frequently feature prominently in Anaru’s life story. This study utilised a Maori-centred research approach in conjunction with a biographical narrative method in analysing the data collected. Anaru’s own personal transcripts that transpired last year from an interview conducted shortly before his passing ten years ago, also complements this research. Supplementing these transcripts are the narratives of kaumatua rangatira participants, who knew him personally, grew up with him or worked with him throughout his life. This study found that Anaru worshiped God in his own true authentic voice, and affirmed his identity as a man of God in Aotearoa –New Zealand. He implemented the guitar, haka, poi and waiata-a-ringa into his karakia services as cultural tools of worship to express the highest activity of the spirit and love of God. Anaru understood the value of whakapapa and as a result committed himself to using his innate gifts, talents and leadership qualities in the church, on marae and in the community. He remained committed to his love for God, his family, marae and church. As a result he devoted years to maintaining and retaining the knowledge endowed to him and transmitted this korero tuku iho, and taonga tuku iho onto the next generation. Even when at times it was met with resistance from both maori and non-maori, believers and non-believers.

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  • Increased intake of vegetables, herbs and fruit : effects on bone in postmenopausal women : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Nutritional Science, Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Gunn, Caroline Ann (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Dietary approaches to address bone loss at midlife usually involve supplementation or fortification. We aimed to investigate a food based approach to reduce bone turnover in post-menopausal (PM) women in two studies. In the first study, we investigated whether daily inclusion of specific vegetables attributed with bone resorbing inhibiting properties was feasible. We hypothesised increased intake of fruit/vegetables to ≥9 servings/day would lower potential renal acid load (PRAL) significantly (~20mEq/day) and increase urine pH (0.5 pH units) sufficiently to affect bone markers. The results of the first study confirmed the feasibility of daily inclusion of specific vegetables, reduction in renal acid load and increased urine pH. The subsequent Scarborough Fair Study (SF) used a randomised, active comparator design to increase specific vegetable/herb/fruit intake in two groups (A and B) of 50 PM women, from ≤ 5 servings/day to ≥ 9 servings/day for 3 months while a control group consumed their usual diet (n=43). Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers which were assessed at baseline, six weeks and twelve weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation markers including adiponectin, urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) and dietary intake assessed at baseline and 12 weeks and urinary pH assessed twice weekly. Increased intake of vegetables/herbs/fruit reduced P1NP and CTX (osteopenia) in Group B (SF) and urinary calcium loss in both intervention groups A and B (SF) with reduced PRAL. Adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor, interleukin 6 and 10 reduced in all groups. This study showed the SF vegetables/herbs/fruit may influence bone turnover and inflammatory markers. Few human intervention studies demonstrate reduction in plasma bone resorption markers with diet. Even fewer studies demonstrate reduction without supplementation with calcium, vitamin D, alkaline substrates, concentrated extracts or consumption of large quantities of a single functional food. The SF vegetables/herbs/fruit may protect against high bone turnover and subsequent bone loss in women with osteopenia and may have possibilities as an adjuvant to pharmaceutical therapies or a holistic dietary approach to reduce bone turnover and bone loss. Trial registration ACTRN 12611000763943

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  • Short circuit co-evolution by the perfect parasites : antifreeze glycoproteins in Antarctic fish leeches (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Zoology at Massey University

    Kolb, Jürgen Bertram (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) play an important role in biochemical adaptation to supercooled waters and hence in the survival of notothenioid fish in Antarctica. These fishes have a well developed parasitic epifauna, which in turn is also exposed to freezing conditions. In order to retain their association with Antarctic fishes as the environment progressively cooled during the Miocene, leeches as fish-associated ectoparasites had either (i) to evolve a short circuit mechanism to acquire the necessary life-saving chemical compounds from their host, (ii) to adapt their own genome to confer protection from freezing, or (iii) to develop a combined tactic unique to their parasitic life strategy according to requirements during ontogenesis. I have found that Antarctic leeches (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae), that feed on a variety of notothenioid fish species, contain antifreeze compounds at the cellular level. I present evidence that strongly indicates an absorption pathway of AFGPs in the parasitic organisms from the fish blood as source. The physiological processes of AFGPs uptake from the intestine and circulatory distribution by haemolymph would be analogous to those enabling the fish hosts to distribute these peptides by blood within their bodies, as fish absorb AFGPs through the gut after production in the pancreas. The analysis of protein chemical structures in leech material revealed characteristics typical of fish AFGPs. Further, there are high capacities for freezing point suppression in vivo, thus biological activity of antifreeze proteins in the leech parasites Cryobdella antarctica and Cryobdella levigata. A combination of this thermal hysteresis (TH) with a specific bi-pyramidal ice crystal growth has been observed, which is typical for fish AFGPs. This confirms the presence not only of functional antifreeze macromolecules but also of true AFGPs in these parasite species. Finally, to trace the potential origin of these proteins to leech genomic information, mRNA molecules were successfully detected in C. levigata, as the intermediate step necessary for any de novo AFGP biosynthesis. These results suggest the possibility of a vi horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event in this host-parasite system and if proven would mark a further record of such a gene transfer for antifreeze molecules in Antarctica but for the first time outside the surface sea ice zone. I conclude that Antarctic fish leeches have developed a novel means of an evolutionary shortcut by co-opting mechanisms for survival in supercooled waters from their hosts in the form of biochemical exploitation and possibly in addition by HGT. To the best of my knowledge, the use of functional AFGPs after digestive absorption would represent the first example in the animal kingdom of an instantly effective adaptive advantage provided by another species under natural conditions in a quasi short circuit co-evolution. I also present results from a first survey on the leech fauna in the Ross Sea across nine species of Antarctic fishes and report one new host record for C. antarctica and three new leech-host associations for C. levigata. Finally, one new species belonging to the Piscicolidae is described, Megapodibdella kirsteni, gen. et sp. nov., from the Antarctic eelpout Lycodichthys dearborni.

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  • 'With the utmost precision and team play' : the 3rd New Zealand Division and Operation 'Squarepeg' : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts i(Defence & Strategic Studies)

    Mawdsley, Shaun (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the influences and course of the 3rd New Zealand (NZ) Division’s preparations for Operation ‘Squarepeg’ in the Green Islands, in February 1944. It argues that as the largest New Zealand amphibious operation of the Second World War, ‘Squarepeg’ holds a key place in identifying the development of amphibious and jungle warfare doctrine within the New Zealand Army during the war. As such, it can indicate the abilities of the 3rd NZ Division to conduct combat operations in the South Pacific in 1944. The thesis shows that the New Zealand Army was unprepared for operations in the South Pacific, as it had neglected relevant inter-war developments. The hasty formation of the 3rd NZ Division in 1942, as a response to Japanese expansion in the South Pacific, served to highlight the challenges that the division and its commander, Major-General Harold Barrowclough, had to overcome. The studying of foreign doctrine to supplement the dearth of New Zealand material was vital for the 3rd NZ Division’s preparations for deployment. The thesis finds that matters were compounded by the influence of British military organisational standards despite the division operating in an American-run theatre of war. It provides details of the manner in which members of the division approached these issues while coordinating operations with the United States Navy. The importance of thorough training, a combined planning process, and stable relationships between commanders of all forces are identified as decisive factors to the outcome of operations in joint-combined theatres. The thesis concludes that the 3rd NZ Division’s preparations for Operation ‘Squarepeg’ were part of an incremental process of operational learning. This process, which was mostly successful, was unable to be properly tested on account of the division’s reliance on foreign assistance, lack of resources, and a lack of domestic support. These findings may prove an important source of information for a region which will become of increasing military importance.

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  • Maternal exercise during pregnancy affects the rat musculoskeletal system and indices of energy metabolism : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Rosa, Brielle Vastola (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis postulates that environmental cues perceived by the developing organism during early life program long-term health outcomes. A series of studies were undertaken to examine the developmental programming effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on offspring musculoskeletal health and energy metabolism using a rat model. Firstly, an exercise that did not cause a potentially confounding stress response in the exercising animal was identified. Secondly, pregnant dams then performed this exercise and its effects on fetal growth and the maternal stress response were quantified. Finally, the offspring of dams that exercised throughout pregnancy were allowed to grow to maturity, and the effects of maternal exercise on their musculoskeletal health and energy metabolism were assessed. Throughout these experiments, body composition was assessed by dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry, and tibial parameters were measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Maternal stress was quantified by measurement of faecal corticoid metabolites. Serum concentrations of the fully and undercarboxylated forms of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin, and expression of genes related to osteocalcin carboxylation, were measured to explore their role in the response of offspring bone and energy metabolism to maternal exercise. Two exercise types, rising to an erect bipedal stance and tower climbing, were initially tested in non-pregnant rats. Both rapidly caused changes in the tibias of exercised animals without inducing stress. In pregnant rats, both exercises increased fetal growth relative to controls, and neither caused a physiological stress response in the dams. Since rising to an erect bipedal stance had the greater effect on fetal growth, it was selected for use in the final study in which the offspring were grown to maturity. Maternal exercise throughout pregnancy was associated with sex-dependent changes in the bone and body composition of the mature offspring. Male offspring of exercised dams had increased adiposity and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentrations, while offspring of both genders had lower volumetric bone mineral density at the tibial diaphysis, relative to controls. These results suggest that maternal exercise has long- term effects on the musculoskeletal system and energy metabolism, and that undercarboxylated osteocalcin may play a role in these effects.

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  • Skylux : using light to improve health and wellbeing : [an exegesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Design at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand]

    Gabel, Lisa (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    My project aims to explore the conflicting demands between the increasingly indoor- based urban lifestyle and our innate biological connection to nature, with a focus on using light to support physical and mental wellbeing. By intertwining the fields of industrial design, health, and science, the project aims to enhance workplace lighting beyond the scope of visual performance to support our internal biological rhythms. The project seeks to address our biological need for brighter, dynamically changing light by utilizing a variety of qualitative and quantitative research methods, including a collaborative design group and an ongoing connection with circadian scientists 1. Alongside providing light that supports our biological needs, the final design aims to reconnect indoor workers with the subtle qualities and cycles of nature, whilst raising awareness around the impact of light on our health and wellbeing through experiential discovery. By applying scientific knowledge through design, my project aims to improve public health and life quality, whilst also promoting a greater social shift towards enhancing our lifestyles with better awareness around the vital role of natural light for our health and wellbeing. The following project is a s mall step towards addressing a much larger issue that I believe is at the forefront of future lighting design. My project aims to explore the conflicting demands between the increasingly indoor- based urban lifestyle and our innate biological connection to nature, with a focus on using light to support physical and mental wellbeing. By intertwining the fields of industrial design, health, and science, the project aims to enhance workplace lighting beyond the scope of visual performance to support our internal biological rhythms. The project seeks to address our biological need for brighter, dynamically changing light by utilizing a variety of qualitative and quantitative research methods, including a collaborative design group and an ongoing connection with circadian scientists 1. Alongside providing light that supports our biological needs, the final design aims to reconnect indoor workers with the subtle qualities and cycles of nature, whilst raising awareness around the impact of light on our health and wellbeing through experiential discovery. By applying scientific knowledge through design, my project aims to improve public health and life quality, whilst also promoting a greater social shift towards enhancing our lifestyles with better awareness around the vital role of natural light for our health and wellbeing. The following project is a s mall step towards addressing a much larger issue that I believe is at the forefront of future lighting design. My project aims to explore the conflicting demands between the increasingly indoor- based urban lifestyle and our innate biological connection to nature, with a focus on using light to support physical and mental wellbeing. By intertwining the fields of industrial design, health, and science, the project aims to enhance workplace lighting beyond the scope of visual performance to support our internal biological rhythms. The project seeks to address our biological need for brighter, dynamically changing light by utilizing a variety of qualitative and quantitative research methods, including a collaborative design group and an ongoing connection with circadian scientists 1. Alongside providing light that supports our biological needs, the final design aims to reconnect indoor workers with the subtle qualities and cycles of nature, whilst raising awareness around the impact of light on our health and wellbeing through experiential discovery. By applying scientific knowledge through design, my project aims to improve public health and life quality, whilst also promoting a greater social shift towards enhancing our lifestyles with better awareness around the vital role of natural light for our health and wellbeing. The following project is a s mall step towards addressing a much larger issue that I believe is at the forefront of future lighting design.

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  • Genetic analysis of the succinate utilization genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 : a thesis presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy (Science) in Microbiological Genetics at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Liang, Yuting (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Succinate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is one of the most preferred nutritional substrates for bacteria, particularly those capable of colonizing eukaryotic hosts such as plants, animals (including humans). The genetic mechanisms of succinate utilization have been well studied in E. coli and other model microorganisms such as rhizobia, a group of gram-negative bacteria that form nitrogen-fixing nodules on leguminous plants. Uptake of succinate is mediated by the DctA transporter, whose expression is regulated by the twocomponent signal transduction system DctB / DctD in a succinate dependent manner. In the presence of succinate, the DctB sensor kinase binds to succinate, causing phosphorylation of the response regulator DctD that in turn activate transcription of dctA with the help of the alternative sigma factor s54. Our work on the genetics of succinate utilization has focused on Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25. P. fluorescens SBW25 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium that was originally isolated from the phyllosphere of sugar beet plants. When colonizing on the surfaces of sugar beet, P. fluorescens SBW25 activates the expression of a suite of genes involved in nutrient acquisition, including pflu4717 with a predicted role in succinate uptake. The deduced amino acid sequence of pflu4717 shows 70% sequence identity with dctA from E. coli, and 63% with dctA of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. To confirm the predicted role of pflu4717 in succinate uptake, a pflu4717 deletion mutant was constructed and the resultant mutant strain was unable to grow on succinate as the sole source of carbon and energy (Suc-). The inability of the pflu4717 mutant to grow on succinate can be restored by the introduction of a cloned copy of pflu4717. Furthermore, expression of pflu4717 was induced by the presence of succinate as measured by using an integrated lacZ reporter gene. Together, the data consistently indicate that pflu4717 encodes DctA for succinate uptake, and it is thus named dctA. Next, we sought to identify the transcriptional regulators of dctA in P. fluorescens SBW25. In silico analysis was performed using the DctBD sequences of Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. The analysis identified three pairs of two-component regulatory systems: Pflu0287/Pflu0286, Pflu4953/Pflu4954 and Pflu1135/Pflu1134. However, deletion analysis for each of the three response regulators (Pflu0286, Pflu4954 and Pflu1134) showed that only the deletion mutant of pflu0286 lost the ability to grow on succinate; and moreover, expression of dctA was not responsive to succinate in the growth medium. The data thus showed that pflu0287 / pflu0286 encode the DctB / DctD required for the succinate-induced expression of dctA in P. fluorescens SBW25. Whilst the dctA deletion mutant (SBW25?dctA) cannot grow on minimal medium supplemented with succinate as the sole carbon source, interestingly, a spontaneous Suc+ mutant arose at high frequency (~ 10-4). To identify the suppressor mutations, two such spontaneous Suc+ mutants were subject to genome re-sequencing, which led to the identification of two separate mutations in a putative sensor kinase Pflu4953. Pflu4953 forms a two-component regulatory system with Pflu4954, but as has been shown above is not involved in the utilization of succinate. Next, a logic series of experiments were performed using a combination of sitedirected mutagenesis analysis and ß-galactosidase assays. The results led to the conclusion that: (1) Pflu4953 and Pflu4954 (designated DctX and DctY, respectively here) regulate the expression of a putative transporter Pflu4955 (designated DctT); (2) DctT is responsible for the uptake of alpha-ketoglutarate (another intermediate of the TCA cycle), but it is also capable of transporting succinate; (3) however, the DctXY-mediated expression of dctT is induced by alphaketoglutarate, and not by succinate; (4) mutation of DctX caused constitutive expression of DctT, which enables the ?dctA mutant to grow on succinate (Suc+). Taken together, the data show that P. fluorescens SBW25 possesses two transporter systems for the uptake of succinate (i.e., DctA and DctT), which are regulated by the DctBD and DctXY two-component systems, respectively. However, the primary role of DctT is for the uptake of alpha-ketoglutarate and not succinate, as expression of DctT is only induced by alphaketoglutarate. This finding indicates that substrate specificity of an uptake system is determined by not only the transporter protein but also its regulator(s). Given that succinate is significant nutrient available on the plant surfaces, the encoded multiple systems for succinate uptake likely contribute to the success of P. fluorescens SBW25 in the plant environment.

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  • Surface modifications to increase dairy production run length : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Chemical Engineering at Massey University, [Manawatū], New Zealand.

    Runwal, Siddharth (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Fouling is the build-up of undesired deposits on surfaces. In the dairy industry, fouling is mainly seen in heat exchangers where dairy fluid is heated or concentrated. It is one of the primary reasons for restricted run length, causing financial losses from downtime, the use of cleaning chemicals and reduced product quality. Fouling is a complex process and is due to number of factors including the properties of the heat transfer surface. A silica based coating is known to alter the surface properties. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of a silica based coating on fouling by whole milk in a falling film evaporator. Seven independent trials were conducted. In each trial, a control run was carried out followed by a full cleaning of the equipment and then either another control run or a coating run with pasteurized milk from the same batch. There was a six hour interval between the start of the control run and start of the coating run. Since prolonged milk storage may have some effect on fouling rate, control-control runs were carried out to see the effect of prolonged storage. The results obtained from control-control runs were used in analysing the effect of the coating on fouling rate. All coating trials showed consistently lower fouling rate as compared with corresponding control trials. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 0.83 showed a strong effect of coating on the fouling rate. Further, a regression analysis gave a p-value of 0.033, indicating that, at the 96.7% level of confidence, coating reduced the fouling rate. The extent of reduction in fouling rate varied from trial to trial. It was estimated that the coating had the potential to increase the run length by a maximum of 34% under the conditions these experiments were carried out.

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  • Moral uncertainty and contemporary children's fantasy fiction : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in English at Massey University, Albany Campus, New Zealand

    Lochead, Anne (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis studies the interplay between mythos (story) and ethos (ethical character) in contemporary children’s fantasy fiction. In recent decades, this relationship has been complicated by two contradictory, but related, ethical tendencies. Postmodernism characteristically resists unitary accounts of morality, celebrating pluralism. Within the last twenty years, however, there has been a groundswell of interest in rethinking ethics and retrieving values from endemic moral uncertainty, often referred to as an ethical turn. This thesis contends that children’s fantasy fiction has evolved into a literature that creatively engages with this contradiction, simultaneously refusing moral certainties and demanding unflinching ethical values. This evolution is explored by comparing a selection of children’s fantasy fiction published from 1995 to 2012 with earlier exponents of this genre as well as other literary texts. The analysis is conducted through a framework of expanding ethical horizons, starting with a focus on personal contexts and then progressing to the social, political, and ideological. The thesis employs an inter-textual method. Ethical concepts are teased out by bringing literary texts into dialogue with each other and exploring links between them. Ideas from critical theory are then used to extend the trajectory of the ethical themes suggested by the fictions. Through this method, themes and texts are woven into an ethical narrative about children’s fantasy. This thesis approaches storytelling as a portal into the imagination where writers, readers and protagonists actively forge moral meaning. Traditionally, stories rich in symbol not only entertained their audiences, but also encapsulated their societies’ moral values. When society is presented metaphorically, familiar assumptions are estranged, enabling readers to see the world anew and imaginatively reconstruct their worldviews. In recent children’s fantasies, both child protagonists and child readers are required to be moral thinkers. This demonstrates a shift, not only in how ethical dilemmas are contended with today, but, by addressing children as ethical subjects, in how much moral agency is attributed to children. Children’s fantasy is a rich and layered genre particularly suited to engaging with contemporary ethical dilemmas and uncertainties. This thesis affirms its role in exploring ethical meaning and action and transmitting positive values in a climate of moral uncertainty. Emerging from this fiction, and incongruous to both postmodern consumerist society and postmodern suspicion of categorical moral imperatives, is an ethics of self-transcendent love.

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  • Development of methodologies for the characterisation of biochars produced from human and animal wastes : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Soil Science, Institute of Agriculture and Environment, College of Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wang, Tao (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Biochar is charcoal made from waste biomass and intended to be added to soil to improve soil function and reduce emissions from the biomass caused by natural degradation to CO2. Biochar technology has many environmental benefits, such as carbon (C) sequestration, waste management, soil improvement and energy production. High quality biosolids (e.g., low in heavy metals) and animal wastes represent an adequate feedstock for production of biochars. Wide variation in biochar properties, dependent on feedstocks, process conditions and post-treatments, lead to large uncertainties in predicting the effects of biochar application on the surrounding ecology, and the productivity of particular crops under specific pedoclimatic conditions. It is essential to well-characterise biochars prior to its incorporation into soils. Therefore, the aims of this thesis were (i) to investigate the C stability and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability in biochars produced from municipal and animal organic wastes at different pyrolysis temperatures; and (ii) to develop simple and robust methods for characterisation of C stability and nutrient availability in biochars. Two types of feedstock, (i) a mixture (1:1 dry wt. basis ratio) of alum-treated biosolids (from anaerobic digestion of sewage, ~5% dry wt. of Al) and eucalyptus wood chips (BSe), and (ii) a mixture (1:1 dry wt. basis ratio) of cattle manure (from a dairy farm) and eucalyptus wood chips (MAe), were used to produce biochars at four different pyrolysis temperatures (highest heating temperature: 250, 350, 450, and 550°C). The stability of C in charred materials increased as pyrolysis temperature increased, as proved by the increase of aromaticity and the decrease of atomic H to organic C (H/Corg) ratio, volatiles to (volatiles + fixed C) ratio, C mineralisation rate and % K2Cr2O7 oxidisable C. According to the IBI Guidelines (IBI 2012), an upper H/Corg ratio limit of 0.7 is used to distinguish biochar samples from other carbonaceous biomass based on the consideration of C stability. According to this classification system, MAe-450 and MAe-550 biochars complied with this specific C stability requirement; this was also the case of BSe-450 and BSe-550 when their H values were corrected to eliminate the contribution of inorganic H from Al oxy-hydroxides. Both organic H (Horg) and Corg forms were used in the calculation of this index instead of their total amounts, as the latter would also include their inorganic C or H forms – which can represent a considerable amount of C or H in ash-rich biochars – and these do not form part of the aromatic structure. Therefore, various methods, including titration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), acid fumigation and acid treatment with separation by filtration, were compared to quantify the carbonate-C in biochars. Overall, the titration approach gave the most reliable results as tested by using a CaCO3 standard (average recovery>96% with a relative experimental error MAe biochars> BSe biochars > Sechura phosphate rocks (SPR). Plant availability of P in biochars could be predicted from the amount of P extracted in 2% formic acid extractable P (FA-P). In addition, resin-P was considered as a useful test for characterising P bioavailability in soils fertilised with P-rich biochars. However, more investigations with a wider range of soils and biochars are needed to confirm this. Pyrolysis temperature played a minor role on P availability in biochars produced below 450°C compared to the influence of the type of feedstock. This was supported by the results on (i) plant P uptake, (ii) 2% formic acid extraction, and (iii) successive resin P extractions. The availability of P in biochars produced at 550°C decreased noticeably compared with that in lower temperature biochars. The Hedley P fractionation procedure was also carried out to examine the forms and transformation of P in biochar after its application into soils under the influence of plant growth. Generally, biochar P contributed to the readily available resin-P and moderately available NaOH-Pi fractions, and some equilibrium likely existed between these two fractions, both of which provided P for plant uptake. In a plant-sandy soil system, depletion of P in resin-P and NaOH-Pi fractions was attributed to plant uptake rather than conversion into less available P forms (e.g. from NaOH-Pi to H2SO4-P). High-ash biochars with high P concentrations could be potential slow-release P sources with high-agronomic values. To determine appropriate agronomically effective rates of application and avoid the risk of eutrophication associated with biochar application, it is recommended to determine available P using 2% formic acid extraction in biochars, so that dose, frequency and timing of application are correctly established. All the information obtained in this thesis will support the future use of the biochar technology to recycle nutrients and stabilise carbon from agricultural and municipal organic wastes of good quality.

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  • New Zealand nurse migration to the United States : what makes them go? What will bring them back? : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts, Nursing, Massey University, Turitea campus, New Zealand

    Whittaker, Lynette (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Within the next ten years there will be a considerable global nurse shortage and as many countries consider a variety of ways to both recruit and retain their nursing workforce, nurse migration is coming under increased scrutiny as both contributing to and solving the problem. New Zealand is a significant importer of nurses yet also loses a substantial number of its nurses to overseas positions. Within nurse migration research there are few qualitative studies that look at the reasons behind the decision to migrate and the experience of nurse migrants travelling from one developed country to another. This qualitative study utilizing an interpretive descriptive research design was employed to study the reasons why nurses leave New Zealand to work abroad, specifically to California, U.S.A. and sought also to explore what kept the nurses in the United States. Six face to face interviews were conducted. From the data, thematic analysis was employed to identify a variety of themes related to the decision to migrate, the early ‘settling in’ period, and reasons that may influence the nurses decision to remain in California. Factors identified that contributed to the nurses leaving New Zealand were the opportunity to travel while working, accessible recruitment agencies and hospitals, and past travel experiences. Adjustment difficulties in the United States were mitigated by the presence of other expatriates in close proximity, financial support from hospitals, and continual travel opportunities. Firmly ensconced in California the majority of the nurses had no immediate plans to return to New Zealand citing work and educational opportunities within the US and a favourable Californian lifestyle as primary reasons for staying. In addition the ability to retain a strong connection to their families in New Zealand through technology and frequent trips home contributed to their length of stay in the United States. Supporting family left at home was considered to be a possible reason for returning to New Zealand on a more permanent basis while a type of circular migration where the ‘best of both worlds’ could be enjoyed would also be considered by the nurses. This small study highlights the need for further research on nurses leaving and returning to New Zealand. Only by gaining a better understanding of the migrating nurse’s motivation for travel and impetus for return can health policy makers develop strategies for recruiting and retaining experienced New Zealand nurses.

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  • Nutrient management plans and their influence on the farm management practices of dairy farmers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Environmental Management, Massey University, Palmerston North

    Neal, Gavin (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Nutrient Management Plans (NMPs) are a relatively recent innovation in the New Zealand dairy industry, however due to their growing use in regional council policy, and initiatives such as the Dairying and Clean Streams Accord (2003), it is likely that NMPs will become mandatory for the diary industry in the near future. There is currently limited information on the use and benefits of NMPs in the New Zealand context, and how dairy farm management practices have been influenced by the introduction of NMPs. The main objective of this research was to investigate how the introduction of an NMP has influenced the farm management practices of dairy farmers. This was achieved through the use of two case studies within the Waikato and Otago regions. These regions have contrasting approaches to nutrient management; The Waikato Regional Council has incorporated the use of NMPs in regional policy and has supported a number of community initiatives regarding nutrient management. In comparison, at the time of the research, the Otago Regional Council, while stating that they promoted the adoption of nutrient management practices, had no current policy requiring NMPs. Results indicated that the degree of NMP uptake varied amongst farmers, depending on a variety of influences with regards to the farmer’s own unique goals, circumstances and opinions. It was also found that while the reasons for NMP introduction varied amongst the farmers interviewed, the overall influences of NMPs on farm management practices were similar across both cases. The key influences of NMPs on farm management practices were; the increased precision and efficiency of fertiliser application, an increased appreciation and use of effluent as a nutrient source, and the identification and manipulation of other factors such as the effects of bought in feed and stock movement on nutrient flows on the farm. There was a perceived lack of ongoing support and education for farmers regarding NMPs. This contributed to a general distrust amongst farmers of NMPs, in turn affecting their opinions, and uptake of NMPs. Furthermore NMPs were not being used to their full potential by the majority of farmers who participated in this research. The greater the involvement and support offered by the regional council and industry, the greater the trust and cooperation amongst the particular farmers with the relevant regional council and industry representatives. Overall, while this research has found that NMPs do provide benefits to farmer’s management practices, further support and ongoing education is required to ensure NMPs are accepted and used to their full potential by dairy farmers.

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  • The electrochemistry of alcohols in aqueous phosphate electrolytes under reducing conditions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Chemistry, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Wise, Nessha M. (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Few methods are available for the routine reduction of alcohols in synthetic chemistry. These few are dominated by reduction with HI/I2, LiAlH4 or Li/NH3 and typically involve severe conditions for other functionalities and there is little research into less severe synthetic or electrochemical methods. There is also limited mechanistic or kinetic information available for these reduction methods. This leaves an interesting area for development within fundamental knowledge. The development of an effective process for the reduction of alcohols could have many applications in pharmaceutical and chemical industries along with many environmental and economical benefits. A preliminary study on a range of electrodes established an electrochemical reduction response observed for a number of water-soluble alcohols on rotating disc copper, tin and lead electrodes in 0.1 M phosphate buffers. A response was observed for ethanol, propanol, propan-2-ol and butanol on copper rotating disc electrodes in the 0.1 M phosphate buffer. Reduction of the alcohols at the copper disc electrodes was observed at pH 8.1 with the production of a limiting current plateau. The reduction was found to be continuous and reproducible. The observed limiting current was found to increase with both increasing concentration and increasing electrode rotation rate. A Koutecky-Levich study suggested the reduction of the alcohol occurred through both mass transport and kinetic processes. A discrete, reproducible response was observed for ethanol, propanol and propan-2-ol on tin rotating disc electrodes in the 0.1 M phosphate buffer electrolyte at pH 7.3. A reductive peak was observed at −1.1 V vs Ag/AgCl in cyclic voltammetry. This formation of a reductive peak suggests that the reduction becomes progressively hindered, proposed to be due to a passivating layer forming on the surface of the electrode. The charge associated with the peak is relatively invariant with alcohol concentration (in the range 7−20 mM) and with scan rate (over the range 10−500 mV s−1). In the case of ethanol, the peak charge is typically found to be in the range 2.9−3.6 C m−2 suggesting that a passivating layer of reaction products forms with an area of 8.8−10.8 Ǻ2 for each adsorbed molecule (assuming a 2-electron process and a surface roughness factor of one). This suggests formation of a monolayer with sparsely located binding sites. The peak charge does not change with increasing electrode rotation rate, not inconsistent with the formation of a passivating layer on the surface of the electrode inhibiting any further reduction. A discrete response was also observed for ethanol, propanol and propan-2-ol on lead rotating disc electrodes in the 0.1 M phosphate buffer electrolyte at pH 8.1. A reduction peak is observed at −0.9 V vs Ag/AgCl in cyclic voltammetry. This suggests that the reduction becomes progressively hindered due to a proposed passivating layer. The passivating layer is not permanent – employing a > 30 second open-circuit rest period or having an anodic limit more positive than −0.6 V will result in the new reduction peak for each subsequent voltammogram. Multiple-cycle voltammograms exhibit only the background response if these conditions are not met. The charge associated with the peak decreases with scan rate (over the range 10−500 mV s−1) but is relatively invariant with alcohol concentration (in the range 7−20 mM). In the case of ethanol, the peak charge is typically found to be in the range 0.5−4.0 C m−2 suggesting that a passivating layer of reaction products forms with an area of 19−58 Ǻ2 for each adsorbed molecule (assuming a 2−electron process and a surface roughness factor of one). This suggests formation of a monolayer with sparsely located binding sites. The peak charge decreases with increasing electrode rotation rate. It is proposed that this is due to a surface chemical reaction following the electrochemical process – it is the product of this chemical reaction that results in a transient passivating monolayer. FT−IR analyses of the lead disc systems suggest possible products to be propandiol and butandiol.

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  • Iron status of preterm infants after hospital discharge : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Science in Nutrition and Dietetics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Moor, Charlotte Felicity (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Background: Preterm infants are at an increased risk of developing iron deficiency (defined in paeditaric populations as a ferritin value 2.4 mg/L) after discharge due to their shortened gestational length, increased requirements for rapid growth, and excessive blood losses through phlebotomy. Optimising preterm infant iron status after discharge is important as poor iron status has been associated with negative health and neurodevelopmental outcomes later in life. Only preterm infants born before 32 weeks gestation or with a birth weight less than 1800 g currently receive routine iron supplementation after discharge from Auckland City Hospital; however there is paucity of evidence to determine whether this is best practice. Objective: To investigate the iron status of preterm infants in Auckland, New Zealand at four months after discharge from hospital. Methods: Sixty one preterm infants were recruited through Auckland City Hospital. At four months after discharge infant haemoglobin, serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations were measured to assess iron status. Weight, length and head circumference were also measured. Information about iron supplementation and mode of feeding was collected using an online questionnaire. Statistical analysis using independent t-tests, Mann-Whitney tests and bivariate correlations were performed. Results: 16.4% of preterm infants had iron deficiency anaemia (defined in paediatric populations as a haemoglobin less than 110 g/L in conjunction with low iron stores) at four months after discharge, with an additional 6.6% of preterm infants classified as having iron deficiency. No infant had iron overload. Iron supplementation was associated with significantly higher haemoglobin (P<0.001) concentrations along with lower sTfR concentrations (P=0.005) at four months after discharge. Iron supplementation was also protective against suboptimal iron status at four months after discharge (P=0.018). Mode of feeding, introduction of solids, intrauterine growth restriction, and maternal iron status had no effect on infant iron status at four months after discharge. There was also no relationship between growth and iron supplementation or iron status at four months after discharge. Conclusion: Preterm infants who did not receive iron supplements after discharge had an increased risk of developing iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia at four months after discharge. Routine iron supplementation for all preterm infants combined with screening for iron deficiency anaemia after discharge appears to be a safe and effective way to reduce the risk of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia at four months after discharge.

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  • Remediation of New Zealand sheep dip sites using biochar and phytoextraction technologies : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Soil Science, Institute of Agriculture and Environment, College of Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Gregory, Samuel (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The practice of sheep dipping, which subjected livestock to inorganic and organic agricultural pesticides to eradicate pests such as lice and keds, is a historic practice; sheep dipping is no longer practiced in New Zealand today. Animals would be submerged in solid structures known as dips containing chemicals such as arsenicals and organochlorines with the leftover solution pumped onto surrounding soil. The use of pesticides such as these is now banned by law due to their persistence in the environment. Today an estimated 50,000 contaminated sheep dip sites exist in New Zealand representing perhaps the countries’ most significant, but understated, environmental challenge. To determine whether this historic agricultural practice had led to contamination of the environment, an investigation into the extent of contamination resulting from sheep dipping at a known historic dip site in Te Mahia, New Zealand was carried out. Characterisation of the site by arsenic soil concentration mapping revealed that 500 m2 of agricultural land has been contaminated with this metalloid and that arsenic exists at varying high concentrations through the soil profile. Environmental risk from these historic pesticides was established by analysing plant and water samples below the dip site. Staple Maori food varieties such as watercress were significantly contaminated with arsenic while water samples taken from the stream below the dip returned spiked arsenic concentrations. Based on this, it was justified that arsenic/organochlorine contamination would need to be managed to reduce their effect on these food sources. The design of a coupled remediation strategy using phytoextraction and biochar was utilized to reduce remediation times and is the basis of this thesis. Contaminated soil from the site was removed and amended with two types of biochar produced from willow feedstock. These biochars, known as 350°C and 550°C biochar were added into the soil at application rates of 30 t ha-1 and 60 t ha-1. During a series of 180 d glasshouse trials, the phytoextraction of arsenic into Lolium perenne (ryegrass) shoot tissue was analysed along with growth parameters of shoot and root biomass and corresponding response to arsenic at the molecular level. In soil; microbial activity, soil bacterial community, organochlorine concentration, and element dynamics were analysed as a function of biochar amendment. Soil microbial activity, analysed using the dehydrogenase assay (DHA), was significantly increased (P<0.05) in chlorophyll content in response to the total arsenic concentration in ryegrass shoot tissue grown on contaminated soil. The observed increases in activity of SOD, APX and steady CAT activity is suggested to be efficiently catalysing the production of harmful ROS in this soil. A 6-month field investigation into the effect of biochar amendment on the extraction of arsenic into a high biomass crop (Salix sp) resulted in significant increases of arsenic in stem biomass as a function of biochar amendment. When data was extrapolated to predict results of a long-term field trial and scale under willow treatment (stem) it was calculated that over 67.7 g of arsenic could be extracted in soils amended with 350°C biochar compared to 5.9 g extracted under control treatment. This could result - assuming a similar rate of extraction with time - in levels of arsenic concentration in soils reaching background concentrations in as little as 6 years, a reduction in remediation times of 92%.

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  • Properties of oil-in-water emulsions and ice creams made from coconut milk : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Food Science at Massey University, New Zealand.

    Chalermnon, Naiyawit (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Coconut milk (CM) containing coconut oil extracted from the endosperm (meat) of coconut fruit is not stable and undergoes a rapid separation into a creaming layer at the top and a serum phase at the bottom. In this study, coconut milk was separated into coconut cream (CC) and coconut skim milk (CSM). The ability of proteins in CM, CC and CSM to form and stabilise oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions containing coconut oil was investigated. The unstable nature of coconut oil droplets in CM was found to be due to types of proteins adsorbed on the surface of oil droplets, which were predominantly 11S globulins, known to be hydrophobic and salt soluble proteins. The oil droplets stabilised by 11S globulins in CM and CC were larger in size and highly flocculated, probably due to hydrophobic interaction, thus resulting in rapid creaming and phase separation, compared to those stabilised by proteins (e.g. water-soluble albumins) in CSM. Smaller droplet size with less droplet flocculation and slower phase separation was obtained when emulsions were prepared with a predominance of proteins present in CSM. The CSM-based emulsions were relatively more stable but they were only able to provide short-term stability against phase separation. The results suggest that the ability of proteins (both globulins and albumins) in CM to stabilise the emulsion oil droplets was not high because these proteins did not seem to posses the ability to provide steric and electrostatic stabilisation to the emulsion droplets stabilised by them. An addition of small molecule surfactants, particularly a water-soluble surfactant of Tween 80, induced the formation of smaller droplets in the CM- and CSM-based emulsions, thereby improving their emulsion stability to a certain extent. However, the addition of oil-soluble small molecule surfactants (e.g. mono- and diglycerides and/or partially unsaturated mono- and diglycerides) in the absence of Tween 80 caused a significant increase in droplet size of emulsions prepared from CSM. In contrast, this phenomenon was not observed in emulsions made from CM. The formation and properties of coconut milk ice creams differing in the concentration of CSM proteins, as well as ratios of solid fat-to-liquid oil (blends of coconut oil and sunflower oil) were also investigated. The differences in those variables were found to have a significant influence on the properties and stability (particle size, flow properties, droplet flocculation) of ice cream mixes as well as the characteristics of ice creams, such as overrun, melt resistance and shape retention. Several instrumental analyses, including size measurement, flow behaviour and small-deformation oscillatory tests, showed the presence of an agglomerated structural network in ice creams based on CSM containing oil blends as well as in ice creams based on dairy milk. From the findings, the agglomerated fat structural network in the CSM-based ice creams containing the suitable solid fat content at 68% could change ice creams with a slow melting rate and the more ability to retain their shape during melting compared with those of the dairy milk-based ice cream and ice creams made directly from CM. Overall the results suggest that coconut milk proteins do not possess the properties of proteins suitable for making very small droplets as well as stable emulsions against phase separation, particularly 11S globulins that are one of the major constituent proteins in coconut milk. However, albumins, which are the predominant proteins in coconut skim milk, may be suitable for use as the surface-active proteins for making smaller emulsion droplets in coconut oil-in-water emulsions, but their concentration needs to be increased for use probably by membrane filtration or freeze drying after removal of some carbohydrates from coconut skim milk.

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  • Motivation and high-stakes certification assessment : secondary school students' perceptions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Chapman, Jan Erica (2013)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Senior secondary students’ future social and economic well-being is significantly affected by their performance in high-stakes certification assessment. Motivation plays a key role in students’ academic performance. In light of the dearth of literature examining students’ motivation in high-stakes certification assessment, in the domain of English, and from the students’ perspective, this study examined Year 12 students’ motivation to achieve the National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) level 2 English achievement standards over the period of an academic year. A contemporary person-in-context perspective was adopted in recognition that motivation is influenced by the interplay of personal, social, and contextual variables. A mixed methods research methodology was employed in this longitudinal two-phased study. In the first phase participants completed a series of questionnaires, and in the second phase a subsample of the participants was interviewed. Students’ motivation was examined primarily through the lens of self-determination theory. Self-efficacy, attribution theory, goal theories, and interest were also drawn on to explain facets of students’ motivation. Findings indicate that most students expected to pass a number of NCEA level 2 English achievement standards and they believed it was important to pass these. Most valued English for utility reasons. Students’ interest in English varied markedly across different aspects of the English programme. Gender differences in students’ motivation were not apparent in relation to students’ motivation-related attitudes. External and introjected regulation were the most prevalent types of motivation influencing students’ performance in NCEA English. However, their impact was not as detrimental as theory and research would have predicted. Teachers played a pivotal role in many students’ motivation to achieve, especially in relation to feedback, expectations, and student-teacher relationships. Past performance was also an important influence. Difficulties with or a dislike of aspects of English and academic demands from other school subjects were identified as negatively impacting on students’ motivation to achieve in English. Overall, students’ motivation was found to be complex, dynamic, multidimensional, and situation dependent. Matthew effects were particularly evident for high and low achievers, highlighting the bi-directional relationship between motivation and achievement. Implications for educators and researchers are discussed.

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