23,686 results for Thesis

  • Process design testing using simulation : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Technology in Engineering and Automation at Massey University

    Martin, Nicholas Kenneth Lamie (2004)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Pagination misnumbered.

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  • Prioritisation of wetlands of the Rangitikei catchment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Natural Resource Management at Massey University

    Amaranathan, Usharani (2003)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study aimed to prioritise wetlands of the Rangitikei Catchment. The prioritisation will enable the Manawatu-Wanganui Regional Council to apply its limited resources in an effective way to preserve the biodiversity of the wetlands of the catchment. A process was designed to achieve the project aim. The first step in the process was the establishment of two conservation goals: 1)Maintain species diversity, 2)Eliminate threats within wetlands. Secondly, the wetlands of the Rangitikei Catchment were surveyed to collect state and pressure information. 25 wetland sites were surveyed using the REWA survey method. Data collected was then analysed, first using the complementarity programme Sites V1.0. However, complementarity analysis did not achieve a clarified prioritisation of wetland sites because extreme variability was found among sites. In particular, complementarity analysis did not respond well to having two very different conservation goals of pressure and state. Therefore, 13 prioritisation criteria were employed based on elements of pressure and state. A method was devised to overcome problems of weighting criteria. True scores were converted to adjusted scores of 1 to 4 using the box and whisker division method. This method also allowed for easier replication and manipulation of data as well as clear visual representation, unlike other methods. A unique prioritisation framework was then devised which allowed multiple criteria (in this study pressure and state) to be assessed simultaneously. The framework also allowed the large amounts of data involved in the prioritisation process to be presented as a single priority ranking. The prioritisation framework is a relatively simple, repeatable and highly adaptable method. The framework does not compromise the contribution of each criterion to the overall value of the wetland. This resulted in prioritisation of the surveyed wetland sites of the Rangitikei Catchment and allowed achievement of the study's conservation goals. The box and whisker division method and prioritisation framework presented in the study are two unique methods that may be applied in future prioritisation programmes. Both methods provide simple and visual representations of the complex processes involved in the prioritisation of wetland sites and respond to multiple and opposing conservation goals. The nature of the prioritisation framework allows information to be added as it becomes available as well as accommodating the addition and expansion of conservation goals.

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  • Organisational commitment as a predictor of job satisfaction, employee well being, absenteeism and intention to stay in the New Zealand Aged Care Sector : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Parr, Richard (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study, one of the first in the New Zealand aged care sector, examined the predictability of organisational commitment on job satisfaction, employee well being, absenteeism and intention to stay. A composite questionnaire incorporating Allen and Meyer's three component organisational commitment questionnaire (1990) was completed by 124 predominately female aged care employees. The results of the questionnaire were compared with overseas literature and showed that organisational commitment is predictive of employee well being, job satisfaction and intention to stay, although job satisfaction proved to be a more significant predictor of intention to stay. Implications of organisational commitment for aged care employees, aged care organisations and patients are discussed. Directions for future research include a call for more New Zealand studies of organisational commitment in the healthcare professions, and the development of human resource strategies, which are sensitive to differences in organisational commitment in a multi-cultural population.

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  • Profiling long-term unemployment utilising the logit model : a New Zealand case study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Economics at Massey University

    Thompson, V. Wesley (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study attempts to fit the logit model to a random sample of data compiled by the New Zealand Employment Service on individuals who have completed unemployment spells, over the period 1988-1997. The objective is to estimate the probability that an individual job seeker, with a certain set of personal attributes, will become long-term unemployed. The regression results are consistent with a priori expectations. However, the predictive power of the model is low, lending support to conclusions from other empirical studies that have used other approaches to modelling long-term unemployment in New Zealand. That is, the current set of personal attributes on which data arc collected in New Zealand are inadequate for modelling long-term unemployment.

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  • Providing information to relatives about expressed emotion and schizophrenia : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Moxon, Alicia Maree (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Studies have shown that long term psychoeducational programmes aimed at lowering the Expressed Emotion (EE) in family environments can improve communications between the family members and the client, reduce EE, and lower expectations. The present study aimed to enhance family members knowledge about schizophrenia and expressed emotion, as well as awareness of their current coping strategies by conducting a brief educational intervention designed to overcome methodological shortcomings of similar studies. It was hypothesised that providing information to families (excluding clients) about schizophrenia, expressed emotion and ways in which each member can help, would alter the views and attributions that relatives make about the causality of the client's behaviour compared to a randomly assigned wait-list control condition. These changes would then be reflected in reduced criticism, hostility, and emotional overinvolvement and increases in the amount of accurate information concerning schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia were recruited into a controlled trial of a brief educational intervention with family members. Relatives and clients were randomly allocated to one of two groups. a treatment group or a wait-list control group. They received a brief educational intervention designed to give clients and relatives individualised information about schizophrenia, expressed emotion, and how to manage individually in the home and in their relationships. Analyses of the results showed that relatives knowledge increased significantly after the education, and was maintained at the three month follow-up. The control condition reflected no changes in knowledge. Other results showed that relatives' and clients' EE ratings significantty decreased from pre- to post-test. All gains were maintained at the three month follow-up. At nine months after education only 1/19 clients had relapsed. The analyses suggested that although knowledge increased as a result of education, the decreases in EE were not due to education alone. The discussion considers these findings in some detail.

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  • Tusitala : teller of tales : exploring graphic representations of diasporic poetry for engaging Pasifika youth : an exegesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Design, Massey University College of Creative Arts, Wellington, New Zealand

    Flanagan, Vaughan Tangiau (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    While many high achievers come from the Pasifika community, current research into New Zealand secondary schools has identified a literacy gap between students from Pasifika backgrounds and those from other ethnic groups (Telford & Tuomu’a, 2013). The findings highlight the need to investigate engaging and culturally-responsive methods for strengthening the literacy outcomes of Pasifika students. Tusitala – teller of tales aims to explore graphic narrative as a sequential storytelling method for the engagement, education and empowerment of Pasifika youth. Graphic narrative is used as an umbrella term by comic theorists to describe narrative work in the medium of graphic novels, and comics. The project is contextualised within an existing body of research into the effectiveness of graphic narratives as multimodal texts, for engaging reluctant and struggling readers. Positioned primarily as a practice-based design investigation into the potential of graphic narrative for educational outcomes, the project is further underpinned by pedagogical and sequential art theories. As a subset of this project, poetry from Pasifika authors is highlighted for its particular role in reflecting the identity and experiences of Pasifika youth today. The resulting design investigation applies both a formal analysis of graphic narrative works and textual analysis of four poems from contemporary Pasifika poets. These poems are then synthesised into a set of large posters that draw artistic influence from both Western and Indigenous precedents. The resulting set contributes to a growing body of work that reflects Pacific diasporic identity in New Zealand.

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  • The prevalence of psittacine circovirus in native and exotic parrots in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Conservation Biology at Massey University

    Ha, Hyejeong (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Psittacine circovirus (PCV) has been identified in more than 60 psittacine species worldwide in both aviary and wild populations. The virus is a causative agent of psittacine circoviral disease (PCD), a highly infectious disease characterised by beak and feather dystrophy, high juvenile mortality or long-term immunological suppression. The virus is known to be very difficult to control or eradicate and among wild Australian parrots, the prevalence of infection is 10-20 %. No information on the incidence of PCV in parrots in New Zealand was available. The aims of this study were 1) to determine the prevalence of PCV in wild exotic parrots, 2) to determine the prevalence of PCV in wild native parrots, 3) to identify the incidence of PCV in captive native parrots, and 4) to suggest recommendations for the future conservation management of native parrots populations in New Zealand. Two species of exotic parrots; eastern rosella and sulphur-crested cockatoo, and four species of native parrots; kakapo, kaka, kea and parakeet were examined. Feathers of these parrots were collected from different regions in New Zealand and PCR assay was conducted to identify the presence of PCV. The prevalence of PCV in wild exotic parrots in New Zealand was considerably high in both species of exotic parrots, as the prevalence of PCV at the 95% confidence intervals ranged from 19.17 - 44.02% in eastern rosellas and 22.04 - 33.07% in sulphur-crested cockatoos. No wild native parrots showed any evidence of PCV in PCR assay and given the sample sizes in this study, the prevalence of PCV was estimated as less than 4-7% if PCV is present in the populations. However, the first isolation of PCV in native parrots occurred in two species of parakeets in captivity; red-crowned parakeets and Antipodes Island parakeets. No significant abnormalities were detectable in the red-crowned parakeets but the Antipodes Island parakeet died shortly after translocation. The presence of PCV was confirmed in contact birds in both cases.

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  • The Relationships between Children and Young Adults' Social Evaluations, Prosociality, and Callous-Unemotional Traits

    Hinten, Ashley Elise (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Growing evidence suggests that infants and young children distinguish between prosocial and antisocial others. The main paradigm employed to test this ability is the hill paradigm. The hill paradigm involves three characters: a protagonist trying to climb a hill, an agent that facilitates them to achieve their goal by pushing them up the hill (i.e., the Helper), and an agent that prevents them from achieving their goal by pushing them down the hill (i.e., the Hinderer). After watching these scenarios infants and young children not only display a preference for the Helper, but also hold expectations about how the protagonist should interact with the Helper and Hinderer. The first aim of the current study was to replicate these basic findings with both children and young adults. Specifically, we hypothesised that when the Helper and Hinderer were presented side-by-side, participants would show a looking preference for the Helper (Hypothesis 1a) and expect the protagonist to approach the character that helped, rather than hindered, its ascent of the hill (Hypothesis 1b). In addition, when participants’ own helping behaviour was assessed, we expected the level of helping they provided to correlate with their preference and expectation looking data (Hypothesis 2). Finally, we investigated how participants’ preferences and expectations following the hill paradigm, and their own helping behaviour, correlated with psychopathic traits. Specifically, we assessed social cue focus (i.e., face looking preference, especially eyes), and Callous-Unemotional (CU) Traits, hypothesising that those with a higher incidence of CU traits would have improved memory for the Helper (Hypothesis 3a) and that there would be a relationship between social cue focus and participants’ preferences and expectations following the hill paradigm (Hypothesis 3b). Our results revealed that none of the hypotheses were supported; participants looked equally at the Helper and Hinderer (Hypothesis 1a) and did not expect the protagonist to approach the Helper (Hypothesis 1b). Further, participants’ own helping behaviour did not correlate with the measures derived from the hill paradigm (Hypothesis 2), nor did their social cue focus (Hypothesis 3a) or their incidence of CU traits (Hypothesis 3b). These results call into question the basic findings derived from the hill paradigm and the assumption it is a marker of prosocial behaviour or preference.

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  • Approach to management of the Mokau coal resource

    Manhire, D. A. J.

    Thesis
    Lincoln University

    The Mokau Coalfield, North Taranaki, New Zealand contains about 73 million tonnes of mineable coal which may be required to fire a 1000 MW thermal power station. Planning for development of the coalfield is at an early stage and current investigations are oriented towards coal resource measurement and infrastructure requirements. The predominantly rural environment of the Mokau Coalfield region will suffer a number of impacts if coal development is to proceed at the proposed scale. Early recognition of these impacts, together with recognition of possible constraints on development, is desirable so that development planning may maximise environmental benefits. Traditionally coal development does not incorporate environmental information until the late feasibility stage of planning. It is however desirable to initiate environmental management planning at an early stage of coal resource development planning. Early inclusion of environmental aspects is possible and an approach to environmentally aware management of the Mokau coal resource is illustrated. The approach relies on development of a materials balance for both mining and use sectors of the development. The materials balance details inputs to the development (i.e. resource requirements) and identifies all outputs as primary product, increased inventory or residuals. A planning framework is described whereby environmental factors are incorporated into mainstream planning at the pre-feasibility stage. A number of potential impacts and constraints are identified in this largely indicative study. Before all impacts and constraints can be identified a more detailed study, using the methods developed here, is warranted.

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  • Overcoming barriers to ethical clothing consumption: a conjoint analysis approach

    Read, Julia (2017)

    Masters thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In recent years, especially with the rise of fast fashion, the unsustainable and unethical nature of the clothing industry has come to light. Despite many consumers expressing concern and an intention to avoid unethical clothing consumption, this is often not reflected in their purchasing behaviour. To successfully understand how ethical clothing consumption can be encouraged, it is vital to first recognise the perceived barriers to this behaviour and to identify the key attributes which hold most importance to the consumer. To do so, this research defines major hindrances to ethical clothing consumption and subsequent solutions. The most prevalent barriers in the literature were identified as perceived cost, lack of information such as country of origin, lack of availability and attainability, lack of style and fashion, and unknown or undesirable brands. These formed the basis for the conjoint analysis which consequently determined what attributes and attribute levels were most important to, and preferred by, the participants. This survey was administered online on the Qualtrics platform and produced a total of 381 responses through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. The responses were then analysed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and correlation testing. The results indicated that overall, price and style were the most important attributes, followed by availability, information, country of origin and brand. Additionally, apathy, clothing involvement and purchase frequency were all tested to discover the relationship between these behavioural and psychographic traits and preferred attributes. Demographics such as age, gender, ethnicity, education and income were also tested. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings, and the direction for future research are also discussed. This research provides an understanding of what attribute combinations or bundles can overcome the major perceived barriers to ethical clothing consumption. In doing so, this thesis creates an understanding of the ways in which ethical clothing consumption can be encouraged and consumer apathy towards this issue can be reduced. Keywords: ethical consumption, ethical clothing, conjoint analysis, consumer apathy

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  • The Somali Diaspora : the integration and re-establishment of the community of Somali refugees in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Yusuf (Hawar), Issa Ahmed (2015-05-28)

    Thesis
    Unitec

    This thesis examines the re-establishment of the Somali refugee community in Auckland and the degree to which Somali refugees have tried to integrate themselves into New Zealand’s society and the way of life in Auckland. This study also focused on what has supported and helped Somali refugee families to integrate and to ascertain any challenges and obstacles that the Somali community faced. Furthermore, this study looked into the impact that the financial burden of supporting family members and relatives overseas, mainly in refugee camps, had on the community. I have chosen to use a qualitative study to explore how far the Somali refugee community has integrated into the wider New Zealand community in Auckland through the use of critical, social, and theoretical framework as the main paradigm guiding this study. Using in- depth semi-structured interviews, I conducted eight interviews with participants from the Somali refugee community, and one focus group for eight service providers who had good experience in working with Somalis in Auckland. The collected data was examined and critically analyzed in regards to the level of integration the Somali community made. This study was influenced by the theoretical lens of Ager and Strang (2008) integration indicators. This study found that Somalis who came to New Zealand ten years ago have integrated well by forming social connections in terms of social bonds, social bridges and social links, and overcame many challenges including: unemployment, racism and discrimination, social isola‐ tion, language barriers and issues with education for youth. Supporting family members overseas financially has also had an immense impact on the Somalis living in Auckland. This study found the formation of the Somali community organiza‐ tion played an important role in the re-establishment of the community within the host community, and more importantly, acted as an advocacy for accessing services. Another interesting finding in this study was the social and cultural interac‐ tion between the Maori and Somali community in Auckland. Finally, another major finding of this study is the migration of Somalis moving to Australia in search of employment opportunities and a better life. This caused major worries for the So‐ mali community in Auckland

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  • The mechanism of death evoked by human amylin in pancreatic islet B cells

    Bai, Ji Zhong (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Subscription resource available via Digital Dissertations. Amylin is a 37-amino acid peptide usually cosecreted with insulin from pancreatic islet β-cells. It is implicated in the regulation of normal glucose metabolism and thought to induce pathological features of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In particular, human amylin (hA) deposits as islet amyloid, and is associated with the loss of insulin-producing islet β-cells in NIDDM. The biochemical mechanism of hA-evoked death in cultured RINm5F pancreatic islet β-cells has been investigated in this thesis. Synthetic hA but not rat amylin (rA) aggregated in aqueous solution, formed fibrils, and evoked β-cell death in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The cell death exhibited apoptotic features, including inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial dysfunction, delayed membrane lysis, aurintricarboxylic acid suppression and cell membrane blebbling. Cytotoxicity of hA was inhibited by Congo red (an amyloid-binding dye), 8-37hA fragment (fibril-forming but non-toxic), 1-40βA or 25-35βA (Alzheimer-associated peptide), but neither by sorbitol (inhibitory to hA fibril formation), rA nor its 8-37rA peptide (non-fibril-forming and non-toxic). Preformed large amyloid deposits of hA were less potent in causing β-cell death than small aggregates. These data suggest that hA induces β-cell apoptosis via small aggregates through a possible membrane receptor pathway. Inhibitors of protein and mRNA synthesis did not inhibit hA-evoked apoptosis, but rather enhanced or directly triggered β-cell death during prolonged exposure. Likewise, Ca2+ modulators, which alter intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), failed to prevent hA cytotoxicity and were ultimately cytotoxic themselves. Fura-2 loading and 45Ca2+ uptake studies indicated that hA did not mobilise intracellular Ca2+ during its toxicity. These results indicate a protein synthesis- and Ca2+-independent process of hA toxicity RINm5F islet β-cells. The studies reported in this thesis have established a new in vitro model of hA-evoked apoptosis using cultured RINm5F pancreatic islet β-cells. A new model of NIDDM pathogenesis is presented and discussed.

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  • Collecting and Dividing : on the diversity of particulars and the framing of kinds

    Moffatt, Barry (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. To argue that the writing of philosophy involves telling stories, deploying figures of speech, and making pictures, is likely to be resisted perhaps fiercely, because such an approach appears at odds with the tenets of a rational, analytical method. Where the subject of these stories, tropes, and pictures is the natural world such resistance arises from a confusion of the fictional with the false, the imagined with the imaginary, and of making things out with making them up. The subject of this thesis is the presumed kind structure of the world, and I argue that in our descriptions of the world we create fictions, imagine relations, and make out patterns shaped by our particular interests. 'Argue' may be the wrong word, mainly I point, for like an aerial perspective once a thing is seen it cannot be unseen.1 I intend to provide such a perspective with respect to kinds. I resist the idea that reality, the world, possesses an idiom in which it prefers to be described, indeed demands that description if we are to get it right. I am not an essentialist. We may and do describe the world according to our own lights. While a rose is a rose, fact is not lost if we accept our talk about it may not be entirely literal, for instance when we frame it in a classification. Where our talk is that of science we may pursue various styles of thought, or reasoning, and these, often not literal, will create and shape kinds. That idea is Ian Hacking's, and I follow it here. Additionally, and again following Hacking, while my inclinations are nominalist, I have an enthusiasm for kinds. I defend their diversity and celebrate their Whiggishness with respect to our treatment of them. My task in this thesis is to illustrate that treatment in historical and contemporary contexts, and to demonstrate the diversity of kinds is in part a consequence of the history and the contexts. Like Dante entering the Inferno I needed a guide, my Virgil is Hacking, W. V. Quine and Richard Rorty are present as torchbearers. 1 With thanks to Clifford Geetz for this and other stylistic images in this abstract.

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  • "Turning the stone of being": Migrant Poetics in the Novels of Janet Frame

    Haarhaus, Isabel (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. This thesis sets out to examine Janet Frame’s eleven published novels in terms of a migrant poetics, born of Frame’s enduring concern with displacement and the tropes of journey and quest. The study will show that, while not literally a migrant writer, Frame expresses a migrant poetics in her characters and plots as well as in her use and examination of language, which together present the migrant’s trajectory as an evolution of subjectivity, climaxing in glimpses of the revivification of self and/as place; of what this thesis calls subjective arrival. Frame’s migrant poetics will be examined in terms of it operating on a continuum from literal through metaphorically transferred to ultimately universal expressions of the indeterminacy that is migration, so as to show that her migrant poetics thereby signifies most profoundly the possibility for transformation of not only the self, but also of the context that may provide one with a place-world in which to be. In so doing, Frame’s fiction will be shown to chart and excavate what this thesis refers to as the unbearable place so as to reveal therein the possible place that may sustain the migrant subject’s subjective arrival. Perhaps most importantly, this study concerns itself with charting the migrant subject’s transformed perspective as he or she traverses the unbearable place, and thereby with the migrant subject’s relative willingness and ability to recognise and occupy the possible place, or what is referred to as the new-country. As such, this thesis argues that Frame’s migrant poetics speaks to a universal condition and maintains that Frame’s fiction is primarily and fundamentally concerned with the ontology of Being: with what Martin Heidegger called Being-in-the-world. But while therefore largely concerned with the ontological implications of Frame’s writing, and therein largely influenced by theories of Being and discourses of displacement, rather than by Frame criticism per se, this study remains committed to the project of close-reading the actual texts at hand. Indeed, this thesis maintains that crucially Frame’s work never loses sight of the rudimentary, the material and the actual, and in fact works to refuse the separation between the expressions born thereof – the literal – with their metaphorically transferred and increasingly universal implications and manifestations. While informed by her autobiographical writing and poetry, this thesis almost exclusively concentrates on Frame’s long fiction, which it tends to consider as one body of work that traces the evolution of the writer’s project for reappraising the things of subjectivity and place.

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  • Influences on Midwifery Practice for the Management of Women in Labour

    Freeman, Lesa Maree (2004)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The research comprises a series of three studies to explore the practice of midwives ascertain what factors influenced midwives' decision making during the management of labour, and the partnership relationship between the midwife and the woman. A cross sectional design was employed using the predominant methods of interview, questionnaires and thinking aloud tape recordings as triangulation of data. Sample size comprised 104 independent, team and hospital based midwives who were providing labour care to 100 low obstetric risk nulliparous women in the Auckland metropolitan area, New Zealand. Results of this research identified that numerous factors both intrinsically and extrinsically had the potential to influence midwifery practice. The practice of the midwives in providing the labour care was found to be relatively homogenous despite the style of care provided (independent, team, or hospital based). On the other hand, the setting in which the majority of midwives practised (mainly large obstetric hospitals) identified practice influenced by the medical model of care. The influence of technology and the medical model of care, however, did not impact on the women working in partnership with the midwives. This was found to have occurred because the midwives adopted a humanistic approach to care, utilising technology alongside relationship-centred care. In determining what influenced midwives working in partnership with women, it was found that little emphasis was placed on the need for the midwives and the women to have equal status in decision making. Also, it was not deemed essential to have continuity of carer to achieve a relationship of partnership. Birth plans were found to be a beneficial tool for the sharing of information and structuring discussion. However, to assist women to express their preferences and be involved in the decision making process it is proposed that this could be achieved through a conceptual model of shared decision making. This shared decision making model meets the core objectives outlined in Changing Childbirth of continuity, choice, and control, and provides a partnership framework for midwives and women to recognise and utilise differences in their experience and knowledge to achieve their aims.

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  • Management Rhetoric as Performance, Perspective and Persuasion: A Scriptive Reading of Management Theory Texts

    Monin, Nanette (2001)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The texts of management theory are extensively cited and paraphrased in academic research and teaching, and in business practice. They have only occasionally been subjected to critical interpretation. My inquiry signals this space in management research and then enters into it. I ask how critical reading can effectively explore text-making in management theory, and whether text analysis might discover previously unrecognised meaning in management theory. Having established that critical management scholarship has not accessed the literary theory that would support explorations of text-making in management, I transport relevant theory across the disciplinary divide. Drawing on a wide range of literary theories, I develop an approach to critical reading, a method of text analysis, that I have called ‘scriptive reading’. Scriptive reading is a form of rhetorical analysis that acknowledges the role of dominant (standard) readings in textual interpretation; moves on to a critical reading that explores aspects of performance (author-reader relationships), perspective (worldviews) and persuasion (persuasive rhetorical strategies) in the text; and, in a final reflexive reading, considers the potential impacts of a particular reading experience on reading outcomes. In keeping with reader-response theory the shift is from the writer to the reader of the text. For analysis I select six influential management theory texts – authored by Frederick Taylor, Mary Follett, Peter Drucker, Henry Mintzberg, Rosabeth Moss Kanter and Charles Handy. Reading scriptively, I identify ten variously shared performance characteristics in these texts; isolate ten precepts that are common to the perspective generally shared by them, and demonstrate that all six texts employ similarly persuasive rhetorical strategies. My findings focus on the narratives of management theory exposed in the six readings. I discover that five of the six texts have built a narrative around a utopian root metaphor. The sixth text, authored by Mary Follett, does not construct a utopian worldview, but it does share common performance attributes and persuasive strategies. Although widely acknowledged to be theoretically profound and relevant, Follett’s text has not historically enjoyed the status of the other five. I conclude that reader identification with the subtexts of management theory may have more influence on scholarly recognition of them than do the performance attributes and the persuasive rhetorical strategies of the texts. The significance of my conclusions suggests that scriptive reading provides readers of management theory with a useful method of text analysis.

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  • Spectroscopic and Conductivity Studies of Doping in Polythiophene and Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) and their Applications as Gas Sensors

    Chiu, William Wen-Chao (2005)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. The studies in this project involve investigations of doping in polythiophene and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). Techniques including Raman, infrared, x-ray photoelectron and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, elemental analysis and conductivity measurement are used to characterize polythiophene and poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) samples. The main purpose of these studies is to search the most suitable materials for preparing conducting polymer gas sensors based on polythiophene or its derivatives. Polythiophene samples prepared either electrochemically or chemically are examined and the reactions between the dedoped polythiophene and iodine, a commonly used oxidizing agent are studied using both iodine solutions in acetonitrile and iodine vapour. Ion-exchange reactions are also attempted by treating pre-doped polythiophene powder with solutions in acetonitrile containing copper(Il) complex anions. Studies of doping in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) cover a wide range of dopants: First, a study of secondary doping using iodine is carried out. Here Raman spectroscopy with 514.5 nm excitation is used to investigate the level of I3- dopant in the polymer, while Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm excitation is used to investigate the change in the ratio of the intensity of the symmetric Cα=Cβ stretching vibration associated with the oxidized structure and the reduced structure respectively with changes in the polymer doping level. Other spectroscopic analyses .are also carried out to examine the changes in the physical structures of the polymer and the conductivity is measured to see whether secondary doping has a significant impact on the electronic structure. Second, a study of dopant-exchange using copper(II) complex anions in aqueous and acetonitrile solvents is carried out. Here electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and elemental analysis are combined to determine whether the incorporation of copper(Il) complex anions in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) is due to doping or due to adhesion; conductivity of the samples is also measured to see whether there is any change in the electrical properties upon dopant-exchange / anion-adhesion. Third, a study of dopant effects in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) using an electrochemical doping method is carried out. Four commonly used dopants, BF4-, Cl-, SO42- and poly(styrene-4-sulfonate), are investigated using Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm excitation to study the shift in the position of the symmetric Cα=Cβ stretching vibrations when the polymer incorporating one of the four chosen dopants is subjected to a progressive increase in the applied potential. The doping levels achieved in these electrochemically prepared samples are estimated from a pre-determined correlation equation that relates the ratio of the intensity of the symmetric Cα=Cβ stretching vibrations and the polymer doping level. Finally, a study of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) incorporating anionic polyelectrolyte dopants and their applications as gas sensors is carried out. Here poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) incorporating poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl- 1-propane sulfonate) is studied for the first time and its properties are compared to those of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) incorporating poly(styrene-4-sulfonate), which have already been well-studied by various research groups. These materials are prepared into gas sensing units either electrochemically or chemically to investigate their abilities in the detection of gases and solvent vapours.

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  • Ripe for Harvest

    Brailsford, Ian (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Ripe for Harvest chronicles the establishment of the American youth market in the three decades following the end of the Second World War. The arrival of this market segment coincided with the post-war 'baby boom' and what John K. Galbraith characterised as the development of an 'affluent society'. Yet demographic changes and economic prosperity alone did not create the youth market. Markets are uncovered, delineated, promoted, and tested. The first part of the thesis examines the establishment of a youth-market business in the mid-1940s . Seventeen magazine and Eugene Gilbert's youth-market agency played a vital role in selling the idea of youngsters' spending power to wouldbe advertisers. Then follows an evaluation of the National Broadcasting Company's (NBC) attempts to deliver its young listeners and viewers to advertisers. The middle sections describe the techniques used by advertising agencies to sell their clients' goods and services to youngsters. The first case study deals with two marketing classics, Pepsi-Cola's 'Pepsi Generation' and Noxzema's 'Cover Girl' medicated make-up. We then move to an analysis of the J. Walter Thompson (JWT) agency's efforts to exploit the youth market for its major clients. Finally, there is a critique of youth marketing that combined commercial and ethical issues: the sale of cigarettes to youngsters and public-service advertising which attempted to steer youngsters away from delinquency and drug abuse. The final chapter details the implications of youth marketing from social and cultural perspectives. self-appointed social critics feared unscrupulous marketeers had manipulated America's youngsters into becoming unthinking consumers. The thesis argues that the relationship was more ambiguous than this accusation suggested.

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  • Understanding Reassurance in Women Following Diagnosis of Benign Breast Conditions

    Meechan, Geraldine Theresa (2006)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. Undergoing specialist investigation of breast symptoms is a distressing experience for most women because of the possibility of a breast cancer diagnosis. Anxiety is typically reduced in those women who receive a benign diagnosis, however, some women remain distressed and are not reassured, despite malignancy being ruled out. Anxiety following benign breast symptom diagnosis has both clinical and psychological implications. Continuing anxiety may result in further medical consultations and impact negatively on required follow-up assessments and future screening behaviour. This distress can also impinge on women's quality of life and perception of good health. Current psycho-oncology research reflects a limited understanding of why some women are not reassured and the factors detracting from this process. Additionally, it is also unclear what intervention strategies are beneficial to promote reassurance following benign breast symptom diagnosis. Three studies were conducted at "one-stop" specialist breast clinics in Auckland to investigate the psychological impact of benign breast symptom diagnosis. The aim of the first study was to understand who is not reassured following benign diagnosis. A prospective, longitudinal methodology was employed to assess women prior to and immediately following diagnosis and at two and four months. Findings revealed that demographic, clinical, experiential and psychological variables impacted on reassurance in the short and long-term post-benign diagnosis. Specifically, women who were not reassured were more likely to have completed their education at secondary school level. The breast symptoms of a breast lump, breast pain and skin dimpling along with a lower perception of health detracted from reassurance. Women who had a family member and friend with breast cancer were less likely to be reassured as were those with greater fear of treatment, health anxiety and perceived stress. A second study, drawing on cognitive experimental information-processing methodologies, was designed to further understand why some women are not reassured. Women completed a Cancer Stroop task and ambiguous words task to investigate the role of attention and selective interpretation biases in the context of benign diagnosis. Findings suggest that biases may be operating for non-reassured women and that specific factors may play a role in anxiety following benign diagnosis. Women who were not reassured showed a greater attention and interpretive bias towards negative/threatening information. Additionally, results indicate that the Stroop task may be uncovering anxiety that is not evident in traditional self-report measures, as women who rated they were reassured experienced greater interference for cancer and threat words compared to not reassured women. The aim of the third study was to develop intervention strategies for women undergoing breast symptom diagnosis to reduce anxiety and enhance reassurance for benign symptoms. Women were randomly assigned prior to attending the clinic to one of three groups: standard clinic information, an additional information pamphlet or an additional pamphlet and meeting with a psychologist following benign diagnosis. Although the women receiving the additional pamphlet reported that they found the additional information helpful and made the process less threatening, no differences in anxiety were found across the groups prior to diagnosis. At follow-up, the effects of the additional pamphlet or support from the psychologist were not evident as no differences in levels of reassurance and anxiety were found. Taken together these studies support and extend current knowledge of the psychological impact of benign breast symptom diagnosis. Although further work is needed to clarify effective intervention strategies for women undergoing specialist assessment, this research contributes towards building a picture of women at risk for non-reassurance following benign breast symptom diagnosis. The findings also provide important clinical implications for health professionals working with women attending specialist breast clinics.

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  • Calf Pregastric Lipase-A Kinetic Study

    Manuel, Robyn Desma (1999)

    Doctoral thesis
    The University of Auckland Library

    Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or may be available through Interlibrary Loan. A commercially available pregastric lipase extract from calf has been partially purified by dialysis, anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The protein fraction of interest, that with the greatest activity against tributyrylglycerol (TBG) was prepared as an emulsion with L-α-lecithin and casein and eluted off an anion-exchange column, after binding strongly to the column at lowered pH and subsequent removal with a high concentration of NaCl (l M). The enzyme thus obtained was named calf pregastric lipase (CPGL) and showed preferential activity against TBG (a short-chain homoacid triacylglycerol), with respect to high values of Vs in combination with diminished KM, in contrast to the values obtained with the water miscible ester, 4-nitrophenyl acetate (4-NPA). Values of VS, the limiting rate of hydrolysis at the lipid / water interface, for the CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of TBG and V, the limiting rate of hydrolysis in a homogeneous solution, for the CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of 4-NPA at pH 6.0 and 35 oc were 8.36 ± 0.44 U mg-1 and 3.60 ± 0.16 U mg-1, respectively. The respective values of KM under the same conditions of pH and temperature were 0.10 ± 0.02 mM for TBG as substrate, and 0.53 ± 0.09 mM for 4-NPA. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the partially purified CPGL indicated the presence of three proteins with molecular weights (MW) corresponding to 44, 62 and 66 kDa. Comparison with literature MW values of pregastric lipases from other well-studied species (human, lamb, kid, goat and rat) identified the protein of interest at 44 KDa. This band was excised and subjected to five Edman degradation cycles. Although the MW of the partially purified CPGL is somewhat lower than the reported MWs of other ruminant PGLs, the resultant N-terminal sequence was in complete agreement with those previously reported for kid, goat, lamb and calf pregastric lipases (F, L, G, K, I). The lower MW lipase isolated in this study may have been partially deglycosylated or undergone uncontrolled proteolysis during the purification procedure. The activity of partially purified CPGL against the short-chain homoacid triacylglycerol, TBG, was further studied over a range of pH values (5.5 to 7.5) and temperature conditions (30 ºC to 50 ºC) and, in the presence of possible inhibitors. The maximum rate of TBG hydrolysis catalysed by CPGL was at pH 6.5 and 40 ºC, and under these conditions the value of Vs, the limiting rate at the interface, was equal to 14.3 ± 0.7 U mg-1. The stoichiometry of the CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of TBG was determined as 'one to one', and CPGL was observed at this early stage of investigations to exhibit substrate specificity for TBG compared with the initial product of hydrolysis, 1,2-(2,3)-dibutyrylglycerol (DBG). The approximate rate ratio for the catalysed hydrolysis of TBG:DBG by CPGL was 30:1. Thermal inactivation of CPGL was evident at high temperatures and especially so in combination with high pH. The enzyme showed a degree of thermal resistance at the lower pH scale and also in the presence of the following proteins: bovine serum albumin, more casein, lactoglobulin and transferrin. The greatest stabilising effect was exerted by the milk proteins lactoglobulin and casein. CPGL was found to be relatively resistant to the gastric protease, pepsin, retaining approximately 70% activity in the presence of 2% w/v pepsin for 1 hour. Proteins added to the TBG emulsion decreased the observed activity of CPGL by either aligning at the lipid / water interface or acting as fatty acid receptors, or both. Short-chain fatty acids (4:0, 6:0 and 8:0), as opposed to the longer chain (10:0 and l2:0) fatty acids, in the TBG emulsion, seriously inhibited CPGL activity, suggesting that the hydrolysis of TBG is more dominant in the aqueous phase than at the interface. The hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate catalysed by CPGL was also examined over a range of pH values (6.0 to 8.0) and temperature (30 ºC and 50 ºC) values. Preliminary studies of the reaction milieu established that addition of up to 1.6% v/v acetonitrile, the solvent for the substrate, had very little effect on the measured pseudo first-order rate constant of hydrolysis. Michaelis-Menten parameters were determined in the presence of increasing concentrations of acetonitrile (0.66 - 6.6% v/v). As the concentration of acetonitrile increased, the limiting rate, V, decreased and the value of KM was unchanged. Hence the solvent behaved as a non-competitive inhibitor. Values of initial rate and Kψ were found to be buffer dependent, with relatively greater values being reported in bis tris buffer. Thus all studies were confined to the useful pH range of only one buffer, the choice of which was determined by the pH range under investigation. The maximum limiting rate, V, for the CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of 4-NPA occurred at pH ≤ 6.0 and across a broad temperature range of 35 ºC - 50 ºC. The onset of thermal inactivation of CPGL appeared under noticeably milder conditions than with TBG as substrate, due to less favourable binding of 4-NPA to CPGL. A pK2 value of 5.7 for the CPGL-4-NPA complex was obtained by fitting pH and Kψ data to the Dixon equation. Arrhenius plots of log Kψ against I/T for the CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of 4-NPA was linear up to 42 ºC allowing for calculation of the following thermodynamic parameters: Ea = 37 ± 2 kJ mol-1; A = 4600 ± 200 s-l; ∆H* = 35 ± 2 kJ mol-1; and ∆S* = -O.17 ± 0.02 kJ K-l mol-1. Studies of increasing acyl chain length of 4-nitrophenyl esters and homoacid triacylglycerols showed that CPGL preferentially hydrolyses 4-nitrophenyl decanoate and TBG, respectively. Gas chromatography was used to analyse the hydrolytic products of bovine milkfat catalysed by CPGL. CPGL preferentially hydrolyses the short-chain fatty acids (C4:0 and C6:0) which are dominant at the sn-3 position of bovine milk. Thus, CPGL is both typoselective for short-chain fatty acids and stereoselective for the sn-3 position. A study of the activity of CPGL in the presence of conjugated bile salts and egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes was undertaken to elucidate the viability of CPGL activity in the duodenum. All the conjugated bile salts studied, whether in the presence or absence of L-α-lecithin, diminished the initial rate of CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of the medium-chain ester, 4-nitrophenyl decanoate. With respect to the conjugated bile salt, the nature of the headgroup and the number and position of the hydroxyl substituents on the steroidal nucleus affect the degree of inhibition. The results indicated that CPGL is unlikely to contribute much, if at all, to fat digestion beyond the stomach (abomasum). Intercalation of 4-NPDe into egg PC liposomes and egg PC:cholesterol liposomes decreases the limiting rate of CPGL catalysed hydrolysis by effectively removing the substrate from CPGL. Phenyl boronic acid (BBA) and diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate (E600) are known inhibitors of serine hydrolases. Both of these inhibited CPGL catalysed hydrolysis of 4-NPA. BBA inhibited CPGL activity in a competitive way and a plot of KM against BBA concentration gave a value of 1.9 mM for the competitive enzyme-inhibitor constant, Ki. This value is similar to that of KM in the absence of BBA and implies that BBA and 4-NPA have a similar affinity for CPGL. In the presence of E600, an irreversible serine specific inhibitor, the activity of CPGL decreased to l8% of the activity in the absence of E600, after 2-hours incubation. This suggests that an essential serine resides at the active site of CPGL.

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