23,243 results for Thesis

  • Knowledge-Based System for Autonomous Control of Intelligent Mastication Robots

    Odisho, Ramin (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The study of the mechanical and chemical properties of food is commonly known as Food Texture Analysis (FTA); it is an important area of research in fields such as the health and food sciences. The majority of FTA methods employ human sensory panels because they produce realistic results from ‘in-vivo’ experiments; however, due to the subjective nature of sensory evaluation, the results obtained from different panel members can be inconsistent. This inherent variability in experimental outcomes can lead to difficulties when interpreting and comparing results and is the focus of this research. Prior contributions to this research led to the development of a mastication robot; the motive being that robots are not inherently subject to the variability associated with human sensory perception and preference. The robot is capable of emulating human mastication by performing a family of rhythmic chewing motions that approximate the trajectories of human molar teeth. However, the robot was unable to adapt its chewing behaviour to food properties as they varied during the mastication process; this had a negative impact on results as mastication is a complex, dynamic process and cannot be accurately emulated by a static system. The aim of this project was to develop a Knowledge-Based System (KBS) that could learn how human chewing patterns change during mastication and as a result, enable the robot to adapt its actions to changes in food properties. To accomplish this, the KBS was designed to store data regarding changes in mastication parameters with respect to varying food properties; the data would then be analysed (via machine learning algorithms) to discover mathematical relationships (knowledge) within the data. The KBS uses these relationships to control the robot (supervisory) based on feedback from the robot regarding the properties of the food. Under KBS control, the robot autonomously emulated human mastication and produced results that were both, realistic and consistent; this indicates that the KBS has successfully enabled the robot to better approximate human masticatory behaviour. While this is a positive outcome, significant work is still required before such systems can be considered as viable alternatives to traditional sensory panels.

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  • Conversaciones con mi sangre – Conversations with my blood: How intergenerational knowledge shapes conceptions of art practice and teaching

    Bribiesca, Anna-Maria (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Faculty of Education & Social Work Exemplar -- 120 point. This auto-ethnographical study focused on the importance of family being at the centre of my ‘conversaciones con mi sangre – conversations with my blood.’ My aim was to explore through conversations with my immediate family, in particular my father José Maria Parra y Bribiesca, how intergenerational knowledge about art and art making has been, and continues to be, transmitted by my Mexican / English / Irish ancestors. I wanted to understand more deeply, and critically reflect on how art is created, what meanings art works carry, and how those meanings are taught and learned within familial intergenerational situations. The design of this study was informed by a qualitative interpretative paradigm. It was underpinned by literature on the theoretical and methodological framework of auto-ethnography, a form of self-reflection that explores a researcher’s personal experiences and connects their autobiographical story to wider cultural, political and social meanings. Although my family and cultural heritage were the main foci, it was important to explore how others pass on knowledge. I perceived that approaches to indigenous research methodology, and the passing on of knowledge by Mexica (indigenous Mexican people) and Māori in Aotearoa-New Zealand, intersected with auto-ethnography and was a means to empower not only myself but other indigenous peoples. As a researcher, also with English / Irish ancestry, I was also interested in how non-indigenous people pass on intergenerational knowledge. The research design challenged my ability to unite and integrate the roles of artist, teacher and participant-researcher through the theoretical and methodological perspectives of a/r/tography, which focuses on the concept of ‘living enquiry’ via the ‘self’ and others to explore issues. From the perspective of being an artist, I examined what types of intergenerational knowledge have informed my conceptions and practices of art making. From the perspective of being an art teacher, I explored how intergenerational knowledge could be transmitted through my pedagogical practices in art to support students, including indigenous students, in a secondary school context. From the perspective of being a participant-researcher, I seized the opportunity to become more informed about myself as an artist, teacher, researcher, and person as opposed to someone who reports findings about others. The findings are presented through the conversaciones with my family. They are illustrated through documented sources and the lens of personal ephemera gathered – the ‘true little incidents’ between me, art, my parents and my children - that serve not as bricolage but as emblems, signs and appeals. Most importantly, they are expressed through the enactment of the collaborative art making conversaciones with my father, José Maria Parra y Bribiesca.

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  • Where are the men? Rethinking gender, sexual violence and security in warfare

    Jaralla Jaber, Baeda (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    As many as 50,000 women suffered sexual violence during the Bosnian war, 250,000 in the Rwandan genocide and 200,000 in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) conflict zones since armed conflict began. Yet, the number of men targeted often remains unknown due to the little material on conflict-related sexual violence against men. However, recent limited reports show that sexual violence against men in conflict is a frequent occurrence; the case of Iraqi male prisoners in Abu Ghraib military detention, being one example. The over-simplistic gendered representation of women-as-victims and men-as-perpetrators present in debates on gender, violence and security, does not account for the thousands of men sexually abused during conflict or indeed the role of women in some of these attacks. Drawing largely on the work of International Relations poststructuralist feminist Laura Shepherd, this paper will explore how such gendered expectations are produced and reproduced across a variety of United Nations (UN) documents. Through a critical discourse analysis, with a specific focus on UN Security Council Resolutions 1325 (2000) and 2106 (2013), I argue that the UN’s policy response on the issue of conflict-related sexual violence is riddled with tensions and inconsistencies. The marginalisation of male victims in academic and policy discussions dangerously constructs a perpetrator class of all men and a victim class of all women.

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  • Mouna in 15’40”, catapulted into a larger realm: creating a hybrid dance through silence

    Narayanasamy, Thamizhvanan (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis explores the practice of silence: specifically the silence engaged in the creative process of choreographing a hybrid dance performance and, to discover the methodologies and significance of silence used in this form of dance. The choreography expresses my research question; how can I create a hybrid dance performance through the choreographic ‘Practice of Silence’? The methodology of this practice-led research is that of Silencing, which I can best describe as the quietening of the body and the mind through meditative practices, to discover the manifestation of the ‘performance of silence’. The methodology is supported by a phenomenological hermeneutic study together with a rhizomatic arrangement of the ongoing insights through choreographic exploration. Within this structure a dance performance and a written exegesis make up the thesis and each part supports the other. The dance work is a solo piece presented as the output of reflections from journals kept by me, as the choreographer, after time spent in the rehearsal studio experimenting with dance movements following periods of meditative silence. I set out to carefully describe the feelings and thoughts of my dance body, the awareness of how it feels to move following studio practise and reflective writing, using silence as the creative source in order to manipulate time and space. My background is that of a choreographer and dancer of Asian dance genre (Bharatanatyam, Odissi, Joget and Terinai) and martial arts (Kalaripayattu, Silat, Tae Kwon Do). As part of my exploration into the realms of silence I reviewed the practices of meditation and self-reflection in dance. I am not alone as there are other researchers (Bright, 2010; Christensen & Weinman, 2014; Denesha, 2014; Lalitaraja, 2012) and choreographers (Lin, Songs of the Wanderers, 1999) investigating in this field of inquiry. In my search for literature to the hermeneutical approach to this study I have looked into the findings of dance researchers (Andresen, 2011; DeLeon, 2005; McNamara, 1999) who have sought to discover the nature and importance of embodied knowledge in choreography and performance. The findings of other dance researchers demonstrate the acknowledgment of mind body centering techniques in the choreographic process, however there are occasions the notion of silence tends to be undervalued and may require greater appreciation for its contribution to my own creative journey. Nevertheless I found there is an expanding body of research and a growing number of adherents who are advocating the benefits of contemplative techniques across all modes of learning because it allows the individual time to process what they have learnt and transform it into what they believe and therefore become their ‘knowing’.

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  • Prevalence and management of intrathecal morphine induced pruritus in the New Zealand Māori population

    Boudreau, Jennifer (2012)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: The use of intrathecal morphine for patients undergoing total hip and knee joint replacements and for lower segment caesarean sections (LSCS) has gained popularity worldwide since its introduction in 1979 (Gehling & Tryba, 2009). Several studies show that morphine delivered via the intrathecal route is an effective and safe method of pain relief (Dahl, Jeppesen, Jorgensen, Wetterslev, & Moiniche, 1999; Sites et al., 2004). However, while the beneficial effects of intrathecal morphine have been clearly documented in many studies, so also have the adverse effects e.g., nausea and vomiting, pruritus, and respiratory depression (Gehling & Tryba, 2009; Gwirtz et al., 1999). Pruritus is described as one of the most common adverse effects, with a reported incidence of 30% to 100% (Szarvas, Harmon, & Murphy, 2003). Aims: The aims of this research portfolio were to determine if the incidence of intrathecal morphine induced pruritus (ITMI) was influenced by ethnicity, age, or gender, and to explore how this pruritus was managed by health care professionals. Methods: A two-phased approach was undertaken. A retrospective audit was conducted to determine the incidence of intrathecal morphine induced pruritus among certain patient groups and what treatment was received. A health care professional survey was then performed to explore the current awareness, observations, and management of intrathecal morphine induced pruritus. Findings: The findings revealed significant ethnic disparities in patient responses to intrathecal morphine. Results of the health care professional survey show variances in their knowledge base, which has led to development of a framework for improvement in the management of intrathecal morphine induced pruritus. Conclusions: Management of these outcomes can be enhanced by the implementation of the strategies and frameworks outlined. Utilisation of these research portfolio recommendations could enable earlier post-operative recovery and improved patient outcomes. These recommendations could ensure health care professionals maintain competency and awareness in the provision of diligent management of patients receiving intrathecal morphine.

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  • Christian community: a theology for restructuring

    Harvey, Patricia (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    A church is a living and breathing body nourishing and nourished by the community where it resides. The Anglican Church in Aotearoa, New Zealand is experiencing decline in affiliation, an ageing demographic, some church buildings not meeting increased earthquake standards, and the effects of the rise of postmodern non-denominational church attendance by young people. Congregations may lose viability and some are facing amalgamation and the closure of buildings. Conflict is the catalyst for change, seeding transformation (growth) or division (decline). Relevant research is drawn from New Zealand, England, and the United States. The restructuring of Anglican communities must be a well-managed process that potentially seeds growth in congregations, or decline will be exacerbated. The nature of conflict associated with restructuring is explored and how theological reflection might support changing Anglican communities as they transition through the restructuring process. The primal source of conflict is found in the differentiation inherent in identity formation, which is in unavoidable tension with the need of identities for relationship. Together differentiation and relationship bring exclusion and embrace (Miroslav Volf) into community life. How we meet others (Martin Buber) and how we recognise others (Charles Taylor) benchmark how we ideally structure our Christian relationships. The process of transition (William Bridges) from business theory is focused on transitioning of congregations. The change experienced through transition is conversion. From research, it is known church closures exacerbate decline, decline begets decline, and a lack of conflict reinforces decline. In contrast, growth begets growth, and conflict may contribute to growth. Conflict if uncontrolled may result in breaking down of relationships, and people leaving the church. This historical narrative of a congregation holds the past in its hands, and affects a congregation’s ability to change. Losing the power of any remembered pain, together with a well-managed restructuring process, enables a move into a changed and transformational future. Seeding growth is the primary aim of church restructuring and may be strategically created through the synergy of two or more elements that together create more than either can alone.

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  • New Media/ Old News: Intersectionality, Women Politicians and Mainstream Online News Media in New Zealand

    Sharan, Janice (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The aim of this thesis is to examine the representation of women politicians in mainstream online news media. In the last 20 years, there have been increases in the number of women in New Zealand Parliament and women have held key leadership positions, including Prime Minister. Nevertheless, women still only make up about a third of New Zealand Parliament, despite being half the nation’s population. The way women politicians are represented in mainstream news media is often referred to as an obstacle to women’s participation in politics. Previous studies have concluded that women are frequently underrepresented and misrepresented in mainstream news. News coverage focuses on sexbased stereotypes and/or employs gendered news frames which portray women as political outsiders or agents of change. I conduct a content analysis, underpinned by framing and intersectional theories to assess whether mainstream online news continues to exhibit patterns of gendered news coverage identified in previous research on women, politics and traditional forms of news media. Intersectional theory draws attention to the influence of multiple categories of social difference such as race, age, class and sexuality. The news websites selected for study are Stuff and The New Zealand Herald, as these are the two most visited news websites based in New Zealand. Analysis focuses on women political leaders and leadership candidates. The first case study examines the intersection of gender and race in mainstream online news coverage of Green Party co-leader Metiria Turei during the 2014 general election; while the second examines the intersection of gender and age in mainstream online news coverage of Labour deputy leader candidates Annette King and Jacinda Ardern during the months of August and November 2015. My findings indicate that gendered news frames and sex stereotyping are still evident in mainstream online news media. I also conclude that when we break down the category of women and consider intersecting categories of social difference we find that some women politicians are more likely to be omitted from news stories or portrayed as political outsiders. News coverage therefore not only differs between women and men, but between women politicians as well.

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  • Māori whānau experiences of rheumatic fever: reflections of social and structural inequity

    Burgess, Hannah (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Background: Rheumatic fever is a devastating illness that poses a significant burden to Māori in Aotearoa (New Zealand). Despite well-established treatment and prevention interventions, Māori face inequitable rates of rheumatic fever, recurrent rheumatic fever, and rheumatic heart disease. Little is known about the persistence of these inequities for Māori. Aims: This research sought to understand the lived experiences, knowledge and perspectives of Māori who have experienced recurrent rheumatic fever or re-hospitalisations for rheumatic fever and their whānau, in the Counties Manukau District Health Board (CMDHB) region of Tāmaki Makaurau (Auckland). Methods: Whānau interviews informed by a Kaupapa Māori research methodology were employed to ascertain whānau experiences of rheumatic fever. Māori living within the CMDHB region who have experienced a recurrence of rheumatic fever or re-hospitalisations for rheumatic fever and their whānau were invited to participate in this research. Five interviews were undertaken with four different whānau, one participant chose to be interviewed alone. A total of 10 people participated in this research. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to guide data collection. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Findings: Four metathemes were identified from the interviews: whānau living contexts, whānau experiences in the health system, impacts of rheumatic fever, and the overarching importance of whānau. The findings of this research indicate that whānau were living in contexts of deprivation that significantly affected their access to health services. Health services did not meet the needs of whānau, and whānau received substandard care from healthcare providers. Poor communication and rapport from healthcare professionals was an important element that determined whānau experiences of healthcare. Rheumatic fever significantly impacted the lives of whānau, and whānau members played an important role in the experiences of those suffering from rheumatic fever, especially in mitigating negative experiences. Conclusion: This research suggests that the health system plays an important role in contributing to ongoing rheumatic fever inequities for Māori. The health system is not responsive to the living contexts in which Māori access healthcare services and this needs to be urgently addressed. The findings of this research necessitate action to be taken that frames the health system itself as a locus for change.

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  • Talking Mathematics in the MLE: Teacher-Student Interaction In Mathematics In A Modern Learning Environment

    Crow, Carolyn (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Faculty of Education & Social Work Exemplar 120 point. There is a large and growing body of theoretical literature to support the change from single-cell, single-teacher traditional classroom environments to multi-teacher, multi-class ‘Modern Learning Environments’ or MLEs. This change is a common experience for many teachers and students in the current New Zealand educational context. However, at present there is little empirical literature to directly support the suggested benefits of transition to a MLE for teachers and students. This study aimed to assist in eliminating this gap in the research by examining the impact of such a transition on teacher-student interactions in mathematics. The setting was a decile 10 state primary school in the centre of a large New Zealand city. The participants were three Year 4 teachers and 12 Year 4 students aged between 8 and 9 years. Data gathering via teacher observations, student questionnaires, and teacher and student interviews occurred on two occasions. Data were first collected in a single-cell, single-teacher classroom environment and then again seven weeks after transition to a multi-teacher, multi-class MLE. The frequency, duration and types of interaction, and types of feedback were compared. The study found that changes in teacher-student interaction and feedback largely stemmed from substantial differences in teacher practices within the MLE, rather than the physical environment of the MLE itself. This finding is consistent with other literature that suggests the effective use of the physical elements of a learning environment is highly contingent on the pedagogical practices that evolve within it. The finding of decreased interaction with lowerachieving students suggests that particular consideration needs to be given to these students in the process of transition to a MLE. Teacher expectation of greater student agency in the MLE was supported by the findings. However, this raised important implications for those students who are less likely to take initiative or have poor self-regulation skills. The change to a co-teaching situation with larger numbers of students created challenges for teachers, such as greater organisational complexity and reduced knowledge of individual students. Appropriate professional learning and development is suggested to assist teachers to successfully meet these challenges and adequately support students in the process of transition.

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  • State of Nirvana: A tempo-spatial Condition

    Seol, Han (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Available to authenticated members of The University of Auckland. This thesis is an attempt to investigate the notion of tempo-spatiality in architecture1 and the architectural discourse. Across many disciplines, from Art to Theoretical Science and Theology, the topic of Time and Space and its complex and multi-dimensional characteristics underpins the very fundamental structure and human perception of reality. The thesis focuses on contributing our understanding of the ontological and epistemological formation of Time-Space by examining the current discourses and various perspectives from selected academic and cultural backgrounds. This thesis is organised into five chapters. Part one presents the overall research scope and general perspective of the investigation. A brief introductory notation for each key sub-topic will be laid out to illustrate key points. Part two, reviews the current discourses on the topic critically reviewed in order to create a platform for discussion. In this part, various relationships and views on Time-Space are highlighted both ontologically and epistemologically. Differences amongst various theoretical sciences and philosophical perspectives on the topic will also be discussed. During this discussion the thesis will develop, self-scrutinise, elaborate and demonstrate ideas through dialectic methodology. This chapter will attempt to strip down the multidisciplinary nature of the architectural discussion. Therefore, exploring key fundamental elements of architectural perception, time and space. Part three takes tempo-spatial interpretations and skills developed from previous chapters into a design practice. Historical significance of the site influences the design and its negotiation with the current status enriches its meaningfulness. Part four is the conclusion. Theoretical interpretations and their physical transformation as design manifestation are critically reflected upon in light of Ontology, Epistemology and other relevant fields of theories. Part five comprises of additional findings and discoveries that were useful and critical to the development of overall formation of this thesis.

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  • The Crown in Australia: An anthropological study of a constitutional symbol

    Raudon, S (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The Crown is the foundation of Australia’s constitutional order, and its representations are common throughout society, yet it is also curiously unrecognised and taken for granted. Even within the elite community of Australians whose work brings them into direct contact with the Crown – who are responsible for curating or representing it, or enacting its agency – many argue that it is insignificant, ‘merely symbolic’, or ornamental to actual political power. Its efficacy is minimised, and its presence unremarked. Over the past twenty years, however, the Crown has become embroiled in Australia’s vigorous, sometimes bitter, debate over constitutional reform, even while it evades direct interrogation. Based on multi-sited fieldwork in Australia, including interviews and participant observation, I set out to explore how Australians view the Crown and its constitutional role. I found that people typically think of it in terms of the Queen, rather than the offices of government or state. This leads me to ask: How is the Crown represented in Australia? Is it a unifying entity? To what extent has the Crown been indigenised, and in what ways does it still signal colonialism? How does the Crown interact with other symbols of national identity and conflict? If the Crown is a façade, what does it conceal? How is it used by actors in the constitutional reform debate? With that deliberation already well advanced, will the inevitable death of the popular Queen mean a constitutional reordering in Australia? To analyse the Crown’s diverse meanings I draw on theories of symbolism, power and ritual. Using Kantorowicz’s thesis of the king’s two bodies, I also draw out the significance of the distinction between the Crown as a person (Elizabeth Windsor) and the Crown as a set of institutions, or body politic (the Crown in right of the Commonwealth of Australia). The figures of the Crown-as-person and the Crown-as-office come together and pull apart in different situations and contexts in Australian life. I argue that, while the office of the Crown is concerned with relatively narrow legal issues around land, it remains primarily associated with Queen Elizabeth II and the British monarchy rather than with its institutional meanings. This places a delicate constitutional equilibrium at risk. I make my case by examining how the Crown conflates notions of symbolism, affect, mystique, charisma, kinship, and transcendence with issues of political power, authority, legitimacy, sovereignty, and nationalism. These political abstractions, like constitutional monarchy itself, must be symbolised so that people can imagine, and be moved to love – or hate – them. Keywords: Political symbol, Crown, Australia, constitutional reform, elites, constitutional monarchy, royalty, charisma, king’s two bodies, political anthropology, ethnography

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  • Bringing biculturalism into the primary classroom in Aotearoa-New Zealand

    Adams, Pauline (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Faculty of Education & Social Work Exemplar -- 120 point. Aotearoa-New Zealand is a country founded on Te Tiriti o Waitangi-Treaty of Waitangi, an agreement signed in 1840 by the indigenous Māori and the British Crown. Of the two versions presented, the English version of the Treaty guaranteed Māori all the rights and privileges of British citizens in return for the cessation of sovereignty. The Māori version of the Treaty, which was the version signed most by Māori, spoke not of cessation of sovereignty but rather of “te kawangatanga katoa” or governance over the land. The implicit understanding for Māori therefore, was that they would gain the protection of the Britain while retaining their authority to manage their own affairs. This mismatch in interpretation would provide the basis for dissonance in Treaty negotiations in years to come. Following the signing of Te Tiriti o Waitangi-Treaty of Waitangi, Māori quickly become the minority race in the young nation, impacted by the negative effects of colonisation. The indigenous people and their language were consequently relegated to the deficit position in the bicultural partnership. Māori resistance and protest reached a turning point when, in 1975, the Waitangi Tribunal was established to reinstate the Treaty in Aotearoa-New Zealand society, and to redress past breaches. Today, the framework of the Treaty and its principles guides reparation of relations between Māori and Pākehā New Zealanders. Education is one of the key contexts for which current bicultural policies are relevant. It provided the platform for this research, which was situated in mainstream primary schools, the sector with which the researcher was connected. The research investigated the bicultural policies that underpin this sector, including understanding and application by primary teachers, whose practices are informed by such policies. This research was conducted in two phases. An online survey questionnaire was used to gather quantitative data on teachers’ understanding of biculturalism in education policy, and the place of the Treaty in curriculum and classroom practice. This was followed by semi-structured interviews to investigate, in greater depth, teachers’ motivations and experiences in engaging a bicultural practice. Review of the literature focused on the transparency of bicultural imperatives in curriculum and legislation that are applicable to the primary education sector. It found a lack of directive and clear purpose regarding the place of the Treaty and biculturalism. This was supported by the research findings, which revealed inconsistency in teachers’ knowledge of the Treaty, and their understanding of how biculturalism translates into classroom practice. During data analysis three models of bicultural practice were uncovered. On the basis of the overall findings, as well as the successful model of bicultural practice, recommendations to address inconsistencies in bicultural knowledge, understandings and practice are presented.

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  • Is Authenticity Necessary for Heritage? Official and Non-Official Views Through the Lens of the Open-Air Museum Howick Historical Village

    Walling, Jennifer (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    International heritage authorities have existed since only relatively recently, as has their policy that heritage needs to be authentic to be officially recognised. Critics argue the established way they define authenticity is inflexible and does not allow for culturally diverse understandings of the concept however. In contrast, open-air museums often use practices that depart from international heritage authorities’ criteria for authenticity, but they are places many people consider authentic and believe are heritage. This thesis explores official and non-official understandings of authenticity and heritage using the open-air museum of Howick Historical Village in Auckland, New Zealand, as a case study. Like many open-air museums, it contains buildings that were relocated there and restored to the period when they were first built, as well as replicas. This study investigates whether heritage officials have the same opinion of whether the open-air museum is authentic and heritage as heritage non-officials. In doing so, it researches the view points of heritage officials from Auckland Council and Heritage New Zealand, and heritage non-officials who are visitors and volunteers to Howick Historical Village, and Board Members of the Howick and Districts Historical Society. This thesis also investigates how the views of these groups compare to positions on authenticity and heritage in literature, both non-official discourse on open-air museums and official heritage texts. Does something need to be authentic to be heritage? Is Howick Historical Village authentic? Does the presence of relocated, restored and replica buildings affect its authenticity? Is the open-air museum heritage, and what does heritage mean? What are the viewpoints of heritage officials and heritage non-officials, and how do they compare? This thesis studies these questions and others by using interviews and questionnaires. This study shows that while the heritage officials think Howick Historical Village has limited authenticity and status as heritage, almost all of the heritage non-officials think it is authentic, and that it is heritage. Significantly, some of the heritage non-officials’ reasons for this, like the open-air museum giving the impression of a real place, contradict principles held by the heritage officials. Both the heritage officials’ and the heritage non-officials’ views have precedent in the literature, but there is a lack of official heritage guidance specific to open-air museums. These factors suggest the heritage officials’ opinions should not be assumed to prevail over the opinions of the heritage non-officials with regard to Howick Historical Village, authenticity and heritage.

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  • Indirect impacts of mammalian pest control; behavioural responses of cats (Felis catus) to rodent control in urban forest fragments

    Lincoln, Samantha (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Invasive mammals have had significant negative effects on New Zealand’s biodiversity, but their interactions and impacts in urban environments are poorly known. Domestic cats (Felis cattus), ship rats (Rattus rattus), and Norway rats (R. norvegicus) prey upon native and exotic bird species. However, cats also prey on rats and therefore may convey some benefits for birds. There have been some policy and management concerns that removing either domestic cats or rats from urban fragments may have indirect negative effects on birds, by either increasing rat populations (via cat removal), or by cats prey-switching to birds (via rat removal). While policy to remove cats from reserves is unlikely to happen in the near future, community groups are removing rats from urban reserves, with unknown effects on cat behaviour. Therefore, I investigated the effect of reduced rat populations on cat visitation to urban reserves by conducting an M-BACI experiment across eight urban forest fragments. Through ground based trapping at four treatment sites I reduced rat trapping rates by 83% from an average of 8.5 rats 100 ctn-1 (S.E. = 2.7) to 1.7 rats 100 ctn-1 (S.E. = 1.3). During the five night trapping period prior to rodent control, camera traps recorded 241 instances of 49 individual cats visiting my eight sites. Neither number of cats visiting nor the frequency of visits significantly changed in response to the reduction of rat trapping rates. Although it appeared that rodent control elicited a shift towards more daytime visits, high inter-site variation made determination of causation difficult. Further research is required to investigate whether the hunting success or prey composition of cats changes following rodent control.

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  • State-led gentrification and impacts on residents and community in Glen Innes, Auckland

    Gordon, Renee (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Auckland’s suburb of Glen Innes is currently undergoing redevelopment that can be described as state-led gentrification. As the central government owns a significant portion of the housing stock, the State at both a central and local government level is heavily involved within this gentrification process. At a time when Auckland is facing a purported housing shortage, Glen Innes’ central location – approximately a 16-minute drive from Auckland’s CBD and the suburbs close proximity to the popular Eastern Bay beaches has repositioned the area as prime real estate. This thesis explores the processes and implications of state-led gentrification underway in Glen Innes through an exploration narratives provided by local residents. Drawing on Henri Lefebvre’s (1968) ‘right to the city’ argument as a theoretical framework the thesis considers the way the right to a community, sense of place and belonging has been repositioned as a right reserved for urban elite within a neoliberal city. There are currently two development projects working simultaneously in the area, the Tāmaki Redevelopment Company (a partnership between Housing New Zealand and Auckland Council) and Creating Communities (a private development company contracted out by Housing New Zealand). To date, 156 households have been relocated from their Housing New Zealand homes to make way for new housing developments in the area. While some of these tenants have been relocated within the Tāmaki area, a number of these residents have been displaced from their communities completely. Alongside this redevelopment in Glen Innes, New Zealand’s state-housing policy has undergone radical restructuring with the passing of the Social Housing Reform Act 2014. This shift in policy not only supports the gentrification of Glen Innes but is also paving the way for similar redevelopments throughout New Zealand in the near future. The thesis demonstrates that the state-led gentrification currently un-folding in Glen Innes, displacing a sizable proportion of the community at a rapid rate, has had a significant impact on those left behind. It is argued that this situation differs from previous Auckland examples of gentrification as the State is playing an active role in transforming entire neighbourhoods rather than facilitating the upgrade of individual houses and neighbourhoods. Further, the displacement of Housing New Zealand’s tenants is disrupting communities that have been well established over time. The thesis demonstrates the significance of these processes for understanding the structure of urban life in contemporary Auckland, the place of society’s most vulnerable and the implications for the most basic urban rights of community and belonging. Key words: state-housing, state-led gentrification, right to the city, Glen Innes

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  • Evidentiality in Urama

    Craig, Kimberley (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    This thesis presents a description of evidentiality in the Urama language, which is a dialect of Northeast Kiwai, spoken on Urama Island in the Gulf Province of Papua New Guinea. The data in this study has come from both narratives and elicitation sessions with a native speaker of the language. The aim of this thesis is to provide a detailed description of the evidential system of Urama, paying particular attention to the evidential morpheme =ka. =ka encodes speaker-oriented evidence for an utterance. In order to provide a detailed analysis of =ka, a number of different semantic tests are undertaken to determine its status as an evidential. These tests were designed to investigate the status of different evidential particles in languages; they are used to determine whether the evidential in question is functioning at the propositional, or illocutionary level of meaning. In turn, the level of meaning on which =ka operates determines whether it should be treated as an epistemic modal evidential, or a non-modal evidential. The results of the tests suggest that =ka is operating at the illocutionary level of meaning, as a nonmodal evidential. However, the most important finding of this study is the fact that =ka appears to contain two different meanings, operating at both the propositional and illocutionary levels. When =ka fails to appear where expected, it expresses inferential or secondary evidence on behalf of the addressee, for the speaker‟s utterance. This lack of =ka (i.e. =Ø) indicates a type of common ground between the speaker and the addressee. In comparison to =ka, =Ø appears to function at a propositional level, and therefore operates as an epistemic modal. This conclusion is an important contribution to the field of evidentiality as there has been little documentation of languages which employ an evidential that expresses addressee-oriented evidence.

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  • The Anti-deficit Approach: Reassessing the Notion of Pasifika Academic Achievement

    Mather, James (2013)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The issue of Pasifika “underachievement” has been the subject of discussion and debate by educationalists, government policymakers and Pasifika people themselves. This thesis contributes to this discussion by examining some of the challenges faced by Pasifika students in their academic achievement. In particular it raises some pertinent questions regarding the notion of achievement itself and focuses specifically on some of the environmental and pedagogical factors which influence the academic performance of Pasifika students and some of the initiatives by government and non-government groups to address the challenges of Pasifika educational achievement. This thesis examines a number of factors which have influenced Pasifika educational achievement. These include and are not limited to curriculum, pedagogy, familial and parental influences, peer influences, and students’ self-esteem. Pasifika education is often understood through a “cultural-deficit” perspective. This thesis will examine the issue of Pasifika academic achievement through an “anti-deficit” lens which essentially means focusing on academic success and ways to raise academic achievement—as opposed to subscribing to the cultural-deficit model which emphasises failure and “underachievement” (Harper 2012:1; Irizarry 2009). The emphasis of this study will be on two main categories of initiatives to raising Pasifika academic achievement, namely those of the New Zealand government and those funded or supported by corporate/community groups, referred to within this study as “non-government”.

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  • TiO2 Nanotubes synthesised via Ti Electrochemical Anodization. An investigation on phase transformation of anodized TiO2 and the influences of grafted Cu (II) on morphology and photocatalytic ability.

    Wu, Wing-Hong (2014)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Titanium dioxide is a relatively cheap, non-toxic, and environmentally safe material. Its properties as a photon semi-conductor allow it to be utilised in photocatalysis. This includes applications such as wastewater treatment, where it can break down organic contaminants into CO2 and water. TiO2 nanotubes produced via Ti electrochemical anodization combine its photocatalytic abilities with the high surface area to volume ratios inherent in nano-scale materials to produce a highly efficient photocatalyst. Anodization was applied to produce amorphous TiO2 nanotube arrays. Heat treatment was performed at various temperatures to study its crystallization it into various crystalline phase compositions. XRD analysis showed that the heat treatment resulted in mixture of two phases: anatase and rutile. Anatase phase began to transform into rutile at temperatures above 700 °C. However, at this temperature, due to the phase transformation, the tubular morphology collapses, which lowers the photocatalytic efficiency. Because TiO2 has a band gap greater than 3.0 eV, it can only utilize ultraviolet light, which accounts for only 5 % of solar light. In this study, experiments were performed with the intent to develop a TiO2 nanotube photocatalyst which can act efficiently under visible light by engineering the band gap in the form of copper grafting. Nanotube arrays synthesised via anodization and annealed at 450 °C were grafted with copper ions (Cu2+) in aqueous solution containing 0.2, 2, 20, and 200 ppm CuCl2. Photocatalytic experiments were performed using these samples and showed that the most efficient photocatalyst in visible light was the 0.2 ppm grafted samples. But it was found that the efficiency decreases with increased grafting content from 0.2 ppm. A number of factors accounted for this trend, which are discussed within. This study shows that copper grafting can successfully modify TiO2 nanotubes to operate as a photocatalyst driven by visible light.

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  • Pathways for success for Maaori students: A maatauranga Maaori approach and a conventional NCEA approach to teaching and learning in visual arts at years 12 to 13

    Tupaea, Rawhakarite (2016)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Faculty of Education & Social Work Exemplar 60 point.

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  • Thinking Practice: Jacques Rancière and the division of reason

    Walsh, Shannon (2015)

    Masters thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    The university is moving through a sequence of radical and irreversible change. The forces of finance, commercialisation and anti-democratic managerialism join together in staging a perpetual siege; eroding the university as they attempt to turn its energies into profit. Yet this high stakes engagement also opens up the space for intervention. In order to wrest the university from the grips of these agents what is needed is new and powerful ideas. Rather than offering another documentation of this already well documented process, this thesis offers a rethinking of academic practice and argues that things can be done differently today. An extended engagement with the thought of French Philosopher Jacques Rancière, this thesis questions the many boundaries internal to academic practice: the boundaries between disciplines; between teachers and students; between science and ideology; between reality and fiction. As well as those boundaries that determine this ‘within’ from its outside such as the division of labour. With Rancière I argue that such a rethinking can and must be achieved without compromising the dual demands of reason and equality. Organised into four key sections: ‘Practicing,’ ‘Explaining,’ ‘Reasoning’ and ‘Creating,’ this study explores Rancière’s thought via the specific question of academic practice. Keywords: Jacques Rancière, Practice, Praxis, Equality, Education, Rationalism, Post- Rationalism

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