1,720 results for Thesis, 2014

  • Exploring noise sensitivity: cardiac correlates of noise sensitivity and the auditory evoked orienting response

    Mulgrew, Joseph (2014-05-12)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    A growing body of evidence suggests Noise Sensitivity (NS) moderates the relationship between noise exposure and stress-related disease. As NS is pronounced within several clinical disorders, its biological mechanisms are of clinical and epidemiological import. Central Neurovisceral Integrative System (NIS, Thayer & Brosschot, 2005) concepts were drawn from to argue that autonomic balance (AB) provides an influential biological mechanism underlying NS and, additionally, that AB and NS influence the Auditory Evoked Orientation Response (AEOR). Baseline Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and NS, as measured by the NS Questionnaire (Schütte, Marks, Wenning, & Griefahn, 2007), were collected from 103 Auckland University of Technology staff and students and were used to analyse the neurovisceral correlates of NS. Furthermore, 60 participants went on to provide cardiac data recorded during and post exposure to auditory stimuli of varying valence, which were used to analyse the influence of autonomic balance and NS on the AEOR. The results of the study provide some limited support for both propositions. Findings are discussed with reference to AB, total regulatory capacity, emotion, and orientating. Although questions are left unanswered, future research directions are postulated that could culminate in the development of both screening and treatment protocols with pronounced clinical applications.

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  • Lesbian, gay and bisexual clients’ experiences of discussing sexual identity in therapy

    Tsai, Sandy (2014-05-19)

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The current study explores lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals’ experiences of discussing sexual identity in therapy. Current literature indicate that the absence of sexual identity issues being identified and discussed could be a significant barrier to effective therapy with LGB clients. However, little research has explored how sexual identity is conceptualized in therapy by LGB clients and their therapists, and how this influences their therapeutic outcomes. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), LGB clients’ experiences of discussing sexual identity in therapy was investigated. Results clustered into three overarching themes: 1. Sexual identity as self in the making; 2. Sexual identity as a barrier; and 3. Sexual identity as increased awareness of oppression. Discussion of sexual identity is important for LGB clients in therapy, regardless of whether it is the main focus of their presenting issues. These discussions help them explore their sexual identity formation processes, which result in a stronger sense of identity due to a better understanding of sexual identity as an aspect of themselves. LGB clients who lack such opportunities to discuss sexual identity in therapy experience heteronormative assumptions and biases from their therapists, which increased their awareness of themselves as individuals of sexual minority and empathy towards others under oppression. The current study concludes that therapists should remain open-minded and explorative when helping LGB clients discuss their sexual identities in therapy, but always in context to their presenting issues so that conceptualizations and sense-making of sexual identity is centred in the clients’ subjective experiences

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  • Communicative mobility and networked mediation in transnational lifeworlds: a case study of European expatriates in Australia

    Deffner, Florian (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Transnational lifeworlds of expatriates raise exciting questions on the use and meaning of media. Network communication, and its increased communicative connectivity, allows for a borderless communicative mobility which transforms experience and meaning by multiplying and diversifying content choices and ways of interpersonal communication. To capture the mediated transformations of expatriates’ lifeworlds, this dissertation introduces the term “networked mediation” as a descriptor for new forms of mediation emerging in the context of network communication. In the micro-perspective of the lifeworld, networked mediation comprises all forms of mediation—including their interrelation—that do not exclusively correspond to traditional ‘streamings’ of mediation, such as the strict patterns of consecutive and distinct consumptions of news in the mass media age. Therefore, networked mediation, as a multi-directional and multi-dimensional form of mediation, appears to constitute new ontological dimensions of subjective experience and meaning. The construction of more complex meaningfully lived-through mediated social realities and relations are investigated through a social-phenomenological approach illuminating the transnational communicative spaces of European expatriates in Melbourne. Results reveal new mobility cultures of communication characterized by network-based communicative internalization and communicative subjectivization. Consequently, in the case of expatriates’ transnational lifeworlds, even more complex forms of networked mediation occur as they display communicative orientations to 'dual' lifeworld attachments between home and host country. Seen from this angle, the exploration of networked mediation not only illustrates and clarifies transnational communicative spaces, but also sheds light on the complex dimensions and dynamics of contemporary cultures of mediation.

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  • Gold Rush and Gold Mining: A Technological Analysis Of Gabriel's Gully and the Blue Spur, 1861-1891

    MacArthur, Nicol Allan (2014)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Philip Ross May stated in 1980 that well-informed studies of the technology of gold rushes and gold mining were long overdue but very little has been added to the historiography since then. As a result, various misconceptions and misunderstandings have entered into the New Zealand and wider gold rush historiography. A conflation of gold rushing with gold mining is sometimes evident and another misconception entrenches corporate structure with the level of capitalisation and mixes the mining of alluvial and quartz reef gold. On May’s lines, this thesis argues that technology lies at the heart of all gold rushes and their gold mining, and seeks simply to demonstrate that the technology of gold rushes was different from the technology of gold mining. The thesis first completes a historical survey of gold rushes from sixteenth century Spanish America until Victoria in the 1850s. It then then closely evaluates the technology of the Gabriel's Gully gold rush and its extension to mining the Blue Spur deposit, both as local history and also to deepen the findings of the global review. All gold rushes were found to use a common suite of hand tools and simple manual methods of low productivity. This manual simplicity was diagnostic as was a slow- down in gold output and modifications in methods as the rich easy gold became exhausted. To continue required either hydraulic or mechanical methods, or large coordinated labour forces, along with capital expenditure. This signified mining, which typically comprised ground sluicing, hydraulicking, deep leading, or river mining. Unlike other rushes, the Gabriel's Gully rush used hydraulic energy in long toms and box sluices, as well as manual cradling, to wash the paydirt. Whether due to this or not, a remarkable new finding is that in its first twenty-one months, the Tuapeka district produced more gold than the first twenty-one months of the Californian rush. Regarding mining, Blue Spur proved to be an extremely large orebody, much of it heavily cemented and capable of high gold contents. Over its long fifty-year life, as different zones were reached, alluvial, quarrying, and underground mining and stamp milling technologies were applied, and culminated in hydraulicking and the innovative hydraulic elevating developed in Gabriel's Gully. However, regardless of the mining technology in use, there was no structural change in the Blue Spur mining parties for twenty years, although each new technology required higher capitalisation. This supports Hearn’s work on the Tinkers goldfield. This technological study has perhaps filled a gap in the local historiography, and historians of the Otago gold rushes and gold mining may be encouraged to pursue other lines of enquiry with the role of technology included in their perspective. This leads to a wider point that ongoing mining histories in New Zealand could look to the characteristics of local deposits and their required technology before generalising across different types of gold deposit nationally. The work shows also that Otago had a significant role in the global innovations in alluvial mining technology of the nineteenth century.

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  • 'Large letter'd as with thundering shout' : an analysis of typographic posters advertising emigration to New Zealand 1839 - 1875 : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Visual and Material Culture, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Thomas, Patricia Ann (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the role of ephemeral, typographic material in the promotion of emigration to New Zealand in the nineteenth century. It focuses on the advertising posters produced by the New Zealand Company, the Otago and Canterbury Associations, the provincial governments and Government of New Zealand. It aims to identify how advertising and typography contributed to the transfer of the promotion message from the producer to the audience in this specific historical context. For the first time a comprehensive data set of emigration posters of this period has been gathered together and examined. The posters are analysed in the context of their contemporary visual, material and print cultures, with particular reference to ephemeral printing. To account for all the historical, textual and graphic properties of the posters, the thesis develops and applies a novel, multilayered system of analysis, drawing on communication theory, social semiotic principles and Gestalt principles of composition. The posters afforded emigration promoters a visual medium for distributing audienceappropriate messages through typographic strategies. They provided promoters with the facility for fast and inexpensive messaging that was otherwise unavailable in nineteenth century communication. The thesis concludes that posters were a significant part of an early, coherent and systematic advertising campaign which utilised processes and persuasive tools that have traditionally been seen as emergent only in the late nineteenth century. This thesis establishes the value of ephemeral material and the study of graphic language when applied to the examination of historical phenomena. As well as shedding new light on these particular forms of historical design and modes of communication, it also adds a further valuable dimension to the more well-known story of nineteenth century emigration promotion by focussing on its graphic and advertising languages rather than its pictorial aspects. The investigation undertaken provides a new analytical system through which a combination of historical, ephemeral, typographic and advertising material can be examined in the future.

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  • Dynamic response of rotationally periodic structures : thesis submitted in fulfillment of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering, Massey University, School of Engineering and Technology, February 2014

    Mubarak, Rana Noman (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Due to their structural dynamics, rotationally periodic structures (RPS) have always been an area of interest for engineers and scientists. RPS is found in almost all industries and could be as large as jet turbines to as small as hard disk drives. We come across with RPS on daily routine like washing machine tub, small gears in home appliances and brakes in automobile etc. With such an influence in our life, an RPS dynamic response to the environment is crucial to keep them working and hence is the focus of the thesis. The research involves three major responses on rotationally periodic structures (RPS) namely vibration, thermal and shock. Hard disk drives and integrally bladed rotors (IBR) has been selected as research models. On vibratory response in rotationally periodic structures, effects on structural designs and free vibrations of integrated bladed rotor (IBR) have been investigated in this research. The migration of natural frequencies is characterized through parametric studies considering changes in blade angle and blade thickness of an underlying uniform axis-symmetric rotor. Recurring coupled repeated doublet modes, defined as replica modes, have been observed in this study by characterizing blade vibrations in-phase or out-of-phase to disk vibrations. Veering and clustering of replica modes’ natural frequencies are observed with respect to the blade design parameters. Existence of replica modes has been verified via experimental studies. Fourier content for the low frequency replica component is found to be sensitive and tuneable to blade angle design. For the thermal response of RPS, structural thermal analysis of spindle disk assembly used in hard disk drives (HDDs) was adopted. With the view toward understanding the underlying physics and to minimize the corresponding repeatable run-out (RRO) of track following position error signal (PES) in high track per inch (TPI) magnetic disk drives, analytical representations of thermal expansion mismatch between disk and spindle hub structure formulated in form of operators and finite element analysis (FEA) are employed. Parametric studies with analysis taken at different operational temperatures suggested that RRO can be minimized significantly when location of spindle notch is properly located. RRO harmonics resulted from the thermal expansion mismatch and structure misalignments are studied and concluded with simple algebraic expression related to number of fasteners used in the disk-spindle assembly. On shock response of RPS, head gimbal assembly (HGA) in HDD was analysed. Experimental observation of de-bonding phenomena between head gimbal assembly (HGA) and suspension for a commercial 3.5-inch enterprise HDD under non-operational 250G shock test was performed. In this research the experimental observation and numerical finite element studies were conducted to understand the effect on the mechanical failure of HGA when it is subjected to non-operational shock in the parked position on the ramp. Different design modifications were adapted to withstand shock waves. It was observed that by changing flexure angle in HGA, shock stress can be reduced. FEA simulation results have been presented to verify the findings. The research findings in this thesis can be implemented in the industry where RPS has been widely used, as for example the new replica modes discovery in bladed rotors can also been applied on small scales like as on hard drive, where no. of blades can be replaced by no. of fasteners and the spinning hard drive will be benefited by studying its vibrations with concentration on replica modes. Furthermore, the serendipitous finding of HDD platters expansion under thermal stress can be beneficial in actually storing more data per inch as it has been recently used in TAMR (thermally assisted magnetic recording) technology. Gears, brakes, washing machines to name a few can get supported from the findings in the thesis where controlling vibrations, shock and heat is crucial.

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  • Making kai in Godzone : New Zealand food programming, nostalgia and national identity : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Media Studies at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Day, Paul Robert (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis investigates how national boundaries and shared belonging can be evoked through the mediation of food culture and the past. The dynamic terrain traversed is where food culture, nostalgia and collective national identity meet on the television screen. New Zealand is a compelling nation in which to undertake such a study as nation-making continues to take place against a backdrop of post colonialism, competing national visions, the impact of modernity, the centrality of food to national survival and increased global interdependence. The key to accessing these insights are two highly popular local television productions which utilise food narratives; Coasters (2011) and The Food Truck (2012). This genre of television programming is becoming increasingly important with the growing global emphasis on utilising food as a language for telling stories about personal identity and collective narratives. This study provides a unique insight with an analysis informed by the principles of Michel Foucault and reinforced by first hand industry perspectives. Clear patterns of statements are indentified in a study of narrative form, aesthetic signs and representations of food culture. There is also an exploration of what powers the making of these statements through an investigation of the unique business and institutional environment for television in New Zealand. This thesis uncovers a number of key negotiations which take place through food and the use of nostalgia which reengage and redraw the legacy of colonialism and modernity. A fantasy food culture is evoked which attempts to re-forge the mythical link between food and memory and in doing so informs notions of shared identity. These statements of the past and food are reinforced by the industrial popularity for food narratives. However, this popularity also reveals risks to broader and more inclusive statements being made through food and the past which may provide “Kiwis” with richer insights into what it means to be New Zealanders.

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  • Point process models for diurnal variation rainfall data : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Statistics at Massey University, Albany (Auckland), New Zealand

    Ismail, Norazlina binti (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The theoretical basis of the point process rainfall models were developed for midlatitude rainfall that have different temporal characteristics from the tropical rainfall. The diurnal cycle, a prominent feature in the tropical rainfall, is not represented in the point process models. An extension of the point process models were developed to address the diurnal variation in rainfall. An observed indicator of the rainfall, X is added to the point process models. Two point process models, Poisson white noise (PWN) and Neyman-Scott white noise (NSWN) model were used as the main rainfall event, Y . The rainfall is modelled assuming two cases for the variable X, independent and dependent. Bernoulli trials with Markov dependence are used for the dependent assumption. To allow the model to display the diurnal variation and correlation between hours, the model was fitted to monthly rain- fall data by using the properties of two hour blocks for each month of the year. However, the main point process models were assumed the same for each of the 12 blocks, thus having only one set of point process parameters for the models for each month. There are 12 rainfall occurrence parameters and 12 Markov dependence parameters, one for each block. A total of six models were fitted to the hourly rainfall data from 1974 to 2008 taken from a rain site in Empangan Genting Klang, Malaysia. The PWN and NSWN models with X were first fitted with the assumption that the rainfall indicators are independent between the hours within the two hour block. Simulation studies showed the model does not fit the moments properties adequently. The models were then modified based on a dependence assumption between the hours within the two hour block. These models are known as the Markov X-PWN and Markov X-NSWN models. Both models improve the fit of the moment properties. However, having only one point process model to represent the rainfall events for Malaysia rainfall data was not sufficient. Since tropical rainfall consists of two types of rain, convective and stratiform, the PWN and Markov X-NSWN model were superposed to represent the two types of rainfall. A simple method by assuming non-homogenous PWN process for every two hour block did not fit well the daily diurnal variation. A comparison between the six models show that the superposed PWN and Markov X-NSWN model improved the fitting of mean, variance and autocorrelation. The superposed model was then simplified to an 8-block model to reduce the number of parameters. This modification to the point process models succeeded in describing the diurnal variation in the rainfall, but some of the models were not able to fit other properties that were not included in the parameter estimation process such as the extreme values.

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  • A mathematical model of volcanic plumes : submitted to the Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Mathematics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Duley, Joshua Manfred (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Volcanic plumes and the resultant tephra fallout are of signi cant concern to nations the world over. Several recent large-scale eruptions have caused such disruption to air traffic that huge proportions of European commerce have been severely compromised. The plumes of such eruptions exist beyond any human recourse and must simply be left to extinguish themselves in time. Currently, separate models do exist for plume dynamics and the atmospheric transport of particles, with a mixture of qualitative and quantitative results. In this thesis we develop a mathematical model with some similarities and some differences to those already in use. The model has its core in the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy for the plume's driving gases and suspended particles. While these equations are non-linear and diffcult (if not impossible) to solve analytically, we can solve the equations numerically using a discretisation along the central vertical axis. Initially these equations are provided with full time-dependency, with a view to pursuing such results in the future. However, the numerical results contained here are limited to a steady- flow model of an established and sustained, buoyant plume.

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  • Well-being and local government : a New Zealand case study : Kaipara District Council; its responsibilities and responses to the regional museums of Kaipara, 2002 - 2011 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Museum Studies, Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Stevens, Mary (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the concept of ‘well-being’, as first introduced by the Local Government Act in 2002, with particular emphasis given to cultural well-being. With no definitions in the legislation, it does this by focusing firstly on understanding the meaning of the terms and then secondly, by a case study of one local authority and its response to cultural well-being through relationships with the three local museums. Kaipara District Council (KDC), a small, rural local authority, was chosen as the case study. Three key research questions were posed. What is the meaning of “well-being” in the context of the LGA 2002? How is well-being, and in particular cultural well-being addressed by KDC and its long term planning documents? How does KDC work with the regional museums of Kaipara to meet the legislative mandate for cultural well-being? Answers were sought by undertaking an historical study of well-being and its long development on the international scene, then concentrating on KDC’s long term planning documents. An interview with the district’s Mayor about the practical application of cultural well-being and relationships with the regional museums, was offset with interviews conducted with representatives of each heritage organization about the reality of District Council/Museum interaction from their perspective. The research demonstrates that even without a definition, there was abundance of information available to form a good understanding of the concept. On the other hand, there was so much information that finding an encompassing definition for the term would be impossible. The research also demonstrates the difficulties that small authorities, with inadequate staffing and governance representatives, face when presented with a complex piece of legislation. Both Council and Museum representatives struggled to comprehend the meaning of cultural well-being but while KDC believed its response was sufficient, the regional Museums were not satisfied. This thesis argues that KDC falls short in meeting its cultural well-being responsibilities but there is much that the region’s iii museums can do themselves to improve the situation. The solution for Kaipara’s museums is transferable to every other museum in New Zealand that finds itself facing similar circumstances.

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  • The benefits of resistance training on blood lipid profile and body composition in Māori men : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Exercise and Sport Science, Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Coley, Karl William (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether 12 weeks of resistance training at time periods of three, 30 minute sessions per week would provide enough stimuli to reduce the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk of blood lipid profile and body composition in sedentary Māori (Indigenous New Zealanders) men. Methods: The study cohort consisted of a convenience sample of 16 Māori males aged 28 – 60y. Participants completed a resistance training intervention consisting of three 30 minute sessions per week for 12 weeks. Measures of pre- and post-BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), body composition and fasting lipids were made. Pre-, mid-, and post-intervention assessments of strength, aerobic fitness, body composition and blood composition were also undertaken. Exercise was controlled five days prior to the testing; whilst diet was restricted ~12 hours prior to blood tests. Results: Percentage body fat was significantly lower after the 12 week resistance training intervention (P<0.196) were not significantly different after completion of the intervention. Conclusions: This was the first study to investigate the effect of half hour resistance training bouts, three times per week on male Māori as a modality to alter their CVD risk profile. These findings support the hypothesis that resistance training can improve CVD risk profile through a change in body composition; namely a reduction in percentage body fat, increase in LBM, and a reduction in LDL-c. Although in this cohort this intervention has proved effective, further studies of larger populations are required to get a stronger level of significance.

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  • Application of flow cytometry for enumerating individual bacterial cultures from a mixed culture system : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Horváth, Kylie (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Cultured dairy products are often made with more than one microbial culture. Yoghurt requires the cultivation of several bacterial species for its production and the level of each is important for different reasons. Differential plate count methods to enumerate the separate species in yoghurt are not ideal because many of the bacteria used have similar growth profiles and plate counts take several days to produce a result. A fast specific method for enumerating each culture would be beneficial because quick results would enable tighter control of processing or experimental conditions and the ability to track individual species amongst a background of similar bacteria. Flow cytometry combined with fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FLOW-FISH) was investigated as a potential solution and successful enumeration was achieved within 1 day for a yoghurt microorganism, Streptococcus thermophilus (ST55), grown in M17 medium. This method may be improved to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to reduce the assay time. The chemical propidium monoazide enabled a closer match to plate counts for flow cytometry results using a total viable count assay and may be useful combined with the FLOW-FISH assay for removing non-viable or viable, but non-culturable, cells from the results. An enzyme and/or detergent pre-treatment may achieve successful FLOW-FISH enumeration of cells grown in reconstituted skim milk – a similar matrix to yoghurt.

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  • Comparing group-based interventions in older adults with subjective memory difficulties : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctorate in Clinical Psychology, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Sothieson, Veena (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The trend internationally and within New Zealand is of an increasing aging population, with numbers of those with dementia projected to increase rapidly. One way to address this issue is to consider the practical and clinical benefits of running memory intervention groups for older adults with memory difficulties/impairment. The current study intended to address some of the limitations found in memory intervention literature by (a) using a social control group as a control comparison, which has not been done before, and (b) separating out components of memory training interventions (i.e., memory strategies and lifestyle education). Therefore, the aim was to determine the extent to which receiving Memory intervention separately from a Lifestyle Education intervention would affect memory functioning in older adults with subjective memory difficulties, when compared with a social control condition. Participants for the intervention group were recruited from rest homes and retirement villages, while social control participants were community-dwelling older adults already taking part in weekly community group activities. A brief cognitive screen and subjective outcome measures were administered at baseline, post Phase 1, post Phase 2, and at six month follow-up. Quantitative and qualitative information from a total of 13 participants were analysed. Results from each of the outcome measures across the four time points indicated that there were no significant benefits of receiving Memory and/or Lifestyle Education interventions, when compared with a social control condition. However, a small sample size, non-equivalent groups, and lack of random assignment were some of the limitations which made it difficult to reach definite conclusions. Content analysis of qualitative information following intervention sessions provided some valuable considerations for running memory groups in future. In light of its limitations, the current study highlights practical considerations and recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, it identifies the value of conducting memory intervention research with older adults in residential care settings.

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  • Interaction within the therapeutic relationship : exploring the relationship between the music therapy practices of a music therapy student and the concepts used in intensive interaction : an exegesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy, Te Kōkī New Zealand School of Music, Wellington, New Zealand

    How, Shona Louise (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research project explores the relationship between the music therapy practices of a music therapy student and intensive interaction, a teaching model of communication used with children, young people and adults who experience challenges with learning and relating to others. Secondary analysis of clinical records (session notes and video footage) was used in this theoretical research, using both inductive and deductive methods of micro-analysis to explore the relationship between the two approaches. Themes included two relatively distinct forms of interactive communication – communication which predominantly used music and communication which used other modes. These two groups were then divided into further themes including: elements of music and improvisational musical techniques; visual cues; vocal activity; gestures and body language; movement activity and time/space. These themes were then correlated and compared with the corresponding features and descriptions of improvisational music therapy and intensive interaction. The findings suggest there is a relationship between the concepts used intensive interaction and the improvisational music therapy practices of the music therapy student; they both share features of the naturalistic processes of ‘infant-caregiver interactions’ within the elements of music, with both parties fine-tuning to one another’s rhythmic, melodic, textural and temporal nuances. However, improvisational or creative music therapy combines more complex usage of the elements of music including musical form, structure and texture to provide an interpersonal experience through a therapeutic relationship. That relationship is reliant on the music therapist’s sophisticated skills to combine emotion and music within the improvisational process. The strengths and limitations of the study are stated along with implications for training and further research in the field of music therapy and special education.

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  • Eating habits and nutrition attitudes among pregnant Chinese women in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutritional Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Ma, Jingjing (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Immigration to a Western country can lead to dietary changes among Chinese immigrants, which can cause poor diets and health problems. Chinese immigrants' eating habits might be influenced by both Western and traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) nutrition recommendations. These two nutrition recommendations point out eating and nutrition during pregnancy is crucial for both maternal and fetal health, and they provide suggestions on eating habits during pregnancy. The population of Chinese women of reproductive age in New Zealand has increased dramatically. Since there is a lack of evidence about the eating habits and nutrition attitudes of pregnant Chinese women in New Zealand, the current study investigates pregnant Chinese women's eating habits, attitudes towards both Western and TCM nutrition, and possible relations to acculturation. Pregnant Chinese women in New Zealand were recruited mainly via a Chinese website, communities, churches, and the “snow-ball” model. The immigrants' eating habits, attitudes towards Western and TCM nutrition recommendations, and acculturation were measured by an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 84 pregnant Chinese women, with a median age of 30.0 (95% CI 29.0 - 30.6). The participants' acculturation score was comparatively low (1.98 ± 0.592) compared with the theoretical score range (1.0 to 5.0). Regarding New Zealand nutrition recommendations, some of the findings cause concerns: (1) most of the participants did not meet the recommended intake of vegetables, cereals, and dairy food during pregnancy; (2) although a large proportion of the participants had positive attitudes towards recommended supplements and food for pregnancy, they did not follow the recommendations in practice, especially for the iodine supplements and food rich in iodine (e.g., bread and breakfast cereals). However, it is positive to find that: (1) most of the participants always consumed folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy; (2) a majority of the participants thought it was important for them to limit fat, salt, and sugar intake and most of them seldom or never eat food high in fat, sugar, and salt. A majority of the participants had positive attitudes towards TCM, including: (1) balancing cold and hot (or yin and yang) foods and adjusting their diets according to seasons or body constitutions; (2) eating less greasy food, eating more light food, and eating more spleen and stomach strengthening food. However, only a small proportion of participants had positive attitudes towards foods with specific TCM features and did not consume these foods no matter whether they are recommended by TCM nutrition for pregnancy or not. Meanwhile, a considerable proportion of the participants reported neutral attitudes towards caring and learning about nutrition and most of the TCM nutrition recommendations. Acculturation was positively associated with meeting the New Zealand recommended intake from food groups, but was not positively associated with other eating habits. Acculturation was not related to most nutrition attitudes. It was only positively associated with attitudes towards Western nutrition recommendations for pregnant women and their attitudes towards TCM nutrition recommendation for healthy eating for adults. In addition, there was a positive correlation between attitudes towards Western nutrition and TCM nutrition (p < 0.05). The above findings of the current study provide useful information for health professionals who work with Chinese immigrants in New Zealand. In particular, health professionals should help immigrants to consume sufficient servings of foods and understand the importance of consuming iodine supplements during pregnancy. Additionally, it might be helpful for health professionals to be familiar with overall TCM nutrition recommendations.

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  • Chicory (Cichorium intybus) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata); physiological and morphological responses to water stress, defoliation, and grazing preference with implications for the management of the Herb and Legume Mix : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Plant Science, Massey University, Te Kunenga ki Pūrehuroa, New Zealand

    Cranston, Lydia Margaret (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Herb and legume sward mixes containing chicory (Cichorium intybus), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and white clover (T. repens) are being increasingly used by farmers to improve animal performance compared to perennial ryegrass and white clover swards. However, little is known about the agronomic properties of this Herb and Legume Mix. The objectives of this research were to examine key factors likely to affect the success of the Herb and Legume Mix as a perennial sward mix. This thesis included a series of glasshouse experiments, a grazing experiment (examining plant parameters and animal grazing preference) and a mowing experiment. The glasshouse experiments indicated that chicory and plantain have different strategies for coping with moisture stress. The results suggest plantain may be more productive under moderate drought due to its greater shoot mass fraction, whereas chicory may be more productive and persistent under severe drought due to its greater root mass and taproot diameter. The Herb and Legume Mix accumulated greater annual dry matter when removed under Hard grazing (post-grazing residual of 4cm) compared to Lax grazing (post-grazing residual of 8cm). Hard grazing favoured plantain growth and persistence, while Lax grazing favoured red clover growth and resulted in chicory with a larger taproot diameter. It was concluded that grazing management decisions should be determined by ensuring optimal management of chicory. Ewe lambs displayed grazing preference for species within the Herb and Legume Mix; however this varied between seasons and was affected by the species availability, vertical access and palatability. The Herb and Legume Mix had a greater herbage nutritive value than the ryegrass and white clover sward and had a more stable composition over time than pure swards of chicory and plantain under a wide range of defoliation regimes. The results suggest the Herb and Legume Mix might be a more flexible perennial forage option than pure swards of chicory and plantain. Overall the results of this thesis indicated that the Herb and Legume Mix can be successfully utilised in most New Zealand grazing systems as a perennial forage sward.

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  • Improving the response to synchronisation programmes of dairy cattle : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Sahu, Santosh Kumar (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    A gonadotrophin, prostaglandin, gonadotrophin + progesterone (GPG+P4) programme with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) is the current recommended synchronisation programme for both heifers and anoestrous cows on New Zealand dairy farms. However, it is an expensive programme and a better understanding of the role of all of its components would be very useful in developing alternative cheaper programmes. The two components of the programme that are the least understood, in terms of their underlying physiological actions and how they influence the outcome of synchronisation, are the Day 0 gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) injection and the progesterone device. Additionally it is well known that energy status has a significant impact on fertility but there is little evidence, particularly under New Zealand conditions, of how energy status affects the response to GPG-based treatments in anoestrous postpartum dairy cows. The effects of a GPG (Day 0: 100 µg GnRH, Day 7: 500 µg PGF2a, Day 9: 100 µg GnRH) programme upon follicular and luteal dynamics, ovulation synchronisation and patterns of oestradiol and progesterone secretion in postpartum anoestrous dairy cows and nulliparous dairy heifers were compared with (i) a GPG programme plus a progesterone insert from Days 0–7 (GPG+P4) and (ii) a GPG+P4 programme from which the first GnRH treatment had been omitted (P+G+P4). Interactions of each treatment with energy balance, as determined by NEFA, IGF-I and insulin concentrations, were also studied in postpartum anoestrus cattle. Finally the conception rate (CR) to fixed time AI of a GPG+P4 programme in which AI was done concurrent with the Day 9 GnRH injection (Cosynch) was compared with a progesterone + prostaglandin programme (P4+PG; Day 0–7: progesterone releasing intravaginal device, morning of Day 6: 500 µg PGF2a, afternoon of Day 9: FTAI) in heifers. The physiological effects of the GPG and the GPG+P4 programmes were similar in anoestrous dairy cows. The inclusion of the Day 0 GnRH still appeared feasible in a GPG programme for treating anoestrous cows as it led to a higher probability of a corpus luteum (CL) on Day 7. In addition, treatment response was significantly affected by the postpartum duration and negative energy balance as evidenced by the significantly higher NEFA concentrations on Days 0, 7 and 9, and a lower insulin concentration on Day 0, in cows that failed to ovulate in response to the synchronisation protocol compared with cows that did ovulate. A clear and significant relationship between NEFA concentrations and ovulation in response to all synchronisation protocols showed that, regardless of the regimen that was used to treat anoestrus, the response was moderated and limited by the degree of negative energy balance. In heifers, the removal of the progesterone-releasing device from a GPG+P4 programme had no effect on follicular dynamics or on the proportion of heifers which ovulated after either the GnRH injection on Day 0 or Day 9. Additionally, unlike the anoestrus cows, omitting the GnRH injection on Day 0 did not result in significantly delayed ovulation at the end of the programme, inasmuch as treatment with P+G+P4 was associated with earlier ovulation than GPG. Furthermore, synchronising heifers with a significantly less expensive programme (P4+PG) resulted in similar CR to synchronising with GPG+P4 (54.8% versus 52.4%, respectively) further confirming that Day 0 GnRH was not essential in heifer synchrony. In conclusion, the higher conception rate in cows treated with a GPG+P4 programme rather than a GPG programme reported previously does not seem to be modulated by the actions on follicular dynamics and improved synchronised ovulation in dairy cattle with postpartum anoestrous (or in nulliparous heifers); however, the treatment response in anoestrous cows can be significantly affected by negative energy balance. In contrast, in dairy heifers, no benefit of Day 0 GnRH or the progesterone device in a GPG+P4 programme suggests the possibility of more cost effective options (e.g. P4+PG) which can lead to a CR as high as those synchronised using a GPG+P4 programme.

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  • Population kinetics across the Indo-Pacific region : submitted in fulfillment of a Masters in Philosophy, Massey University, New Zealand

    Aliev, Aydar (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    No abstract. The following is taken from the outline: The Pacific region provides a natural system to study complex admixture. From a broad perspective, there were two waves of settlement; the first 45,000 years ago (Melanesian), and the second, approximately 5,000 years ago (Asian) [1]. According to recent research, Asian ancestry does not decline gradually across Island Southeast Asia, but instead dramatically decreases, forming a cline [2]. There are several hypotheses explaining why there is a drastic, but not gradual, change in genetic ancestry proportions (Asian to Melanesian) across the region. One of these is a steep change in environmental conditions in Eastern Indonesia, which complicates rice cultivation [3]. Another explanation can be the switch from matri- to patriarchal social systems [4]. The main goal of this project is to explore demographic factors, such as migration and selection, to see if they can explain the genetic ancestry distribution. The main theoretical question that I will answer is: what is the reason behind the steep change in genetic ancestry proportion across eastern Indonesia? One of the reasons behind this could be cultural selection, although selection is just a hypothesis and the process might be selectively neutral. Anthropological data from the region are quite sparse, and this leads to the second goal of the project: to infer the history of modern Pacific populations using genetic data.

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  • Measurement of true ileal phosphorus digestibility in feed ingredients for poultry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Poultry Science at Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences (IVABS), Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Mutucumarana, Ruvini Kamalika (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Global interest in improving the utilisation of phosphorus (P) by poultry has recently increased due to concerns over environmental pollution through excess P excretion, depletion of non-renewable inorganic phosphate deposits, and increasing price of inorganic phosphate supplements. Use of a sound criterion, preferably based on P digestibility, to assess P availability is needed to enable greater efficiency of utilisation of dietary P. No established methodology is currently available to measure the true digestible P contents in common feed ingredients for poultry. The first experiment of this thesis (Chapter 3) investigated the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) concentrations (6, 9 and 12 g/kg) on the digestibility of P, Ca, nitrogen, fat and starch in different intestinal segments and on the apparent metabolisable energy of diets in young broiler chickens. The results showed that the digestion of P and Ca was completed by upper ileum and jejunum, respectively. The site of digestion of P and nitrogen was found to shift depending on the dietary Ca concentrations. The digestibility coefficients of P in low, normal and high Ca diets at the lower ileum were determined to be 0.417, 0.379 and 0.325, respectively. The overall data showed that increasing dietary Ca concentrations negatively influenced the digestion of P, nitrogen and fat, but had no effect on those of Ca, starch and apparent metabolisable energy. The second experiment (Chapter 4) was conducted to determine endogenous losses of P and Ca in broiler chickens. The data showed that the ileal endogenous P losses in birds differed depending on the methodology employed. The ileal endogenous flow of P in birds fed P-free, gelatin-based and casein-based diets were 25, 104 and 438 mg/kg dry matter intake (DMI), respectively. Ileal endogenous flow of Ca in birds fed casein-based diet was estimated to be 321 mg/kg DMI. The next three experiments (Chapters 5, 6 and 7) investigated the potential usefulness of regression method to evaluate true ileal P digestibility of seven feed ingredients. True ileal P digestibility coefficients of maize, canola meal, wheat, sorghum, soybean meal and maize-distiller‟s dried grains with solubles for broiler chickens were determined to be 0.676, 0.469, 0.464, 0.331, 0.798 and 0.727, respectively. For plant-based ingredients, the determined true digestible P values were consistently higher than corresponding non-phytate P values (Maize, 1.72 vs. 0.75; canola meal, 4.55 vs. 2.82; wheat, 1.49 vs. 1.11; sorghum, 0.78 vs. 0.55; soybean meal, 5.16 vs. 2.15; maize-distiller‟s dried grains with solubles, 5.94 vs. 4.36 g/kg, as fed ii basis, respectively). Phytate P in maize (54.25%), soybean meal (69.7%) and maize- distiller‟s dried grains with solubles (41.5%) were well digested by broilers compared to canola meal (25.2%), wheat (18.1%) and sorghum (13.0%). True ileal P digestibility coefficients of three meat and bone meal (MBM) samples ranged from 0.420 to 0.693. Total and true digestible P contents of three MBM samples (MBM-1, MBM-2 and MBM-3) were determined to be 37.5 and 26.0; 60.2 and 36.6; and 59.8 and 25.1 g/kg, as fed basis, respectively, suggesting that P in MBM is not highly digestible. The overall data suggested that the use of regression approach to estimate true ileal P digestibility in feed ingredients has number of limitations. Overestimation as a result of using Ca- and P-deficient diets and the negative endogenous P losses observed for some ingredients (canola meal, sorghum and MBM-3) were main concerns. Negative ileal endogenous P losses were also shown to be associated with low true ileal P digestibility in these ingredients. In the final experiment (Chapter 8), two regression-based methodologies were compared for the measurement of true ileal P digestibility in maize and soybean meal. The results showed that the methodology influenced P digestibility in maize and soybean meal. The use of assay diets containing a narrow Ca:total P ratio yielded higher P digestibility for both ingredients. In this thesis research, the regression method was used to determine true ileal P digestibility of ingredients, but this approach suffers from several drawbacks. The data reported in this thesis also demonstrated that high dietary Ca concentrations were detrimental to the digestibility of nutrients, particularly of P, nitrogen and fat.

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  • The effect of applications of different nitrogen types and potassium on seed quality and AR37 endophyte presence at different spikelet and floret positions of perennial ryegrass cv. Halo

    Wang, Muyu (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Nitrogen has been considered as an important nutrient in the terrestrial system. In the seed production of ryegrasses, one of the most popular pastures used in New Zealand and other temperate-zone areas, the application of nitrogen is responsible for improving seed yield and seed quality. Novel fungal endophytes are also now commonly used in perennial ryegrass pasture systems. The effect of different forms of nitrogen on seed quality and endophyte infection frequency and alkaloid concentration including spikelet/floret positional effects is also of interest to researchers. This study was designed to determine the effects of three nitrogen forms and potassium treatments (six in total) on the seed quality (purity, thousand seed weight (TSW), and germination) and AR37 endophyte presence in the offspring seedlings of the perennial ryegrass cv. Halo at three spikelet positions (top, middle and bottom). Also the effect of two nitrogen forms (nitrate and ammonium) at different floret positions was investigated. The two nitrogen forms (urea and nitrate) with potassium had a poorer seed quality compared with the control and all nitrogen treatments applied without potassium. Nitrogen application (any form by itself) did not affect TSW of ‘Halo’, but a reduction was found under urea or nitrate with potassium. Also, seed germination percentages were not affected by nitrogen type when compared with the control, but urea with potassium gave a lower germination than the three nitrogen forms alone; and nitrate with potassium was lower than just the urea treatment. In the purity test, urea applied alone had a higher pure seed percentage than the control and the other nitrogen forms applied alone, but, again, the nitrogen with potassium application had the poorest performance in the test. On the other hand, none of these seed quality parameters differed among the three spikelet positions (top, middle and bottom). Both nitrogen and potassium application and different spikelet positions did not affect endophyte content in the offspring seedlings of ‘Halo’.In the minor experiment, where seven floret positions and only two nitrogen forms (ammonium (NH4+)and nitrate (NO3-)) were compared, the individual seed weights of Halo in florets3, 4, and 7 under nitrate application were higher than that under ammonium. The seed weight in floret 7 wasthe only position lower than floret 1 and 2 when ammonium was applied. The germination percentages were not affected by the two nitrogen forms, nor were different floret positions. Further, nitrogen application also did not alter empty seed percentages (in frequency), but the basal florets produced less empty seeds. Differences in endophyte content between ammonium and nitrate applications were found only in floret position 1 where nitrate reduced endophyte. Also amongst florets under nitrate there was higher endophyte content in floret positions 2, 4 and 7.

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