23,243 results for Thesis

  • New Zealand defence acquisition decision making: politics and processes

    Greener, Peter (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The spectre of block obsolescence of major weapons platforms loomed throughout the 1980s, facing successive governments with significant challenges as they worked to make sustainable decisions on replacement or upgraded equipment for the New Zealand Defence Force. This thesis identifies the critical factors that have shaped and influenced defence acquisition decision-making processes from the election of the Fourth Labour Government in 1984 and the subsequent ANZUS crisis, through to the events of 9/11 and the following 'war on terror'. The thesis explores and analyses decision-making processes in relation to six acquisition decisions which have been made over a twenty year period. These are the decisions on the ANZAC frigates; the military sealift ship HMNZS Charles Upham; the second and third decisions on the ANZACS; the lease of the F-l6 strike aircraft; the upgrading of the P-3C Orion maritime patrol aircraft; and the purchase of armoured vehicles for the Army - the LAV IIIs. A model of decision-making processes is developed and evaluated in order to undertake the analysis, with the model demonstrating its utility in analysing complex processes throughout the course of the thesis. From here the thesis concludes that whilst many factors are brought to bear, New Zealand's own view of the world, external relationships, and the timing of decisions are amongst the most significant elements impacting on the decision making process, whilst individual actors play a significant part in shaping the process. Although there has been a great deal of publicity in recent years about rivalry between the Services and the place of bureaucratic politics, it nevertheless is apparent that officials have continued to work with rigour over time to provide the best judgement and advice possible to Ministers. Three out of six of the case studies which have been analysed, the ANZAC frigates, the upgrade of the P-3 Orions and the LAV III, have been or are in the process of successful implementation. In each case officials have worked to ensure that they provided the Government of the day with the most appropriate advice upon which to base decisions, although that advice has not always been popular. The analysis of each case study demonstrates key aspects of the decision-making process providing specific insights into the way defence decisions are made.

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  • More than wives?: a study of four Church Missionary Society wives in nineteenth century New Zealand

    Ross, Catherine R. (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This is a study of four Church Missionary Society (CMS) wives in New Zealand in the nineteenth century. The women are Charlotte Brown (nde Arnett), Anne Wilson (nee Hawker), Elizabeth Colenso (n6e Fairburn) and Catherine Hadfield (nde Williams). My thesis is that these women who were regarded by the CMS as adjuncts to their husbands were in fact "more than wives." Until recently women, especially wiveso have been virtually invisible in the history of mission. If we train a camera lens back through history we find that the women have been shadowy figures, blurred at the edges so this thesis is an attempt to refocus the camera and to train the lens on these women It brings their lives and experiences into focus and asks certain questions of and about them. A narrative approach is used in collating the lives and stories of these four women. The work begins by surveying the range of literature available on Protestant women in mission in the nineteenth century. This introductory chapter also examines and discusses Dana Robertos framework of the model Christian home as a conscious and intentional paradigm for mission. The next chapter considers and reflects on the British evangelical context which shaped the background and worldview of these women. The chapters on each of the women bring their lives into focus and out of invisibility by asking new analytical questions. These chapters examine whether these women had their own vocation for missionary service and whether they could fulfil this as a missionary wife. They look at how these women understood their role and calling and what kind of work they were involved in and consider to what extent each woman served as an active missionary in her own right and not just as an adjunct to her husband. These chapters also reflect on what we learn from their daily lives and routines that provides a more holistic understandlng of missionary life and service during this period. The thesis concludes by considering how far the model Christian home was a rationale for mission service for these four women and to what extent they were "more than wives."

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  • The Binding capacity of albumin and renal disease

    Dromgoole, Sydney Herbert (1973)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The capacity of albumin to bind the anionic dye, methyl orange, was determined in normal volunteers, in patients with renal failure and in patients after kidney transplantation in an attempt to elucidate the cause of the observed decreased albumin binding capacity for various drug and dye molecules in these patients. Binding studies were determined at 25°C, in a physiological bicarbonate carbon dioxide buffer system, ionic strength 0.15, using ultrafiltration and gel filtration techniques. Patients with renal failure bad lower albumin binding capacities than the normal volunteers and this reduction was generally unrelated to the degree of renal failure. The order of binding capacity being: patients with acute and chronic renal failure > patients before haemodialysis > patients after kidney transplantation > patients after haemodialysis. This reduction in binding was reflected in the downward displacement of the binding curves of pooled sera of each of the above groups of patients compared to that of normal volunteers. Each binding curve was analysed in terms of three classes of binding sites, and the reduced binding appeared to be due to an alteration in the n and K binding parameters of the intermediate class of sites. The reduced binding after dialysis was shown to be caused by competition by the temporarily increased concentration of non-esterified fatty acids as a result of lipoprotein-lipase activation by heparin administered during haemodialysis. The cause of the decreased binding of the other sera was not apparent, but could have been due to drug or metabolic product competition for the dye binding sites or due to a conformational change in the albumin molecule. The significance of this decreased binding capacity in relation to drug therapy in these patients is discussed.

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  • Daz sint noch ungelogeniu wort: a literary and linguistic commentary on the Gurnemanz episode in Book iii of Wolfram’s Parzival (161,9-179,12)

    Gilmour, Simon Julian (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The present work is a detailed study of the Gurnemanz Episode in Wolfram von Eschenbach’s Parzival. Its main body encompasses a commentary on the Gurnemanz episode of Wolfram’s work. The intention of the commentary is o provide exact and comprehensive information and discussion on aspects of the text that could cause the reader difficulty, or to enhance his/ her appreciation of the text and the context in which it had its genesis. The commentary follows the principle of analysing from large to small. The largest section encompasses a chapter of the thesis, the smallest an individual word. Each of the five chapters is introduced by a literary interpretation which encompasses, among other aspects such as themes, motifs, plot and character development, structure, and a comparison between Wolfram’s text and that of his source, Chrétien de Troyes’s Perceval. Then a closer examination of smaller units of the text takes place. This includes principally the analysis of Wolfram's use of language and his style. The commentary is introduced by a discussion of the commentary form and the theoretical basis which this work follows, and concluded by a short evaluation. All important secondary literature which appeared before 1997 and was available to the author has been considered for this work. Furthermore, this thesis is appended with an article in German that deals with the possibility of reading Parzival 652,10 and 173,3 with the less favoured MS G readings. This article bears the fruit of the discussion needed to comment on the MS G reading at 173,3, and is soon to be published in the periodical Euphorion. A fold-out copy of the Parzival text for each chapter is found inside the back cover.

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  • Status epilepticus: mechanisms of generation and associated neuropathology

    Young, Deborah (1996)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Status epilepticus (SE) is a prolonged and dangerous epileptic condition that can cause brain damage and may be one of the predisposing factors for the subsequent development of temporal lobe epilepsy. In this thesis, I investigate causes of SE as well as the receptors maintaining seizures and the associated neuropathological changes (cell death, sprouting) that occur in SE brain. An unequivocal role for a defect in either excitatory and inhibitory systems in SE generation has not been established. An alternative approach to unravelling the causes of SE may be to investigate whether an impairment of endogenous seizure termination mechanisms, likely to be mediated by adenosine may lead to SE development. The findings that specific A1-adenosine receptor antagonists with a central site of action were able to transform brief electrically-induced seizures into SE, while co-administration of specific A1-adenosine receptor agonists blocked this effect supports this hypothesis. Pertussis toxin-treated animals also developed SE after elicitation of a seizure suggesting inactivation of Gi-protein linked receptors are involved in SE development. Although GABAB and 5HT1A receptors are also coupled to the same subset of anticonvulsant K+ channels as the A1-adenosine receptor, antagonists at these receptors could not transform brief seizures into SE following seizure elicitation, although a GABAB, agonist had anticonvulsant effects. While chemically-induced SE models suggest that glutamatergic and cholinergic mechanisms are involved in SE initiation and maintenance, whether similar receptor mechanisms operate to initiate and maintain electrically-induced SE are unclear. Using specific antagonists of muscarinic and glutamate receptors, I have shown that NMDA receptors and possibly AMPA/kainate receptors are involved in the initiation of electrically-induced SE. AMPA/kainate receptors may be predominantly involved in maintaining SE, although NMDA receptors may sustain seizures in neocortical regions. Muscarinic and metabotropic glutamate receptors do not appear to have a role in initiation and maintenance of electrically-induced SE. Distinct neuropathological features associated with SE including cell loss and morphological changes in the hippocampus were observed. As early as six days after SE, selective damage to hippocampal neurons in the hilus, CA1 and CA3 pyramidal regions and interneurons immunoreactive for parvalbumin and somatostatin were observed after SE in the absence and presence of the A1-adenosine receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-l, 3-dimethylxanthine (8-CPT). Seizure severity generated in the presence of 8-CPT is likely to account for the increased neuronal damage found in this model. Other changes included increases in selected GABAA receptor subunit (α1, α2, β2/β3 and γ2) immunoreactivity in the dentate granule cell and molecular layer of the hippocampus suggesting the possible increased formation of GABAA receptors with the subunit configurations α1,β2,γ2 and α1,β3,γ2. Neuronal injury was also accompanied by reactive gliosis and microglial proliferation and astrocytic expression of the growth factors basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Long-term sequelae of SE-induced hippocampal damage such as the appearance of spontaneous seizures in the animals and synaptic reorganisation in the supragranular layer of the dentate gyrus were found 1-2 months after SE. The sprouting response was associated with an increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) immunoreactivity in dentate granule cells and mossy fibre axons 1 and 2 months after SE. A BDNF and clusterin-immunoreactive band was also present in the supragranular layer at 2 months, suggesting these molecules may be involved in mediating the sprouting response. BDNF immunoreactivity was also present in mossy fibre axons in normal and epileptic human hippocampi but was only present in the inner molecular layer in epileptic tissue. In conclusion, the results in this thesis provide some new insights into possible mechanisms of SE development and associated neuropathological changes, which may be applicable to that found in humans.

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  • Chemical and microbial transformations of some lanosterol derivatives

    Bartley, John Peter (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Attempts have been made to transform lanosterol, by both chemical and microbial means, into compounds of potential pharmacological importance. In part I some compounds with heterocyclic rings (pyrazoles, isoxazoles, and furazans) fused to ring-A have been synthesized by chemical methods. These have been tested for cytotoxic properties against lymphoid leukemia L-1210. The equilibria and n.m.r. spectra of some formyl ketones have also been studied. In part II attempts have been made to oxidize some lanosterol derivatives with microbial cultures in pursuit of synthetically useful intermediates. 3β-Hydroxy-11-keto-4, 4, 14α-trimethyl-5α-chol-8-enic acid methyl ester (35e) has been synthesized from lanosterol and transformed by Trichotecium roseum to a dihydroxy-5α-cholenic acid derivative. Extensive chemical transformations have been carried out on lanosterol to prepare substrates for microbial transformation. In particular a new efficient method for the mild degradation of the lanosterol side chain to a 17β-acetyl group has been developed.

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  • Therapeutic potential of neural progenitor cell transplantation in a rat model of Huntington’s Disease

    Vazey, Elena Maria (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Huntington’s disease [HD] is a debilitating adult onset inherited neurodegenerative disorder with primary degeneration in the striatum and widespread secondary degeneration throughout the brain. There are currently no clinical treatments to prevent onset, delay progression or replace lost neurons. Striatal cell transplantation strategies under clinical evaluation appear viable and effective for the treatment of HD. However, the future of regenerative medicine lies in developing renewable, expandable multipotent neural cell sources for transplantation. This Thesis has investigated a range of novel developments for enhancing the therapeutic potential of neural progenitor cell transplantation in a quinolinic acid [QA] lesion rat model of HD using two cell sources, adult neural progenitor cells and human embryonic stem cell [hESC] derived neural progenitor cells. Chapter Three identified a novel method for in vitro lithium priming of adult neural progenitor cells which enhances their neurogenic potential at the expense of glial formation. Chapter Four demonstrated that lithium priming of adult neural progenitor cells altered their phenotypic fate in vivo after transplantation, enhancing regional specific differentiation and efferent projection formation. The therapeutic potential of this strategy was demonstrated by accelerated acquisition of motor function benefits in the QA model. Chapter Five then demonstrated the ability for post transplantation environmental enrichment to modify therapeutic functional outcomes in the QA lesion model, and through lithium priming and enrichment demonstrated that adult neural progenitors are amenable to combinatorial interventions which can alter their phenotypic fate and enhance anatomical integration. Chapter Six investigated the in vivo effects of in vitro noggin priming of hESC derived neural progenitor cells and identified enhanced safety and neuronal differentiation in the QA lesioned striatum after noggin priming. Furthermore Chapter Seven provided evidence for functional reconstruction and therapeutic functional benefits from transplantation of noggin primed hESC derived neural progenitor cells and also highlighted the need for systematic evaluations of hESC derived transplants to optimise their safety in vivo. These results are beneficial in demonstrating the realistic therapeutic potential held by these two cell sources. They demonstrate how transient interventions can enhance therapeutic outcomes of neural progenitor cell transplantation for HD and have developed the understanding of neural progenitor cell transplantation as a therapeutic tool, bringing transplantation from different cell sources closer to eventual translation for HD sufferers.

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  • The Embedded Faith Journeys of Generations X and Y within New Zealand Church Communities

    Johnstone, Carlton Graeme (2008)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Whole document restricted, see Access Instructions file below for details of how to access the print copy. Generations X and Y have been described as constituting a ‘black hole’ in congregational life. The literature emphasises that generations X and Y are interested in spirituality but not institutional religion. There is now a substantial body of literature arguing that generations X and Y find churches ‘irrelevant’, ‘absent of God’, ‘too rigid’, and ‘laughably out of touch’ with their lives. This thesis argues that generational accounts of religion often fail to make an important distinction between the churched and unchurched in relation to generational distinctiveness. This is a distinction often drawn by sociologists of religion, pointing to two quite different cultures, one communally orientated towards faith communities and the other orientated towards personal freedom and a privatised spiritual quest. Generations X and Y in this thesis refer to a generational unit who share a particular type of faith: owned and embedded within a church community. Employing a methodological approach of in-depth religious life story interviews this thesis is a sociological investigation into the way Christian faith journeys of GenX and GenY are embedded within New Zealand church communities. It is argued that their faith does not make sense outside of this embeddedness. Embedded faith provides a framework for making sense of the participants’ religious biographies. Embedded faith is contrasted to a more privatised understanding of faith and religion popular within sociology of religion. The active dimension of embedded faith is demonstrated through an exploration of modes of engagement with worship and preaching. This thesis builds upon qualitative studies that continue to demonstrate the salience of the collective act of religious involvement and social belonging. One of the challenges of embedded faith however, is finding a church to embed it within. This thesis provides understanding and insight into the relationship between embedded faith and church switching. It explores the way that church switching is an intentional act of disembedding and re-embedding faith and the reasons for this practice.

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  • Torrent of Portyngale: a critical edition

    Montgomery, Keith David (2009)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Torrent of Portyngale is a late medieval romance, preserved in a single manuscript, MS Chetham’s 8009. It is a complex mix of romance themes: adventure, loss and restoration, family and social status, piety and hypocrisy, woven around the love between Torrent, the orphaned son of a Portuguese earl, and Desonell, heir to the throne of Portugal. Cohesion to so wide a range of thematic material comes from the author’s careful elucidation of the religious and moral significance of the text’s events. While popular literature with a didactic purpose is not uncommon in medieval literature and elsewhere in romance (cf. Sir Amadace), modern criticism has failed to fully appreciate the purposeful combination of the two in Torrent of Portyngale. Torrent is perhaps the most critically neglected member of the Middle English verse romances. This is, in part, due to the state of the text, which suffers from extensive scribal corruption. The first modern edition, by James Halliwell (1842), was also careless and did little to create a good impression. The poem’s most recent editor, Eric Adam (1887), appreciated the shortcomings of Halliwell’s work and sought to restore Torrent. He incorporated evidence from fragmentary early prints of the text and drew on the fruits of nineteenth–century romance scholarship. Despite his good editorial intentions, however, it is now clear that he also made errors and editorial decisions that have coloured the way in which Torrent has been viewed since. The substantial body of twentieth and twenty–first century scholarship on Middle English romance and medieval studies in general has diminished the value of Adam’s edition to the point where it may be regarded as obsolete and a new edition long overdue. This fresh edition of Torrent has been prepared from microfilm of the manuscript. It re–examines the text’s phonology, morphology, syntax, dialect and vocabulary, to indentify and evaluate overlooked clues to help answer such fundamental questions as its date (scholars have dated it from the mid– fourteenth century to the first half of the fifteenth century) and provenance (it has been mapped from East Anglia to South Lancashire). Both the unflattering reputation that Torrent of Portyngale has gathered in modern times and the long–held notion that it is lacking in originality are challenged by the thorough re–examination of the state of the text, its scribes and their practices and evaluating them against prior and current romance scholarship. This new analysis provides a window through which Torrent can be viewed and valued as a product of its time, allowing it to be judged more accurately against its contemporaries and offering many new insights into a text that was clearly once popular.

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  • Computer modelling of reinjection in geothermal fields

    Kaya, Eylem (2010)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis describes a computer modelling study of reinjection into geothermal systems. The aim of this work was to decide on optimum reinjection strategies for various types of geothermal systems. First an idealized 3D closed model used by Sigurdsson et al. (1995) is extended to examine the effect of the natural recharge from groundwater, from the basement and laterally from the boundaries of the system. The results show that injection increases steam flow if recharge is small because the reservoir is acting as a closed system, or if the caprock is permeable and allows groundwater recharge. Otherwise injection may cause a decrease in steam production by suppressing hot recharge from depth or replacing lateral recharge by colder injected water. For hot-water reservoirs the effect of different well configurations on the production performance is examined with a model of the East Mesa field and the results show that deep far-infield reinjection provides an optimum strategy that supports reservoir pressures without causing an early thermal breakthrough. The impacts of different rates of infield and outfield reinjection on two-phase liquid-dominated reservoirs are investigated by using a model of Wairakei- Tauhara. The results show that outfield reinjection is a safe method for disposing of water. A high rate of infield reinjection prevents boiling in the reservoir and causes a drop in the production enthalpies. A significant decline occurs in the surface features which are close to the injection zones. Reinjection infield of 25% of the separated geothermal water appears to be a good strategy since it does not cause a significant pressure or temperature decrease. For two-phase vapour-dominated reservoirs reinjection impacts on steam production are investigated by using a model of Darajat. Investigation of various production/reinjection schemes show that; reinjecting 50% of the condensate above the production zones increases steam production significantly. However for higher reinjection rates, the steam production rate may decline owing to the breakthrough of cold reinjected water. If the production zones are deeper, reinjection is much more beneficial. Introducing a larger number of production and reinjection wells scattered throughout the field increases the reservoir life.

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  • Influences on Midwifery Practice for the Management of Women in Labour

    Freeman, Lesa Maree (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The research comprises a series of three studies to explore the practice of midwives ascertain what factors influenced midwives' decision making during the management of labour, and the partnership relationship between the midwife and the woman. A cross sectional design was employed using the predominant methods of interview, questionnaires and thinking aloud tape recordings as triangulation of data. Sample size comprised 104 independent, team and hospital based midwives who were providing labour care to 100 low obstetric risk nulliparous women in the Auckland metropolitan area, New Zealand. Results of this research identified that numerous factors both intrinsically and extrinsically had the potential to influence midwifery practice. The practice of the midwives in providing the labour care was found to be relatively homogenous despite the style of care provided (independent, team, or hospital based). On the other hand, the setting in which the majority of midwives practised (mainly large obstetric hospitals) identified practice influenced by the medical model of care. The influence of technology and the medical model of care, however, did not impact on the women working in partnership with the midwives. This was found to have occurred because the midwives adopted a humanistic approach to care, utilising technology alongside relationship-centred care. In determining what influenced midwives working in partnership with women, it was found that little emphasis was placed on the need for the midwives and the women to have equal status in decision making. Also, it was not deemed essential to have continuity of carer to achieve a relationship of partnership. Birth plans were found to be a beneficial tool for the sharing of information and structuring discussion. However, to assist women to express their preferences and be involved in the decision making process it is proposed that this could be achieved through a conceptual model of shared decision making. This shared decision making model meets the core objectives outlined in Changing Childbirth of continuity, choice, and control, and provides a partnership framework for midwives and women to recognise and utilise differences in their experience and knowledge to achieve their aims.

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  • Sponge lipids

    Lawson, Mishelle Patrice (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The fatty acid content of 30 species of Porifera, including samples of Hexactinellida and Lithistida for which no fatty acid data previously existed, have been examined. Sponges are unique among animal phyla in diversity of fatty acids with generally high levels of LCFAs (C24-30), high unsaturation (mainly polyunsaturation), and high incidence of branched and odd chain fatty acids. Further, peculiarities in the proportions of individual acids of particular chain lengths distinguish the phylum. Hexactinellid fatty acid traits corresponded closely to those of Demospongiae while the calcareous species was atypical in exhibiting comparatively low levels of LCFAs and unsaturation. Seasonal and geographical influences on components of the fatty acid profile limit the extent to which this information can be utilised in a chemotaxonomic sense. The major trends in seasonal variation of fatty acid content were in an increase in the levels of unsaturated fatty acids and a decrease in the levels of LCFAs during winter. The effects were less pronounced in a subtidal than intertidal species and are considered to be related to environmental temperature. LCFAs predominated in the phospholipids but also were present in high amounts in neutral lipids. The major changes in fatty acid content of the total lipid with season were reflected in the fatty acids of the phospholipids. Also, LCFAs were concentrated in cellular membranes of the sponge. Temperature-induced seasonal changes in LCFA and UFA composition could be explained as an attempt to maintain .the membranes from which these acids originate, in an optimal state of physico-chemical function across the environmental temperature range. This interpretation is supported by observation of an increased content of higher melting point lipids in the sponge in summer. The sensitivity of sponge membranes to temperature was demonstrated by thermal-induction of phase separations in membrane lipids. A major phase separation in both isolated lipids and membranes occurred within a ca. 8 °C of the normal growth temperature range of the sponge. It indicated that membrane lipids exist in a fluid state in the living sponge so that any variation in environmental temperature would affect the lipid fluidity of the membrane and hence physiological membrane processes. This also lends support for some control being exerted on the lipid fluidity of sponge membranes. Any such control must be non-behavioural since sponges are poikilotherms. Minor changes in the proportions of different phospholipids with season were indicated and are also likely to affect the physical properties of membranes which contain them. In general, the lipid yield from sponges as a proportion of the total dry weight is highly dependent on the skeletal composition, specifically the ratio of the structural to living tissue. Therefore lipid yield is not a reliable parameter for classifying sponges. The occurrence of terpenoid metabolites has proved more informative taxonomically and characterised those groups with a low sterol content, e.g. Dictyoceratida. A coincidence of occurrence of terpenoids and high levels of C25 of fatty acids was noted.

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  • Ecology and Conservation of The Ouvea Parakeet, Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis (Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia)

    Robinet, Olivier Louis (1997)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The Ouvea Parakeet Eunymphicus cornutus uvaeensis, is an endangered bird endemic to Ouvea, Loyalty Islands, in the New Caledonian archipelago. Its population is estimated to be 300-600 birds, mainly in patches of forest in the north, with few parakeets in the centre and the south of the island. Its main habitat is high forest mixed with Melanesian fields. Within habitat distribution is very patchy, with an apparent site attachment during the breeding season. Radio tracking revealed that the home range of juveniles was small, and no dispersal was observed. The diet of the parakeets comprises the seeds and fruits of more than 23 plant species, including Ficus spp., Carica papaya and Rhamnella vitiensis. These plants have a long and asynchronous fruiting season, leading to an apparent abundance of food during the year. The number of breeding pairs was correlated with the density of potential nest sites in the three study areas, suggesting a nest site limitation. The length of the breeding season (August until January) allows the occurrence of double clutches. The parakeets nest in secondary cavities of only five species of trees (90% n Syzygium pseudopinnatum and Mimusops elengii). The clutch size is 2.9 eggs (range 2-4), of which on average 2.6 chicks hatch, 1.65 fledge, but only 0.75 per breeding pair is still alive 30 days after fledging. The main causes of loss are starvation of the third sibling due to hatching asynchrony, human harvest, and raptor predation after fledging. Ouvea is free of Ship Rat Rattus rattus and Norway Rat R. norvegicus. Kiore R. exulans, the rat present, is responsible for only a few predations at nests. The main predators are the Brown Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus, and humans that capture chicks to sell them as pets. 15-30 chicks are still captured every year and sold outside Ouvea. A population viability analysis of the Ouvea Parakeet shows that, with the current carrying capacity, this harvest is not sustainable and would eventually lead to extinction. Long-term survival would be best secured by establishing another population of 4-500 birds in the south of Ouvea, by increasing carrying capacity through habitat protection, nest site provision and restoration, decreasing the harvest and preventing the introduction of Ship Rat in Ouvea.

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  • A spore atlas of New Zealand ferns and fern allies

    Large, M. F. (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This work constitutes a detailed study of the spores, of the ferns and fern allies, both native and adventive, which grow in New Zealand, from the Kermadec Islands in the North, to the Chatham Islands in the East and the Subantarctic Islands in the South. Twenty live families with sixty five genera, two hundred and eleven species (of which c.20 are introduced) and three subspecies are included. Seven species are heterosporous the remainder are homosporous. Trilete spores are found in c.104 species representing c.30 genera. Perine is present in most taxa (with the exception of Gleichenia) and ranges from the large and sac-like form as seen in Cyathea smithii, to the thin and reduced form seen in Adiantum. Monolete spores are found in c.109 species representing c.37 genera (two genera are included twice, Isoetes which has trilete megaspores and monolete microspores and Lindsaea which has both monolete and trilete species). Perine is present in most taxa (except Sticherus spp.) and ranges from a fine deposit as seen in the Psilotaceae, to an enlarged form, heavily winged, as seen in the Aspleniaceae. Sculpture in all taxa (with the exception of the Lycopodiaceae and some members of the Ophioglossaceae, which may have ornamentation distributed distally), is present on both distal and proximal faces. One adventive taxon Equisetum arvense L. has an unusual circular laesura and elaborate elaters. Light micrographs of acetolysed and fresh spores along with scanning electron micrographs, are included for each taxon. Keys presented, are based on gross spore morphology and are applicable to fresh and acetolysed material. Descriptions include a list of synonymous species, details of spore shape, laesura/ae details, perine/exine sculpture and thickness (where sections allow), size (measured from n=50 spores per population), for samples treated with cotton blue (lactophenol aniline blue formula), mounted in glycerine jelly and acetolysed samples, mounted in silicone oil. Percentage size differences for acetolysed material mounted in glycerine jelly are also noted, along with previous spore dimensions recorded in the literature. Descriptions also contain chromosome number, where known, a list of previously recorded descriptions, a brief indication of geographic location and a list of vouchers for each sample. Experiments on the size and morphology of fern spores in reaction to different preparation techniques are discussed. Fresh spores of seven species, four trilete (Adiantum fulvum, Cyathea smithii, Hymenophyllum flabellatum and Lycopodium volubile) and three monolete (Blechnum chambersii, Paesia scaberula and Tmesipteris elongata), were assessed wth regard to the effect of three standard pretreatments (lactophenol aniline blue, 10% KOH, acetolysis) and two mounting media (glycerine jelly and silicone oil). Changes in morphology and size of the various wall layers were noted in comparison to spores observed fresh in water. Results indicate that variation includes shrinkage e.g. silicone oil and expansion of both exine and perine in glycerine jelly. Both effects are modified by previous treatments.

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  • The Management of Senior Managers: How Firms in New Zealand Acquire, Defend and Extract Value from their Senior Managerial Resources

    Gilbert, John (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The main aim of this study was to develop an understanding of current practice in New Zealand firms with regard to the management of managers, in particular the senior management team consisting of the CEO and direct reports. Although theory drawn from organizational economics, human resource development and strategic human resource management do provide useful perspectives, there is not, as yet, a well developed or coordinated theory on the management of managers. In this study a theoretical framework is developed, which identifies three broad goal domains for the management of managers and the key strategic tensions that firms may have to deal with in order to achieve their goals within these domains. The theoretical framework also proposes a taxonomy of company styles that describes different patterns of practice that might be expected in firms at various stages of development or in different contexts. The empirical research is centred on case studies of practice in four mid-sized New Zealand firms selected to represent a cross-section of established companies in different sectors and with some variation in patterns of ownership. The main findings are that current practice is largely consistent with the predictions of the theoretical framework and that the firms in the study face pronounced challenges with regard to the recruitment and retention of managers. In particular, the difficulties are compounded by the relatively shallow pool of talent available in a small economy, which makes it difficult for firms to establish robust managerial internal labour markets capable of supplying the bulk of the firms' senior managerial needs. Other findings of note are that there is little evidence of clearly perceived agency issues of the kind raised by the organizational economics literature and that processes and systems for identifying managerial talent in general, and for developing managers at the senior level, are not well developed. The broad conclusions are that firms in a small economy face particular difficulties in making the transition from an emergent stage to having fully evolved internal capabilities to bring managers with superior talent through to senior positions.

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  • Productivity improvement in the New Zealand heavy engineering industry

    Seidel, R. H. A. (Rainer H. A.) (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. An analysis of the industrial productivity of New Zealand heavy engineering companies is presented, and methods for improving the overall productivity of the heavy engineering industry and similar industries with job-shop type production are developed. The industry's productivity problems had been obvious for years. However, due to the lack of data and inadequacy of existing productivity improvement approaches, it had never been possible to quantify the extent of these problems, to analyse their causes and to develop methodologies for long-term improvement. The present investigation consists of two major aspects. The scientific element is concerned with the development of a methodology for productivity improvement appropriate to the situation of heavy engineering in New Zealand. This is supported by practice-oriented work in the industry, consisting of data acquisition activities in general, and of pilot studies in selected companies in order to assemble, analyse and evaluate specific data on productivity problems, and to apply and test the results thereof. The development of a methodology for productivity improvement is based on an extensive survey of literature on productivity measurement and improvement methods. The results of this survey, which was performed in parallel with the collection of industrial data, indicate that existing methods are not adequate to satisfy the requirements of productivity improvement in the local heavy engineering industry. On this basis, in-depth pilot studies in ten heavy engineering companies were performed. The objectives and methodology of these pilot studies are described in detail, as their results have a sizeable impact on the overall methodology chosen for this research. One of the most important conclusions drawn from the pilot studies is that productivity problems in the New Zealand heavy engineering industry cannot be solved by concentrating solely on workshop fabrication and technological factors. Generally these problems have complex cause-and-effect structures, and a multitude of non-technological factors from outside the workshop are involved. In order to account for these interrelated factors, a systems engineering approach was used, which offers a suitable basis for a productivity improvement methodology applicable to the situation as identified in the pilot studies. A main step in the system engineering approach is the development of a systems model which is used for structuring the complex inter-relationships found in practice. On the basis of this systems model of heavy engineering productivity a Productivity Assurance Programme is developed. This programme combines elements of quality assurance methods and the 'productivity cycle' principle of continuing improvement. The main elements of the Productivity Assurance Programme are matrices developed for the evaluation of the requirements of productive heavy engineering operation, and for the analysis of the productivity levels of the company where they are applied. The combination of these aspects provides a decision base on which organisational improvements can be founded. Due to its modular structure and the flexibility in defining specific productivity requirements, the applicability of the Productivity Assurance Programme is not limited to New Zealand heavy engineering companies, but also covers other job shop type industries with similar productivity problems. I case study illustrates the application of the Productivity Assurance Programme in practice.

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  • Contemporary Developments in Catholic Missiology : the Story of the Sisters of Our Lady of the Missions of the Province of Aotearoa New Zealand, 1861-2000

    Smith, Susan Elizabeth (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Significant changes have occurred in the Catholic practice and theology of mission since the second Vatican Council (1962-65). To appreciate better the extent of these changes, I have charted major shifts in the story of mission of the Sisters of Our Lady of the Missions, founded in Lyon in 1861. In particular, I have examined the various theologies that informed these shifts. This micro-study of one particular Catholic group offers an entry-point into a consideration of contemporary Catholic theologies of mission and missionary practice. Since Vatican II, there has been a growing awareness of the universal and salvific presence of the Spirit in creation and history. I will seek to show how this has affected Catholic missiological reflection through an examination of the work of selected Catholic theologians. These theologians direct attention to the mission of the Spirit, and to the relation between the Spirit and the Son in the mission of the Triune God. This pneumatological emphasis often has been overlooked in theologies of mission that are more overtly ecclesiological or christological in their orientation. I then examine selected New Testament texts in order to discern the legitimacy of such pneumatological emphases in emerging trinitarian theologies of mission. While New Testament texts indicate that the mission of the Spirit is both antecedent and consequent to the mission of Jesus, the examination of scriptural texts in this research concentrates on the antecedent mission of the Holy Spirit in selected Johannine, Matthean and Lukan texts. My research suggests that an emphasis on the mission of the Spirit permits an understanding of mission that can expand the parameters associated with ecclesiocentric and christocentric models of mission.

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  • The Diaries of Geneviève Bréton 1874-1914

    Burnet, Catherine Margaret (2002)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis establishes a critical edition of the diaries of Geneviève Bréton (1849-l9l8) written between 1874 and 1914. As 'diary' and 'journal' are synonyms, the words are used interchangeably throughout the thesis. Geneviève Bréton was an educated, privileged and literary woman, the third child in a prestigious Parisian family. In this thesis, I argue that her diaries or private writing play the role of an alternative to, for a woman, socially stigmatized public writing. Although she wrote compulsively throughout her life, experimenting with the novel, she devotes most attention to the diary genre, exploring it beyond its conventional parameters as a feminine outlet. Diaries provide a compromise for Bréton as she finds a way around the limitations imposed by sexual difference and cultural mores in nineteenth-century France. As a woman, and as a wife, she accepts the social and cultural imperatives of her environment but, where possible, on her own terms. I argue that for Bréton, the daughter of publishers and friend of writers, the diary genre is a surreptitious entry into their world, her private form of literary expression and creation. I suggest that she recognises this fact at the end of her life when she herself undertakes the preparation of her 1867-1871 journals for publication. The 1874-l9l4 diaries are held in manuscript form in the archives of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris. The first five years of the diaries, based on the material prepared by Bréton, were published in 1985. The present work will facilitate further publications. The corpus of the later diaries, transcribed over a four-year period in the National Library archives in Paris, is preceded by a three-part introduction: a presentation and discussion of the methodology chosen to transcribe the diaries; an analysis of the nineteenth-century family, social, and literary contexts that influence the writing; and the development of a thesis on the rationale behind the existence of the diaries, their character, content, and volume. Bréton began the task of editing and retyping her journals. This edition of the subsequent journals carries on the undertaking of 'publishing and republishing Silenced texts' Julia Swindells, 'Liberating the Subject? Autobiography and "Women's History": A Reading of the Diaries of Hannah Cullwick' in The Personal Narratives Group eds., Interpreting Women's Lives: Feminist Theory and Personal Narratives, 1989, p.24.: that of drawing out the untold stories of creativity and rebellion against confinement which are part of history and literary history.

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  • A methodology for business processes identification: developing instruments for an effective enterprise system project

    Berkowitz, Zeev (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Since the mid 1990s, thousands of companies around the world have implemented Enterprise Systems (ES), which are considered to be the most important development in the corporate use of information technology. By providing computerized support to business processes spanning both the enterprise and the supply chain, these systems have become an indispensable tool utilized by organizations to accomplish and maintain efficient and effective operational performance. However, there are many cases in which ES implementation has failed in terms of the required time and budget, and more importantly, in terms of functionality and performance. One of the main causes of these failures is the misidentification and improper selection of business processes to be implemented into the ES, which are a crucial element of the system's implementation life cycle. In order to achieve effective implementation, a ‘necessary and sufficient’ set of business processes must be designed and implemented. Implementing an excessive set of business processes is costly; yet implementing an insufficient set is ruinous. The heuristic identification of the set of business processes, based on requirement elicitation, is flawed; there is no guarantee that all the necessary processes have been captured (Type I error), and/or that superfluous processes have been selected for implementation (Type II error). The existing implementation methods do not include a methodology to address this vital issue. This thesis aims to resolve this problem and to provide a methodology that will generate a necessary and sufficient set of business processes in a given organization, based on its specific characteristics, which will be used as a baseline for implementing an ES. A proper definition of the business processes and their associated properties is proposed and detailed. The properties are then used as parameters to generate the complete set of all the possible business processes in the organization; from this set, necessary and sufficient processes are selected. The methodology exposes the fundamental level of business processes, which are then used as a baseline for further phases in the implementation process. The proposed methodology has been tested through the analysis of companies that have implemented ES. In each of these cases, the identification of business processes utilizing the proposed methodology has proven to provide superior results to those obtained through all other implemented practices, producing a better approximation of their existing business processes.

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  • The Impact of Digital Platforms on New Zealand Firms’ Entry Strategies: The Case of Alibaba

    Jin, Huijun

    Masters thesis
    Auckland University of Technology

    The advent of digital platforms has changed the way in which Asia-Pacific firms conduct international transactions, condensing time and geographic distance (Manyika, Lund, & Bughin, 2016). However, the impact of digital platforms on firms’ internationalisation strategy, and in particular entry strategy, is under-researched in current International Business literature. This study aims to explore how digital platforms in China, and specifically the digital platforms of Alibaba Group, impact New Zealand small and medium-sized (SMEs) companies’ entry strategies in the Chinese market. Empirical data were collected from four New Zealand companies through semi-structured in-depth interviews. The results of this study suggest that digital platforms impact these firms’ entry strategies through easing entry barriers to some extent, particularly in helping overcome resource constraints and obtain access to networks. However, the participating firms still required local staff as a key part of successful market entry. Therefore, it is concluded that while digital platforms can help alleviate some entry barriers traditionally faced by SMEs, limitations in human resources still impose challenges on firms in seeking internationalisation in China.

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