23,686 results for Thesis

  • An Evaluation of an Impaired Driver Treatment Programme Facilitated by Tūhoe Hauora

    Waru, Nicole Arihia (2016)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Driving while impaired is a substantial issue in Aotearoa. It has the potential to result in loss of life and cause significant health and economic strain on society. Recidivist impaired drivers are major contributors to this problem. Countermeasures of impaired driving have previously included liquor licencing, drinking age restrictions, health promotion campaigns and health rehabilitation therapies. The Ministry of Health offer an Impaired Driving therapy throughout Aotearoa as countermeasure to this issue. The programme is administered through the funder-contract system. Participation is compulsory for those mandated by court order. This study evaluates an Impaired Driver programme facilitated by Tūhoe Hauora; a kaupapa Māori mental health and addiction provider based in Taneatua, Eastern Bay of Plenty. The course is delivered once weekly over a period of ten weeks to a group of twelve or less recidivist impaired drivers or first time offenders who were convicted of driving with excessive levels of breath alcohol. The evaluation draws from a community psychology paradigm in exploration of the lived experiences of programme participants, in the context of course 2 of the 2014 Tūhoe Hauora Impaired Driving course. The experiences of five individuals were explored using in-depth face to face interviews and presented using a case-by-case approach. Participant observation, document review, evaluation visits and participant surveys were used as supplement methods of inquiry. The findings illustrated that Tūhoe Hauora met contract requirements by addressing impaired driving recidivism to date of interview. The evaluation also found the course actualising the mission of Tūhoe Hauora which was to address the holistic well-being of programme participants. The research did present areas in the programme that could be improved particularly pertaining to the referral process and a need for agency collaboration. Recommendations were formulated in attempt to address the programme gaps and discussion is offered in addressing the multi-layered oppression that was experienced throughout the evaluation process by both Tūhoe Hauora and the evaluation participants.  

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  • Handmade tales : sustainable fashion through craft connections : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree of Master of Design, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Kapur, Harita (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    India is a country with an ancient history. The crafts of this country are diverse and are a reflection of the country’s cultural heritage. According to Dasra (2013), the craft industry provides millions of artisans with employment and is one of the largest small scale or cottage industries. For centuries, these craft communities have specialized in traditions that are specific to the regions and respective skills, which have been handed down from generations of artisans. Yet in recent years, as Wood (2011) notes, this sector faces a major threat as a result of growing preference for mass produced designs that are cheap and easy to afford. This has contributed to the steady decline of craft based products. This, alongside a lack of knowledge of new innovative ways to design, and decreasing demand for their products have left the craftspeople very vulnerable and has posed a big threat to their sustainable livelihoods. Integrating fashion design with artisan textiles can help regenerate the community and village culture while enhancing the value of products. This practice led research project offers a framework to meet the emerging challenges associated with ethical and environmental principles linked with fashion by incorporating sustainable processes used in traditional craft production. Importantly, it can also offer one strategy to support economic sustainability issues linked to the livelihood of craftspeople at the village level. The project develops an example of a sustainable fashion design process by drawing from the rich heritage of Indian crafts and focuses on developing a fashion collection that integrates artisan craft textiles into the design process. This reaches out to a market that is sensitive towards sustainability issues linked to artisan livelihood and fashion and values the handmade and organic as an alternative approach. This exploration of issues related to sustainability both for fashion design and craft is an attempt to uncover why developing a relationship between the two is significantly more relevant today than it ever has been.

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  • The New Zealand feed grain industry : production, marketing and utilization : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Administration in Agriculture at Massey University

    Booth, Donald M (1978)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    THE NEW ZEALAND FEED GRAIN INDUSTRY: PRODUCTION, MARKETING, AND UTILIZATION D. M. Booth The New Zealand feed grain industry has expanded considerably over the last decade yet to date very little is known about the influence of both the economic and non-economic factors on grain production. Even less has been written about the marketing and utilization of these grains. One objective of this study was to examine the functions and activities of the many participants in the feed grain industry. A secondary objective was to develop a model of feed grain supply for maize and barley crops which would reveal the reactions of producers to the changing economic and non-economic variables that were prevalent in the marketplace when actual production decisions were made. From a grain producer's point of view many decisions have to be made. Initially the producer has to decide on one or several production alternatives in which to invest his limited resources. "Will I produce maize this year or will I buy more breeding stock?" is a typical decision that has to be made. There are several non-economic factors influencing production decisions at the farm level such as: (1) constraints imposed by nature (delayed seeding, etc), (2) cultural constraints (crop rotations, etc.), (3) fixed factors involved in agricultural production, (4) institutional constraints (price for wheat set by the New Zealand Wheat Board), (5) uncertainty and imperfect knowledge (prices, etc.). All of the above factors influence production decisions at the farm level. The New Zealand feed grain industry is made up of many participants starting initially with the producer and his grain merchant. Grain merchants are involved in many activities such as: (1) the establishment of annual feed grain prices, (2) the management of the grain contracting system, (3) the marketing of agricultural inputs and other services to the primary producer, (4) marketing of feed grains to both the domestic and export markets. The majority of the feed grains produced in New Zealand are produced under contract to a grain merchant. Approximately 95% of the maize and 80% of the barley acreage is contracted each year at specified prices subject to certain grading standards. In New Zealand there is no "formal" marketplace (such as a commodity exchange) for the establishment of feed grain prices. Prices are negotiated by the producer and his grain merchant on an individual basis with generally the same price quoted for each producer. As acres are contracted and it seems that production will not be sufficient for the expected demand, then a higher contract price is offered which hopefully generates the necessary production that is needed. All contract prices are equalized within a region by the individual grain merchant. Competitive grain merchants set their own prices but again prices tend to equalize within a region. Price differentials between regions generally account for the differing transportation costs of moving the grain from producer to end user. Another participant in the grain industry is the grain broker. The grain broker brings buyers and sellers together. For example, somebody has grain they want to sell while another needs grain. The grain broker contacts both and without the buyer knowing who the seller is, the sale is negotiated at a mutually agreeable price. Prices fluctuate depending upon supply and demand and the position of the grain (i.e. is it readily deliverable? transportation costs, etc?") The grain broker handles grain sales between merchants and also between merchants and feed manufacturers. New Zealand grain has primarily two end sources - the domestic or the export market. The domestic market is divided into grain for stock feeding, industrial uses and for human consumption. A major participant at this stage is the feed manufacturer. He performs several important functions in the grain sector: (1) participates in the establishment of prices, (2) makes the necessary transport arrangements to move the grain from free-on-rail or ex-silo positions, (3) manufactures and retails feed grains in bulk and bag form, (4) provides technical and economic services for end users. An attempt to quantify some of the relationships within the feed industry was carried out in the form of a supply response model. A simple linear regression model was used. A generalized model took the following form: Q*t = ao + ai pgt/tct - a2 pLt +a3Zt + a4T + at where Q*t = acreage of grain in period t pgt = price of grain in period t pct = price of the major competitive grain in the specific region in period t pLt = price of major livestock alternatives in the specific region in period t Zt = non-economic factors in period t T = linear trend variable et = error term ao,a1,a2,a3,a4 = regression coefficients to be estimated. The analysis was divided into two parts, the North Island and the South Island regions. Each region was estimated for the major feed grains produced. Barley on the South Island and both barley and maize on the North Island. For example in the South Island barley analysis, the model explained 86% of the variations in production with all variables statistically significant at the 1% level. This particular model estimated that for a 10% increase in the price of wool, the area sown to barley would decrease by 5.4%. Similarily, a 10% increase in the barley to wheat price ratio would result in a 25% increase in the area sown to barley. For maize, one of the estimated equations explained 87% of the variation in maize acreage. The elasticity at the mean was estimated and for a 10% increase in the maize price, the acreage of maize increased by 15%. This was based on 15 years of data. Several grain marketing alternatives were discussed. These included grain cooperatives, feed grain marketing boards and also making better use of the services of the grain broker. All have merits and of course certain limitations but as the feed grain industry expands there will be increasing pressure for changes within the New Zealand feed grain industry. This study hopefully has shed some light onto the functions and activities of the major participants in the New Zealand feed grain trade. This is just a starting point. More accurate grain statistics are necessary before any extensive research can be conducted. Hopefully this is an area where government and industry can come together.

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  • An exploration of influences on the careers of professional women planners : a 152.803 research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the Master of Business Studies at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Campbell, Phillipa Jean (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The literature which explores key influences on women’s career pathways suggests women’s careers are a blend of the work and non-work facets of their lives. The kaleidoscope career model (Mainiero & Sullivan, 2005, 2006) portrays the attributes of authenticity, balance and challenge as constants in a woman’s life and drivers which move constantly to shape her career at any particular point in its trajectory. The model seeks to explain why women ‘opt-out’ or work in different ways throughout their career. There is little knowledge or research on professional women planners and the influences on their careers. The report explores key influences using thematic analysis to analyse interview data from six participants. The results show professional women planners are adept at crafting their careers and taking into account their own particular objectives, needs and life criteria. They are able to work in a range of ways throughout their careers, from the corporate and local government sectors through to running their own consultancy practices in the private sector. The report finds they are able to do this without ‘opting out’, and integrate the facets of the kaleidoscope career model to take into account their own particular circumstances.

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  • Fat extraction from mechanically deboned beef with various pH and alkalis : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Technology at Massey University

    Wu, San-Der (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The study showed that meat surimi with a 1.3% fat content could be prepared from mechanically deboned beef. The process used in the laboratory to prepare the meat surimi was a relatively simple process requiring few unit operations, unit operations which are already used for the manufacture of fish surimi. It is therefore expected that the meat industry would have few problems in preparing meat surimi from mechanically deboned beef given the fact that the technology has already been demonstrated for the commercial production of fish surimi. The key processing steps are firstly the preparation of a mechanically deboned slurry with cold water to assist in the centrifugal removal of the "free" fat present in mechanically deboned meat. The centrifugal separation also removes the sarcoplasmic proteins which could be used for the production of meat flavours, soup stock and possibly pharmaceuticals. The second crucial step in the process is a sieving operation of the myofibrillar/collagen slurry to remove the collagen and "bound" fat from the myofibrillar protein. The subsequent collagen free myofibrillar protein could be concentrated by either further centrifugation or by pressing. The study also showed that most alkali washes had no significant impact on the fat removal efficiencies of the process, with the possible exception of sodium carbonate, compared to the use of fresh, potable water. It was further demonstrated that it was unnecessary to increase the pH of the wash water beyond a pH of 7.0 as no additional fat separation efficiencies were obtained at the higher pH's. The neutral pH requirements of the ,process would reduce chemical costs, and possibly also limit equipment wear compared to htgh wash treatments of pH 9.0 advocated by other researchers. The low pH requirements of the process could also be expected to minimise protein damage which can occur, if held for extended periods at the higher pH's of 9.0 or higher. The present study has only demonstrated the feasibility of producing meat surimi from mechanically deboned beef. Other uses for the sarcoplasmic and collagen fractions should be established and then a financial feasibility of the whole process should be carried out to establish whether the outlined process is commercially feasible.

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  • The New Zealand Chinese gooseberry export industry and its future development : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Agricultural Economics at Massey University

    Milne, D. W. (1972)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand's dependence on the traditional exports, meat, wool, butter and cheese for the major overseas earners is well documented, (see (1)). New Zealand is one of the world's most efficient producers of these commodities but market access and short term political and social expediency has tended to reduce the gains of economic rationalization. During the last year (1971) butter and cheese have been placed in long term jeopardy due to Britain's impending union1 1. This is not an unexpected development. Britain first applied for membership in 1961 and was rejected in 1963 - negotation restarted in 1966 and entry will date from the 1/1/73. However, the provisions of the Common Agricultural Policy will not come into force until 1/1/74. with the European Economic Community. Wool suffered a serious price reversal in 1967 and although a price revival has occurred in the past year it is doubtful if this will be a long term recovery. Lamb exports to the U.K. are experiencing greater competition than ever from other meats, especially cheaply produced poultry. The beef quota for the U.S.A. cannot be considered safe as it depends to a large extent on seasonal production variations in the U.S.A. and the strength of the U.S.A. farm lobby. The existence of tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade, together with low price and income elasticities of demand for primary exports has placed emphasis on manufactured exports and import substitution in New Zealand, but many attempts at such diversification are often misdirected.2 2.An obvious example of this in New Zealand - The Automobile Industry. (see The World Bank Report on the New Zealand Economy 1968) though the farming industry has some protected sectors also. New Zealand has no absolute or comparative advantage in citrus production, hop production, wheat production - consequently all are protected by trade barriers in common with many other countries. Condliffe (5) has a cautionary note about this: "It is necessary to aim at competitive production for the world market rather than protected production for a small local market."

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  • (Re)constructing selves : emplaced socio-material practice at the Men's Shed North Shore : an ethnographic case study : a thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Anstiss, David (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Retirement can bring about significant disruption for men who spend a large amount of their lives in paid employment. When leaving paid employment, men also leave places where they have developed a sense of self, secured resources, found meaning, participated in social networks, and engaged in practices of health and gender. How men respond to such a challenging life stage by creating spaces for participating in positive and affirming practices, is largely overlooked. In this thesis, I explore the ways in which a group of older, retired men jointly (re)construct a sense of self through emplaced socio-material practice in the Men’s Shed North Shore. Amid a dearth of literature on men’s caring and supportive social relationships, this research contributes to an understanding of the ways men in Aotearoa, New Zealand come to re-know themselves and develop supportive relationships through a shared community project. The research is informed by an ethnographic case-based orientation that draws on participation-observation fieldwork, interviews, and a focus group with men who participate at the Men’s Shed North Shore. Findings illustrate the effort these men put into the communal reworking of self, the maintenance of health and dignity in a disruptive life stage, their pragmatic approach to retirement, and their (re)production of place and space. A central focus in the analysis is the importance of socio-material practice in the Shed. In particular, the analysis explores the role of material practice as an essential relational practice in the Shed. Through construction projects, men connect with, and reproduce, the material essence of the Shed, and engage meaningfully with other men. The analysis also demonstrates the importance of material practice for these men in maintaining health and dignity in later life. The men agentively and pragmatically respond to displacement in retirement by (re)constructing a sense of self and reemplacing themselves through familiar and shared labour practices. The analysis also demonstrates how the daily material activities of the Shed reflect an ongoing enactment of wellbeing, enabled and demonstrated through social interaction and productive activity.

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  • Co-designing primary learning space in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Haghighi, Mana Talebi (2017-03)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    Research Question: How can co-design assist students at a bicultural primary school in central Auckland transition into a ”Modern” or ”Innovative” learning environment (MLE/ILE)? New Zealand’s Ministry of Education has planned for the renovation and rebuilding of schools on the basis of “Modern” or “Innovative” learning environments. is project attempts to review and rethink (together with students) the spatial and interior design of a typical classroom in a bilingual primary school, thereby assisting students in the transition to such new learning spaces. The project’s methodology is based on human-centred and participatory design. is involves the conceptualization, planning and delivery of three workshops, the analysis of data from the workshops and the conversion of this data into design principles and a brief. e project’s output takes the form of a proposed design solution (maquette and 3D models) as well as recommendations (a toolkit) for future co-design projects with primary school children.

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  • Inference of vine structures from images.

    Castaneda Marin, Ricardo David (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Making inference and extracting information out of images is one of the most important aspects that computer vision methods are presented with. From the many techniques that exist, Markov Random Fields has been found to be a powerful mathematical tool that is both flexible – it can be adapted easily to different applications; and that has the ability to model, with different depths of complexity, the uncertainty that is found in many vision problems. In this PhD I propose and evaluate comparatively a novel Hidden Markov Model for modeling and extracting vine structure from images, that is, hierarchical connectivity of vine canes. Extracting canes from vine images is a challenging problem given there are many occluded regions and overlapping canes present in such images. Previous research in the area of modeling trees and plants in images make use of manual intervention for solving the mentioned issues, or they make assumptions of the input images that are not valid in my setup. My proposed model aims to tackle directly the inference of connectivity between visible parts of canes, it is fully automatic and can be adapted to different structures other than vines. Here, connectivity inference can be done using any MAP inference method. Therefore, I have selected four methods for comparison, which are Iterated Conditional Model, Simulated Annealing, a heuristic random search based on Gibbs Sampling and Belief Propagation. These four methods are commonly used in computer vision for solving similar tasks to vine structure retrieval. In this thesis, I show comparative results of my proposed methods against manually annotated ground truth data. My Markov model and MAP inference methods generalize and achieve two times higher precision values when compared to prior research. They also compare similarly to heuristic methods for vine structure that were developed as a part of the same project this thesis belongs to. Furthermore, I also analyzed experimentally the convergence of the selected inference methods using vine images from which I know the true optimum value and conclude that Gibbs sampling achieves better performance in comparison to the other methods that usually get stuck at local optimums. Finally, the architecture of the system proposed in this thesis is similar to current methods in image parsing and scene understanding in computer vision. The results indicate that my proposed Markov Model together with the selected Maximum APosteriori– MAP inference framework are state-of-the-art methods in computer vision applied to the problem of vine structure extraction.

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  • Improvements to ergonomics and reliability of the digital image elasto-tomography breast cancer screening device.

    Bewley, Claire (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Breast cancer is a major health problem. It has been recognised as the most common cancer among women in both developed, and developing nations. Early detection of breast cancer can significantly reduce mortality, as well as the cost of treatment. Numerous screening systems are used today, but these have limitations including pain or discomfort, high costs and radiation exposure. Digital image elasto-tomography (DIET) is a novel breast screening technique that is non-invasive, low cost and painless. The technology uses tissue stiffness to identify tumours, which are 4-10 times stiffer than healthy breast tissue. Early results from a large clinical trial on a prototype DIET system highlighted two important areas requiring development: ergonomics and the system’s breast opening. These two aspects form the focus of this thesis. During a DIET screening process, a woman must lie prone for up to five minutes for each breast. Any patient motion may lead to reduced quality imaging data. Therefore, the top surface of the DIET system must be ergonomically designed. As part of this research, ergonomic trials were performed on three unique prototype surfaces. Participants were found to prefer a flat surface that gave them an option of where to rest their arms. This surface was developed further with a mechanical loading analysis performed to guide material selection. A design specification has been included for manufacture of the ergonomic surface. Currently, breast rings isolate the cup of the breast from the chest, and block external light from entering the DIET system. However, breast rings have caused issues during clinical trials, resulting in the need for a new breast opening. A unique shape was chosen for the top surface opening, which allows for imaging all parts of the breast tissue. This shape exposes the patient’s chest. Thus, segmentation methods are investigated to isolate the breast cup during imaging. Three phantom breasts with properties that mimic human breasts were created and tested with the new breast opening. When a combination of region and edge detection methods were used, the breast cup was successfully isolated. Additional changes to the DIET system hardware, such as changing the colour of internal components, would reduce the computation required for this process. This thesis results in a design specification for an improved top surface of the DIET breast screening system. The specification allows manufacture of the ergonomically designed surface, with a unique breast opening shape, for further clinical trials. The improved surface is enabled by improved imaging processes, and is necessary to ameliorate the existing machine’s current limitations.

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  • A history of the political labour movement in New Zealand, 1850-1913

    Robinson, K.W. (1937)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    A typically modern trend in democratic countries has been the entry of labour representatives into the political arena. New Zealand has proved no exception to the rule, but the history of her own labour movement, particularly in its earlier years, is still rather disconnected in the eyes of the general public. This thesis therefore attempts to recount the origins of that movement with the object of presenting a clearer idea of the nature of the beginnings of the party which constitutes the present government. It was at first intended to write of the Labour Party in later years, but preliminary investigation was sufficient to show that no such treatment could be adequate without a knowledge of the origins of the Party. Further investigation showed those origins to be worthy of separate study in themselves, and the history of the Labour Party is therefore left for other pens to write. The aim throughout has been to trace, not a party, but a movement, and to discover how much that movement was influenced by contemporary events and how much it was a natural and inevitable development. A thorough study of the subject, giving an exhaustive survey of opinions and incidents, individuals and groups in every centre of population, would have required intensive and prolonged research which the writer was not in a position to carry out. The extra work would doubtless have made the history more comprehensive, but it is certain that the general conclusions arrived at would not have been modified seriously. Newspapers are generally regarded as an unreliable source of evidence, but in this case exception can perhaps be claimed for making extensive use of one paper, since it gave expression to working-class opinions without displaying the fanaticism of purely labour publications. Thanks are due to the Central Office of the Labour Party in Wellington for the courtesy of the officials in placing material at my disposal. It is unfortunate that some of this material, which may have been of considerable value, went astray in the post, and was not traced. Thanks must also be expressed to the Hon. John Rigg, who was helpful in supplying newspaper cuttings and reminiscences dealing with the Political Labour League, and to Mr. E.J. Howard, M.P. for valuable advice. In some cases likely people who were approached, while showing keen interest, seemed unable to rely on their memories for anything definite; one supplied suggestions which were of no use; another, from whom much was expected, did not reply at all. During the whole period of research what impressed one most was the dearth of published material on the subject and the scant attention paid to the movement in general in comprehensive works. This made the task of constructing general outlines as a basis for work very difficult. The investigation has suggested that the early organised labour parties in New Zealand were striving not so much for something they did not possess as to maintain certain privileges which they felt were slipping from their grasp. Their aim appears to have been not so much an emancipation from the present as a safeguard for the future. This, at least, is apparent to the mind of the writer, and it is hoped that his efforts may be of some use in clearing the mist which shrouds the infancy of labour in this country.

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  • The mechanism of death evoked by human amylin in pancreatic islet B cells

    Bai, Ji Zhong (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Subscription resource available via Digital Dissertations. Amylin is a 37-amino acid peptide usually cosecreted with insulin from pancreatic islet β-cells. It is implicated in the regulation of normal glucose metabolism and thought to induce pathological features of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In particular, human amylin (hA) deposits as islet amyloid, and is associated with the loss of insulin-producing islet β-cells in NIDDM. The biochemical mechanism of hA-evoked death in cultured RINm5F pancreatic islet β-cells has been investigated in this thesis. Synthetic hA but not rat amylin (rA) aggregated in aqueous solution, formed fibrils, and evoked β-cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The cell death exhibited apoptotic features, including inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial dysfunction, delayed membrane lysis, aurintricarboxylic acid suppression and cell membrane blebbling. Cytotoxicity of hA was inhibited by Congo red (an amyloid-binding dye), 8-37hA fragment (fibril-forming but non-toxic), 1-40βA or 25-35βA (Alzheimer-associated peptide), but neither by sorbitol (inhibitory to hA fibril formation), rA nor its 8-37rA peptide (non-fibril-forming and non-toxic). Preformed large amyloid deposits of hA were less potent in causing β-cell death than small aggregates. These data suggest that hA induces β-cell apoptosis via small aggregates through a possible membrane receptor pathway. Inhibitors of protein and mRNA synthesis did not inhibit hA-evoked apoptosis, but rather enhanced or directly triggered β-cell death during prolonged exposure. Likewise, Ca2+ modulators, which alter intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), failed to prevent hA cytotoxicity and were ultimately cytotoxic themselves. Fura-2 loading and 45Ca2+ uptake studies indicated that hA did not mobilise intracellular Ca2+ during its toxicity. These results indicate a protein synthesis- and Ca2+-independent process of hA toxicity RINm5F islet β-cells. The studies reported in this thesis have established a new in vitro model of hA-evoked apoptosis using cultured RINm5F pancreatic islet β-cells. A new model of NIDDM pathogenesis is presented and discussed.

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  • "Turning the stone of being": Migrant Poetics in the Novels of Janet Frame

    Haarhaus, Isabel (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis sets out to examine Janet Frame’s eleven published novels in terms of a migrant poetics, born of Frame’s enduring concern with displacement and the tropes of journey and quest. The study will show that, while not literally a migrant writer, Frame expresses a migrant poetics in her characters and plots as well as in her use and examination of language, which together present the migrant’s trajectory as an evolution of subjectivity, climaxing in glimpses of the revivification of self and/as place; of what this thesis calls subjective arrival. Frame’s migrant poetics will be examined in terms of it operating on a continuum from literal through metaphorically transferred to ultimately universal expressions of the indeterminacy that is migration, so as to show that her migrant poetics thereby signifies most profoundly the possibility for transformation of not only the self, but also of the context that may provide one with a place-world in which to be. In so doing, Frame’s fiction will be shown to chart and excavate what this thesis refers to as the unbearable place so as to reveal therein the possible place that may sustain the migrant subject’s subjective arrival. Perhaps most importantly, this study concerns itself with charting the migrant subject’s transformed perspective as he or she traverses the unbearable place, and thereby with the migrant subject’s relative willingness and ability to recognise and occupy the possible place, or what is referred to as the new-country. As such, this thesis argues that Frame’s migrant poetics speaks to a universal condition and maintains that Frame’s fiction is primarily and fundamentally concerned with the ontology of Being: with what Martin Heidegger called Being-in-the-world. But while therefore largely concerned with the ontological implications of Frame’s writing, and therein largely influenced by theories of Being and discourses of displacement, rather than by Frame criticism per se, this study remains committed to the project of close-reading the actual texts at hand. Indeed, this thesis maintains that crucially Frame’s work never loses sight of the rudimentary, the material and the actual, and in fact works to refuse the separation between the expressions born thereof – the literal – with their metaphorically transferred and increasingly universal implications and manifestations. While informed by her autobiographical writing and poetry, this thesis almost exclusively concentrates on Frame’s long fiction, which it tends to consider as one body of work that traces the evolution of the writer’s project for reappraising the things of subjectivity and place.

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  • Management Rhetoric as Performance, Perspective and Persuasion: A Scriptive Reading of Management Theory Texts

    Monin, Nanette (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The texts of management theory are extensively cited and paraphrased in academic research and teaching, and in business practice. They have only occasionally been subjected to critical interpretation. My inquiry signals this space in management research and then enters into it. I ask how critical reading can effectively explore text-making in management theory, and whether text analysis might discover previously unrecognised meaning in management theory. Having established that critical management scholarship has not accessed the literary theory that would support explorations of text-making in management, I transport relevant theory across the disciplinary divide. Drawing on a wide range of literary theories, I develop an approach to critical reading, a method of text analysis, that I have called ‘scriptive reading’. Scriptive reading is a form of rhetorical analysis that acknowledges the role of dominant (standard) readings in textual interpretation; moves on to a critical reading that explores aspects of performance (author-reader relationships), perspective (worldviews) and persuasion (persuasive rhetorical strategies) in the text; and, in a final reflexive reading, considers the potential impacts of a particular reading experience on reading outcomes. In keeping with reader-response theory the shift is from the writer to the reader of the text. For analysis I select six influential management theory texts – authored by Frederick Taylor, Mary Follett, Peter Drucker, Henry Mintzberg, Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Charles Handy. Reading scriptively, I identify ten variously shared performance characteristics in these texts; isolate ten precepts that are common to the perspective generally shared by them, and demonstrate that all six texts employ similarly persuasive rhetorical strategies. My findings focus on the narratives of management theory exposed in the six readings. I discover that five of the six texts have built a narrative around a utopian root metaphor. The sixth text, authored by Mary Follett, does not construct a utopian worldview, but it does share common performance attributes and persuasive strategies. Although widely acknowledged to be theoretically profound and relevant, Follett’s text has not historically enjoyed the status of the other five. I conclude that reader identification with the subtexts of management theory may have more influence on scholarly recognition of them than do the performance attributes and the persuasive rhetorical strategies of the texts. The significance of my conclusions suggests that scriptive reading provides readers of management theory with a useful method of text analysis.

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  • Ripe for Harvest

    Brailsford, Ian (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Ripe for Harvest chronicles the establishment of the American youth market in the three decades following the end of the Second World War. The arrival of this market segment coincided with the post-war 'baby boom' and what John K. Galbraith characterised as the development of an 'affluent society'. Yet demographic changes and economic prosperity alone did not create the youth market. Markets are uncovered, delineated, promoted, and tested. The first part of the thesis examines the establishment of a youth-market business in the mid-1940s . Seventeen magazine and Eugene Gilbert's youth-market agency played a vital role in selling the idea of youngsters' spending power to wouldbe advertisers. Then follows an evaluation of the National Broadcasting Company's (NBC) attempts to deliver its young listeners and viewers to advertisers. The middle sections describe the techniques used by advertising agencies to sell their clients' goods and services to youngsters. The first case study deals with two marketing classics, Pepsi-Cola's 'Pepsi Generation' and Noxzema's 'Cover Girl' medicated make-up. We then move to an analysis of the J. Walter Thompson (JWT) agency's efforts to exploit the youth market for its major clients. Finally, there is a critique of youth marketing that combined commercial and ethical issues: the sale of cigarettes to youngsters and public-service advertising which attempted to steer youngsters away from delinquency and drug abuse. The final chapter details the implications of youth marketing from social and cultural perspectives. self-appointed social critics feared unscrupulous marketeers had manipulated America's youngsters into becoming unthinking consumers. The thesis argues that the relationship was more ambiguous than this accusation suggested.

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  • Calf Pregastric Lipase-A Kinetic Study

    Manuel, Robyn Desma (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. A commercially available pregastric lipase extract from calf has been partially purified by dialysis, anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The protein fraction of interest, that with the greatest activity against tributyrylglycerol (TBG) was prepared as an emulsion with L-α-lecithin and casein and eluted off an anion-exchange column, after binding strongly to the column at lowered pH and subsequent removal with a high concentration of NaCl (l M). The enzyme thus obtained was named calf pregastric lipase (CPGL) and showed preferential activity against TBG (a short-chain homoacid triacylglycerol), with respect to high values of Vs in combination with diminished KM, in contrast to the values obtained with the water miscible ester, 4-nitrophenyl acetate (4-NPA). Values of VS, the limiting rate of hydrolysis at the lipid / water interface, for the CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of TBG and V, the limiting rate of hydrolysis in a homogeneous solution, for the CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of 4-NPA at pH 6.0 and 35 oc were 8.36 ± 0.44 U mg-1 and 3.60 ± 0.16 U mg-1, respectively. The respective values of KM under the same conditions of pH and temperature were 0.10 ± 0.02 mM for TBG as substrate, and 0.53 ± 0.09 mM for 4-NPA. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the partially purified CPGL indicated the presence of three proteins with molecular weights (MW) corresponding to 44, 62 and 66 kDa. Comparison with literature MW values of pregastric lipases from other well-studied species (human, lamb, kid, goat and rat) identified the protein of interest at 44 KDa. This band was excised and subjected to five Edman degradation cycles. Although the MW of the partially purified CPGL is somewhat lower than the reported MWs of other ruminant PGLs, the resultant N-terminal sequence was in complete agreement with those previously reported for kid, goat, lamb and calf pregastric lipases (F, L, G, K, I). The lower MW lipase isolated in this study may have been partially deglycosylated or undergone uncontrolled proteolysis during the purification procedure. The activity of partially purified CPGL against the short-chain homoacid triacylglycerol, TBG, was further studied over a range of pH values (5.5 to 7.5) and temperature conditions (30 ºC to 50 ºC) and, in the presence of possible inhibitors. The maximum rate of TBG hydrolysis catalysed by CPGL was at pH 6.5 and 40 ºC, and under these conditions the value of Vs, the limiting rate at the interface, was equal to 14.3 ± 0.7 U mg-1. The stoichiometry of the CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of TBG was determined as 'one to one', and CPGL was observed at this early stage of investigations to exhibit substrate specificity for TBG compared with the initial product of hydrolysis, 1,2-(2,3)-dibutyrylglycerol (DBG). The approximate rate ratio for the catalysed hydrolysis of TBG:DBG by CPGL was 30:1. Thermal inactivation of CPGL was evident at high temperatures and especially so in combination with high pH. The enzyme showed a degree of thermal resistance at the lower pH scale and also in the presence of the following proteins: bovine serum albumin, more casein, lactoglobulin and transferrin. The greatest stabilising effect was exerted by the milk proteins lactoglobulin and casein. CPGL was found to be relatively resistant to the gastric protease, pepsin, retaining approximately 70% activity in the presence of 2% w/v pepsin for 1 hour. Proteins added to the TBG emulsion decreased the observed activity of CPGL by either aligning at the lipid / water interface or acting as fatty acid receptors, or both. Short-chain fatty acids (4:0, 6:0 and 8:0), as opposed to the longer chain (10:0 and l2:0) fatty acids, in the TBG emulsion, seriously inhibited CPGL activity, suggesting that the hydrolysis of TBG is more dominant in the aqueous phase than at the interface. The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate catalysed by CPGL was also examined over a range of pH values (6.0 to 8.0) and temperature (30 ºC and 50 ºC) values. Preliminary studies of the reaction milieu established that addition of up to 1.6% v/v acetonitrile, the solvent for the substrate, had very little effect on the measured pseudo first-order rate constant of hydrolysis. Michaelis-Menten parameters were determined in the presence of increasing concentrations of acetonitrile (0.66 - 6.6% v/v). As the concentration of acetonitrile increased, the limiting rate, V, decreased and the value of KM was unchanged. Hence the solvent behaved as a non-competitive inhibitor. Values of initial rate and Kψ were found to be buffer dependent, with relatively greater values being reported in bis tris buffer. Thus all studies were confined to the useful pH range of only one buffer, the choice of which was determined by the pH range under investigation. The maximum limiting rate, V, for the CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of 4-NPA occurred at pH ≤ 6.0 and across a broad temperature range of 35 ºC - 50 ºC. The onset of thermal inactivation of CPGL appeared under noticeably milder conditions than with TBG as substrate, due to less favourable binding of 4-NPA to CPGL. A pK2 value of 5.7 for the CPGL-4-NPA complex was obtained by fitting pH and Kψ data to the Dixon equation. Arrhenius plots of log Kψ against I/T for the CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of 4-NPA was linear up to 42 ºC allowing for calculation of the following thermodynamic parameters: Ea = 37 ± 2 kJ mol-1; A = 4600 ± 200 s-l; ∆H* = 35 ± 2 kJ mol-1; and ∆S* = -O.17 ± 0.02 kJ K-l mol-1. Studies of increasing acyl chain length of 4-nitrophenyl esters and homoacid triacylglycerols showed that CPGL preferentially hydrolyses 4-nitrophenyl decanoate and TBG, respectively. Gas chromatography was used to analyse the hydrolytic products of bovine milkfat catalysed by CPGL. CPGL preferentially hydrolyses the short-chain fatty acids (C4:0 and C6:0) which are dominant at the sn-3 position of bovine milk. Thus, CPGL is both typoselective for short-chain fatty acids and stereoselective for the sn-3 position. A study of the activity of CPGL in the presence of conjugated bile salts and egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes was undertaken to elucidate the viability of CPGL activity in the duodenum. All the conjugated bile salts studied, whether in the presence or absence of L-α-lecithin, diminished the initial rate of CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of the medium-chain ester, 4-nitrophenyl decanoate. With respect to the conjugated bile salt, the nature of the headgroup and the number and position of the hydroxyl substituents on the steroidal nucleus affect the degree of inhibition. The results indicated that CPGL is unlikely to contribute much, if at all, to fat digestion beyond the stomach (abomasum). Intercalation of 4-NPDe into egg PC liposomes and egg PC:cholesterol liposomes decreases the limiting rate of CPGL catalysed hydrolysis by effectively removing the substrate from CPGL. Phenyl boronic acid (BBA) and diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate (E600) are known inhibitors of serine hydrolases. Both of these inhibited CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of 4-NPA. BBA inhibited CPGL activity in a competitive way and a plot of KM against BBA concentration gave a value of 1.9 mM for the competitive enzyme-inhibitor constant, Ki. This value is similar to that of KM in the absence of BBA and implies that BBA and 4-NPA have a similar affinity for CPGL. In the presence of E600, an irreversible serine specific inhibitor, the activity of CPGL decreased to l8% of the activity in the absence of E600, after 2-hours incubation. This suggests that an essential serine resides at the active site of CPGL.

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  • Educating About Asia in New Zealand Secondary Schools in The 1990s Contesting Policy Curriculum and Practice

    Pang, David Nui-Nyen (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The thesis is about New Zealand's educational response to the rise of Asian capitalism in the 1990s. The transformation is a significant one because it involves a shift not just in the political and economic sense but also in the opening of the New Zealand mind. Although studying Asia has been articulated in major Western countries as the key to improving a nation's understanding about Asia, the dependence on the fortunes of the Asian economy and on governmental cueing is problematic because the approach is not necessarily consistent with improving the Asia knowledge base. It is argued in this thesis that the educating about Asia project for New Zealand secondary schools in the 1990s is essentially a contested initiative. The study follows a multilevel research framework. It identifies the underlying assumptions and substantive issues in terms of policy, curriculum, and practice. The analyses show that the unfettered global forces are increasingly influential in determining and maintaining educational reform and change. The study has argued that 'Asia 2000' and 'Asia literacy' are primarily economic ideas that have taken on a slogan status broad enough to capture the nation's attention but not defined enough in terms of epistemological and pedagogical clarity. The speedy formation of Asian studies education in the social studies and languages curricula is, therefore, a technical exercise rather than an outcome of analytical or theoretical consideration. The research has further established that Asia-literate teachers are central to implementation. However, the weak connection between policy and practice means that the implementation is not teacher-driven. The lack of ownership of the policy initiatives by teachers explains why the implementation of Asian studies education is at a glacial pace. The thesis concludes that Asian studies education is very much a diminished curriculum and its implementation a decentralised activity. It suggests that there is much more educational space to develop Asian studies education than the narrow and predominantly utilitarian argument allows. As the contextual pressures become more unchartered in the new century, it is important to rethink the taken-for-granted assumptions or run the risk of less formidable policy, curriculum, and practice foci. Asian studies education reform in New Zealand is very much a work in progress.

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  • Roles for Cation-Chloride Cotransporters in Maintenance of Lens Volume & Transparency

    Chee, Kaa-Sandra Nardia (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Visual acuity is reliant on lens transparency. In diabetic cataract it is well known that the ability of the lens to effectively regulate its volume is disrupted. This results in a localised zone of cellular damage, which distorts the precise tissue architecture of the lens producing light scattering, loss of transparency, and eventually blindness. The volume regulatory mechanisms disrupted in cataract formation are unknown. Therefore the major goal of my thesis is to provide a better understanding of transport systems responsible for controlling the volume of the normal lens. This information is urgently required if we are to understand the processes that initiate diabetic lens cataract. My thesis classifies for the first time the presence and involvement of members of the cation-chloride cotransporter superfamily (CCC) in the maintenance of lens volume and transparency. The potassium-dependent chloride cotransporters (KCCl, 3, 4), the sodium-dependent potassium chloride cotransporters (NKCCl), and the sodium-dependent chloride cotransporters (NCC) were identified in the lens at the transcript and protein levels using RT-PCR and Western analysis respectively. Immunocytochemistry was performed to map the spatial distributions of the different transporters. This analysis showed that each isoform had distinctive spatial distributions. KCC1,3 and 4 were differentially expressed in the cortex but only KCC4 was found in the core. NKCC1 and NCC were also present in the cortex but only NCC was located in the core. To assess the functional activity of these different transporters organ cultured lenses were exposed to specific inhibitors. DIOA mediated inhibition of KCC's resulted in peripheral cell swelling suggesting a role in ion efflux. In contrast, bumetanide inhibition produced a deeper zone of extracellular space dilations suggesting that NKCC mediates ion influx in differentiating fibre cells. The inhibition of NCC with thiazide produced inconclusive results. Taken together this molecular and functional data indicates that the above members of the CCC family mediate spatially distinct chloride influx and efflux pathways in the lens. This information was used to develop an integrative model of the transport processes in the lens. The complex and dynamic nature of these transport systems are illustrated and highlight, the integrated functions of these spatially distinct transporters to maintain the volume set point of the fibre cells. These transport processes are involved not only in steady state volume maintenance, but have roles in cell growth and elongation, and activation under hypotonic stress conditions are elucidated. As well as contributing to a more comprehensive understanding of normal lens volume maintenance, my results have provided a novel theory into the combination of both osmotic and oxidative stresses imposed on the lens under hyperglycaemic trauma. Along with the cotransporters isolated in this thesis, the mechanisms for their control can also be marked as potential targets for innovative anti-cataract therapies.

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  • High Valent Early Transition Metal Complexes as Catalysts for Organic Transformations

    Glenny, Mark W. (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. A series of oxo-phenoxide complexes with the general formula [WO(OAr)Cl3]X (Ar = C6H4tBu-4, C6H3Me2-2,6, C6H3Me2-2,5, C6H2tBu2-2,6-Me-4, C6H3tBu-2-Me-4, C6H3Cl2-2,6,C6H3iPr2-2,6) have been prepared by addition of HOAr to WOCl4. The chloro bridged complex [WOCl2(µ-Cl)(OC6H3Me2-2,6)]2 (2) has been structurally characterised and the oxo and phenoxide ligands shown to be in a mutually cis arrangement. Debutylation occurs with 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol however a monophenoxide, [WOCl3(OC6H2tBu2-2,6-Me-4)]x (4), was prepared with LiOC6H2tBu2-2,6-Me-4. Variable temperature NMR studies of 4 show the tert-butyl groups lock the aryl group preventing free rotation. The ethylene polymerisation ability of the complexes was investigated (activities of 0.22-0.96 g mmol-1 hr-1 atm-1). Titanium aryl imido complexes, Ti(NAr)Cl2(py)3, [Ti(NAr)Cl2(py)2]2 and Ti(NAr)Cl2(tmeda)]x were prepared via tert-butylimido/arylamine exchange reactions. Structural characterisation of the dimeric bis-pyridine adducts (Ar = C6H4Me-2, C6H4tBu-2 and C6H4Ph-2) showed an interesting balance of steric and electronic effects. Conversion of the tris-pyridine adducts to the dimeric bis-pyridine adducts is accomplished by recrystallisation which results in loss of the labile trans pyridine from the former complexes. Complexes substituted with the tmeda ligand, [Ti(NAr)Cl2(tmeda)]x (when Ar = C6H4tBu-2 x = 1 while when Ar = C6H4Ph-2, x = 2), display solid state structures where crystal packing forces are important. Dimerisation results with the phenyl substituted arylimide, possibly as a result of electronic factors. In solution these complexes appear to exist in a monomer-dimer equilibrium. The precursor to these complexes, [Ti(NtBu)C1(µ-C1)(NH2tBu)2]2 (22), was also structurally characterised and shown to be a chloro bridged dimer rather than the previously suggested imido bridged species. Supporting these complexes on functionalised polystyrene beads results in poorly characterised products. The 1-alkene polymerisation ability of these complexes was investigated (activities of 3.2-12.7 g mmol-1 hr-1 atm-1) and found to be similar to previously tested imido species. Addition of benzoyl isocyanate to solutions of WOCl4 affords WOCl4(N≡CPh) in quantitative yield. Nitrile adducts of WOCl4 are also formed upon reaction with other acyl isocyanates (4-tert-butylbenzoyl isocyanate and 2-chlorobenzoyl isocyanate). WOCl4(N≡CPh) was structurally characterised showing the oxo and nitrile ligands to be in a mutually trans arrangement. Smooth conversion of acyl isocyanates to nitriles can be effected with catalytic amounts of WOCl4 or WOCl4(N≡CAr) (Ar = C6H5, C6H3tBu-4). Theoretical calculations of the reaction pathway show that entropic, rather than thermodynamic, considerations are important. WOCl4(N≡CPh) was also prepared from addition of benzamide to solutions of WCl6, a formal dehydration reaction. WO2Cl2(N≡CPh) can be prepared by addition of benzamide to WOCl4 in a similar manner. The mechanism of formation probably involves O-coordination of the amide followed by dehydrohalogenation. [Me2NCH2CH2NMe2CH2Cl]Cl, the non-cyclised product of nucleophilic attack of tmeda on CH2Cl2, was isolated and structurally characterised. Spectroscopic evidence for a metallacyclic amide species produced from the reaction of [WOCl4] and 2-tert-butylisocyanate suggested that imido ligand substituents are not necessarily innocent. A range of tungsten imido complexes, [W(NAr)Cl4]x (Ar = C6H4Me-2,C6H4tBu-2, C6H4Ph-2, C10H7), was produced and further functionalisation was carried out. The complex W(NC6H4Ph-2)(NHC6H4Ph-2)Cl3(C14H9NH2-9) (54), formed in the reaction of [W(NC6H4Ph-2)Cl4]x with N-trimethylsilylbiphenylamine, was structurally characterised and the presence of the imido, amido and amine ligands confirmed. Reduction of the monomeric imido complexes with sodium-mercury amalgam in the presence of trimethylphosphine afforded complexes of the type W(NAr)Cl2(PMe3)3 (Ar = C6H4Me-2, C6H4tBu-2, C6H4Ph-2,C10H7). Structural characterisation was obtained for the complex W(NC6H4tBu-2)Cl2(PMe3)3. Exchange of the labile cis trimethylphosphine ligands in the complexes W(NAr)Cl2(PMe3)3 with π-acceptor ligands (ethylene and diphenylacetylene) can be effected upon thermolysis or, in the case of ethylene, under irradiation with intense visible light to afford complexes of the type W(NAr)Cl2(CH2=CH2)(PMe3)2 (Ar = C6H4tBu-2, C6H4Ph-2) and W(NC6H4tBu-2)Cl2(PhC=CPh)(PMe3)2. The latter complex contains the alkyne as a 2-electron donor ligand. The complex [Ta(NC6H4tBu-2)Cl4(py)][pyH] (63), formed in the first tert-butylimido/arylamine exchange reaction involving a tantalum species, was structurally characterised and shown to contain the four chloride ligands cis to the imido ligand. The structure of ZrCl4(tmeda) (64) was also determined, confirming the pseudo-octahedral coordination environment of the zirconium atom.

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  • Sulfur Compounds in the Environment

    Li, Kwong Chi (2003)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. A new analysis method for sulfur compounds using solid phase microextraction (SPME), gas chromatography (GC) and pulse flame photometric detector (PFPD) has been developed in this study. In the method, air samples were collected with Tedlar air sampling bags, Carboxen-Polydimethylsiloxane (Carboxen-PDMS) coated fibers were then used to extract analytes from the samples and introduce them into the injector of a GC by thermal desorption. The analytes were separated using a GS-GasPro column and detected with the PFPD. Using a SPME-GC-PFPD method the retention times of 28 sulfur compound standards were determined for the identification of sulfur compounds in air samples. A method was also developed for the quantification of H2S. The reproducibility (<14%),lowest quantitation limit (4 ppb for H2S) and detection limit (0.4 ppb for H2S) were determined for this method. Emissions from geothermal sources, wetlands and wastewater treatment works are the sources of atmospheric sulfur compounds. Rotorua (New Zealand),a beach near Point England (Auckland, New Zealand) and a wastewater treatment plant were selected for sampling. With the SPME-GC-PFPD method COS, H2S, CS2, SO2, (CH3)2S were identified in the air in residential areas in Rotorua. COS, H2S, CS2, SO2, CH3SH, (CH3)2S and CH3(CH2)2CH2SH were identified in the air around geothermal sources in Rotorua, three additional compounds, C2H5SH, CH3CH2CH2SH and CH3CH2SCH3 were identified in a fumarole emission. It was observed that the H2S concentrations in residential areas were well below the air quality standard for geothermal areas (0.05 ppm) at the time of collection, but the H2S concentrations in the vicinity of geothermal areas were above the standard. COS, H2S, CS2, CH3SH, (CH3)2S, (CH3)2S2, and SO2 were identified in the air in a wastewater treatment plant. As low concentrations of sulfur compounds were detected in the open air they did not cause any odour problems to the workers or the public. It was observed that the H2S concentrations in the open air were below the air quality standard (0.005 ppm) for non-geothermal areas. PM10 samples collected from Hunua, Hamilton and Christchurch in New Zealand, were analysed using a modified SPME-GC-PFPD method. H2S, SO2, CH3SH, (CH3)2S, (CH3)2S2, thiophene and ethyl methyl sulfide were identified in the particulate samples. The concentration of each sulfur compound identified in the samples varied between the three locations, which might have been caused by different emission sources. The newly developed SPME-GC-PFPD trace level analysis method for sulfur compounds and H2S is fast, easily operated, cost effective and reliable. In this study, the applications of this method have been used to demonstrate its versatility for the analysis of sulfur containing samples in various matrices.

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