23,247 results for Thesis

  • Generational differences in work values, work-related outcomes and person-organisation values fit : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Cennamo, Lucy K (2005)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Values are important constructs in guiding behaviour and enhancing motivation in the workplace. However, more research is required into generational patterns in work values, particularly as much of the information regarding age differences is based on stereotypes. The aim of this research was to investigate differences between the four generational groups currently in the workforce (Matures, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Baby Boom Echo), according to work values and the work-related outcomes of job satisfaction, affective organisational commitment and intention to leave. The study also examined how differing values may contribute to the perception of person-organisation values fit. An overall theoretical model of person-organisation values fit and outcomes was developed and then assessed for invariance across age using structural equation modelling. A sample of 504 Auckland employees completed a questionnaire (either online or via pencil and paper). Results indicated that the youngest generations (the Generation X and Echo group) placed more importance on status-related work values than the oldest generations (the Matures and Baby Boomers). The Echo group also placed more importance on having a social working environment than the Matures and Boomers. Freedom-related work values were also rated as being more important to the Echo group than any other generation. The two youngest generations showed greater intent to leave their organisations in the next 12 months compared with older groups. In terms of perceived fit between individual values and organisational values, Matures and Boomers reported better fit with extrinsic values than Generation X, and better fit with status-related values than the Echo group. The model of overall person-organisation values fit and outcomes was confirmed, and was invariant across groups, suggesting that the overall fit process was consistent across age. The findings from this study offer insight into possible areas for organisational intervention to enhance communication and acceptance between generational groups. Future areas of research are also suggested to improve understanding of this field.

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  • Wellness Protocol: An Integrated Framework for Ambient Assisted Living : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy In Electronics, Information and Communication Systems At School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Manawatu Campus, New Zealand

    Ghayvat, Hemant (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Smart and intelligent homes of today and tomorrow are committed to enhancing the security, safety and comfort of the occupants. In the present scenario, most of the smart homes Protocols are limited to controlled activities environments for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) of the elderly and the convalescents. The aim of this research is to develop a Wellness Protocol that forecasts the wellness of any individual living in the AAL environment. This is based on wireless sensors and networks that are applied to data mining and machine learning to monitor the activities of daily living. The heterogeneous sensor and actuator nodes, based on WSNs are deployed into the home environment. These nodes generate the real-time data related to the object usage and other movements inside the home, to forecast the wellness of an individual. The new Protocol has been designed and developed to be suitable especially for the smart home system. The Protocol is reliable, efficient, flexible, and economical for wireless sensor networks based AAL. According to consumer demand, the Wellness Protocol based smart home systems can be easily installed with existing households without any significant changes and with a user-friendly interface. Additionally, the Wellness Protocol has extended to designing a smart building environment for an apartment. In the endeavour of smart home design and implementation, the Wellness Protocol deals with large data handling and interference mitigation. A Wellness based smart home monitoring system is the application of automation with integral systems of accommodation facilities to boost and progress the everyday life of an occupant.

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  • Integrating the kayak ; transforming a lifestyle : a design-led exploration of transforming kayaks as lifestyle enablers : an exegesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Design at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand EMBARGOED UNTIL 01/05/2018

    Mitchell, Jason (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study uses design-led research to validate the hypothesis that the design of current transforming kayaks does not meet the needs of the modern user. Research identified lifestyle factors affecting the kayaking experience and compared them to current transforming kayak models. Opportunities were revealed for new transforming kayak designs that would help to overcome modern lifestyle barriers to kayaking. Primary lifestyle factors indicated the time available, portability, and the type of accommodation lived in were the most influential factors affecting peoples’ ability to engage in kayaking. Secondary factors highlighted specific focused elements where design could be most beneficial. The transforming kayak, better known by the generic term ‘folding kayak’, is a small watercraft capable of packing down to a portable state for transportation and storage. Used extensively during World War 2 by the military, transforming kayaks became popular in post-war Europe as leisure craft, significantly outnumbering their non-transforming counterparts. Despite the potential transformation has to overcome barriers to kayaking, the current design of transforming kayaks caters to only a fraction of the market it once did. This study adopted the University of Texas ‘M.O.R.P.H. Lab Transformation Framework’ to identify principles and facilitators inherent in product transformation. This framework was imperative in evaluating existing kayaks and successful product systems. The use of heuristics aided in the development of new transforming kayaks. Transformation as a meta-theme in the design of products is positioned within the interrelated fields of modularity, adaptable design, and fields where objects change state, or are reconfigured for a specified purpose. A heuristic, iterative prototyping process led to experimenting with M.O.R.P.H. facilitators themed around folding and sliding systems and resulted in a series of transforming kayak prototypes validated through proof of concept, with further potential for future development outside of this study. Key innovations include integrating all kayak components and developing a central point of deployment. This resulted in systems with faster deployment times and resolved issues of complexity and loss of components within transit. Research builds on the ideas of using transformation in industrial design as a means to allow flexible and adaptable solutions, specifically within the design of transforming kayaks.

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  • Evolutionary Networks for Multi-Behavioural Robot Control : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Computer Science Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Jordan, Adam Roger John (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Artificial Intelligence can be applied to a wide variety of real world problems, with varying levels of complexity; nonetheless, real world problems often demand for capabilities that are difficult, if not impossible to achieve using a single Artificial Intelligence algorithm. This challenge gave rise to the development of hybrid systems that put together a combination of complementary algorithms. Hybrid approaches come at a cost however, as they introduce additional complications for the developer, such as how the algorithms should interact and when the independent algorithms should be executed. This research introduces a new algorithm called Cascading Genetic Network Programming (CGNP), which contains significant changes to the original Genetic Network Programming. This new algorithm has the facility to include any Artificial Intelligence algorithm into its directed graph network, as either a judgement or processing node. CGNP introduces a novel ability for a scalable multiple layer network, of independent instances of the CGNP algorithm itself. This facilitates problem subdivision, independent optimisation of these underlying layers and the ability to develop varying levels of complexity, from individual motor control to high level dynamic role allocation systems. Mechanisms are incorporated to prevent the child networks from executing beyond their requirement, allowing the parent to maintain control. The ability to optimise any data within each node is added, allowing for general purpose node development and therefore allowing node reuse in a wide variety of applications without modification. The abilities of the Cascaded Genetic Network Programming algorithm are demonstrated and proved through the development of a multi-behavioural robot soccer goal keeper, as a testbed where an individual Artificial Intelligence system may not be sufficient. The overall role is subdivided into three components and individually optimised which allow the robot to pursue a target object or location, rotate towards a target and provide basic functionality for defending a goal. These three components are then used in a higher level network as independent nodes, to solve the overall multi- behavioural goal keeper. Experiments show that the resulting controller defends the goal with a success rate of 91%, after 12 hours training using a population of 400 and 60 generations.

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  • The effect of maternal nutrition during mid- to late- pregnancy on ewe and lamb behaviour and the association with lamb survival : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Animal Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Grönqvist, Gabriella Veronica (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Lambing percentage in New Zealand has increased by almost 30% in the last 20 years. This increase is associated with a greater percentage of twin- and triplet-born lambs which have lower survival rates than singletons. The behaviour of the ewe and her lambs has been associated with lamb survival, however, relevant data on the effect of ewe mid-pregnancy body condition score (BCS) and nutrition on ewe and lamb behaviour under New Zealand pastoral farming conditions is scarce. This research included seven experiments investigating the effects of feeding ewes, with a BCS of 2.0 to 3.0 at mid-pregnancy, either ad libitum or only sufficient to meet pregnancy maintenance requirements from mid- to very late-pregnancy, on ewe and lamb behaviour at 3 to 24 hours after birth. The association between behaviour and lamb survival was also investigated. Observations on ewe and lamb behavioural were conducted at tagging (3 to 18 hours after birth) and in a triangle pen test at approximately 12 or 24 hours after birth. The effects of ewe mid-pregnancy BCS and feeding on behaviour were somewhat inconsistent across experiments, possibly due to variations in the timing and length of feeding treatments. Feeding ewes ad libitum in comparison to pregnancy maintenance requirements did not consistently improve the maternal behaviour score (MBS) of the ewe. This is not surprising as neither of the feeding treatment groups were nutritionally restricting. There was some evidence to suggest that lambs born to ewes offered the pregnancy maintenance diet exhibited a greater need, possibly due to a weaker ewe-lamb bond than lambs born to ewes on the ad lib treatment. This need was characterised in twins, in chapter four, by greater low-pitched bleating rates and decreased time to contact, suck and follow the dam. Similar, but inconsistent results were reported in other chapters. Further, when investigating the relationship between behaviour and survival, it was found that twin-born lambs with the greater need (followed their dam more quickly) were more likely to die. The opposite relationship was found in triplet-born lambs, which may be a reflection of greater competition for milk within triplet-litters compared to twin-litters. Thus, in both twin- and triplet-born lambs following behaviour is an indicator of mortality. The practical use of this behaviour as a tool to predict lamb survival is limited.

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  • Facial Expressions and Context Effects : A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Xu, Hui (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    It is common and important for us to recognise facial expressions in our daily life. Research on recognition of facial expressions was often carried out using isolated faces, which leads us to ignore accompanied contextual information (e.g. vocal sound, body language). Chapter 4 used bodily and vocal expressions as contextual stimuli to investigate whether there are context effects on recognition of all six basic facial expressions. The results generally showed that recognition of facial expressions benefits from congruent contextual stimuli, while recognition of facial expressions is impaired by incongruent contextual stimuli. Chapter 5 examined whether the observed context effects vary with the level of intensity of facial expressions. The results showed that context effects are influenced by the level of intensity of facial expressions and revealed the opposite trend of the magnitude of facilitation effects and interference effects as level of intensity of facial expressions was increased. The following chapter 6 investigated another important aspect of context effects, that is, whether attentional resources influence the observed context effects. The results showed that the magnitude of context effects was reduced when the perceptual load of task-relevant tasks was increased, at least for context effects from bodily expressions to the recognition of disgusted facial expressions. All the data collected showed commonalities and differences in the pattern of context effects on recognition of facial expressions. Future studies might concentrate on the differences among these facial expressions to explore whether there exists a consistent pattern of context effects for all six facial expressions or to refine the existing models regarding recognition of facial expressions to better predict context effects for facial expression recognition.

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  • Bayesian Modelling of Direct and Indirect Effects of Marine Reserves on Fishes : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Statistics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand.

    Smith, Adam Nicholas Howard (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis reviews and develops modern advanced statistical methodology for sampling and modelling count data from marine ecological studies, with specific applications to quantifying potential direct and indirect effects of marine reserves on fishes in north eastern New Zealand. Counts of snapper (Pagrus auratus: Sparidae) from baited underwater video surveys from an unbalanced, multi-year, hierarchical sampling programme were analysed using a Bayesian Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) approach, which allowed the integer counts to be explicitly modelled while incorporating multiple fixed and random effects. Overdispersion was modelled using a zero-inflated negative-binomial error distribution. A parsimonious method for zero inflation was developed, where the mean of the count distribution is explicitly linked to the probability of an excess zero. Comparisons of variance components identified marine reserve status as the greatest source of variation in counts of snapper above the legal size limit. Relative densities inside reserves were, on average, 13-times greater than outside reserves. Small benthic reef fishes inside and outside the same three reserves were surveyed to evaluate evidence for potential indirect effects of marine reserves via restored populations of fishery-targeted predators such as snapper. Sites for sampling were obtained randomly from populations of interest using spatial data and geo-referencing tools in R—a rarely used approach that is recommended here more generally to improve field-based ecological surveys. Resultant multispecies count data were analysed with multivariate GLMMs implemented in the R package MCMCglmm, based on a multivariate Poisson lognormal error distribution. Posterior distributions for hypothesised effects of interest were calculated directly for each species. While reserves did not appear to affect densities of small fishes, reserve-habitat interactions indicated that some endemic species of triplefin (Tripterygiidae) had different associations with small-scale habitat gradients inside vs outside reserves. These patterns were consistent with a behavioural risk effect, where small fishes may be more strongly attracted to refuge habitats to avoid predators inside vs outside reserves. The approaches developed and implemented in this thesis respond to some of the major current statistical and logistic challenges inherent in the analysis of counts of organisms. This work provides useful exemplar pathways for rigorous study design, modelling and inference in ecological systems.

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  • The impacts of technological and personal factors on the security awareness of smartphone users : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Information Science In Information Technology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand.

    Jaber, Rawan Abdulrahman (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    With the increasing popularity of mobile devices (e.g. smartphones) and the resulting security risk (e.g. cybercriminals seeking to compromise devices to target user information), enhanced user security awareness is critical in securing the devices and the data. This research investigates that what technological and personal factors affect smartphone users’ security awareness. An online (web-based) survey was conducted between September 2015 and March 2016 to explore the impacts of technological factors (e.g. platforms and applications) and personal factors (e.g. educational and technological backgrounds, gender and age, and ethnicity) on smartphone users’ security awareness. Findings from the analysis of 919 responses indicate that the factors that are statistically significant in relation to smartphone security awareness are technological backgrounds, educational levels, downloading apps, installed apps, and using cracked apps.

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  • EULOGY : A thesis presented in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Creative Writing (MCW) at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Holland, Jane (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is concerned with writing fragmented narrative and it asks how the ‘space in between’ can connect the progression of fragments in fictional works. It explores how the assembling of fragments in fictional narrative can contribute to the whole becoming greater than simply a sum of its parts. Informing the writing process is a study of the effects of spatially driven narrative. The thesis consists of two parts: The novella, Eulogy, evokes the emotional complexities encountered by a woman delivering a eulogy for her partner. The accompanying exegesis discusses the research surrounding the writing of Eulogy and examines how novels by Patricia Grace and Lisa Moore also represent loss, showing how spatial form can work in the structure of fragmented narrative to convey such things as state of mind and the circularity of life-experience. Loss is universal, but how an individual experiences and deals with it is very much the result of circumstance and personal history, and this is what I aimed to explore in Eulogy. The novella consists of a number of non-chronological fragments which accumulate, connect and layer, building towards an understanding of all the narrator has lost, and how these losses are experienced in relation to each other. As insight into the specificity of the narrator’s response and feelings develops over the course of the novella, so too does the complexity of her relationship with Dean, the partner who has died, building towards the underlying sense that the novella is itself also a eulogy. My supporting exegesis draws on Joseph Frank’s theory of spatial form to examine how Patricia Grace’s Baby No-Eyes and Lisa Moore’s February also pivot around the theme of loss,. By mapping the fragmented structure of the novels, I set out to analyse how the spaces between fragments work in these works and to explore the cognitive and thematic links that bridge them. Examining a singular fragment in detail, I asked how space and time are used to propel each narrative. I then expanded my enquiry to the relationship of these single fragments with the fragments on either side. The exegesis concludes with a discussion of how I applied this strategy to my own creative process in Eulogy, questioning how the connections between and within fragments could contribute to the intricacy and unity of the overall novella. To a certain degree, the process of this thesis was itself an exploration of spatial form and fragmented narrative. The creative component and research were built incrementally and each was informed by the other. The pieces pushed and pulled, fed off and challenged one other as I progressed, making sense of both fragments and spaces to coalesce them into a cohesive whole.

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  • Investigation of the Confinement Odour Problem in Exported Lamb using NMR-based Metabolomics : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Chemistry at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand.

    Olivecrona, Natalia (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Recent changes to the supply chain practices of meat exporters has increased the potential for consumers to be exposed to the phenomenon of confinement odour, the smell produced by vacuum or modified atmosphere packaged meat which has been chilled and stored for extended periods. This harmless odour, which does not indicate meat spoilage, can lead to the rejection of the product by consumers. This is a problem for NZ lamb meat producers as they form the largest group of exporters of lamb meat in the world, and their largest market is the UK and other EU countries. The processes behind confinement odour development are poorly understood. In this thesis, NMR spectra were acquired of meat, and drip extracts of meat from two different processing plants stored under different temperatures for 11-13 weeks to simulate conditions of exported meat during overseas shipment, transport to warehouse and retail display. The spectra were analysed by multivariate data analysis to find metabolic differences between meat which produces confinement odour and meat which produces either spoilage odour or no odour. Optimisation of extraction of metabolites from meat and drip samples was also carried out. The best sample preparation method for meat and drip included homogenisation by bead beating (meat samples only), protein precipitation using an acetonitrile, methanol and acetone solvent mixture, and removal of solvent by vacuum centrifugation. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated the ability to discriminate drip samples with confinement odour from spoiled samples and the former showed increased lactate concentration with low levels of leucine indicating the presence of Lactic Acid bacteria. The spoiled samples had increased butyrate levels which is indicative of the presence of Clostridium spp. Both bacterial populations were in a late stage of growth. This is consistent with confinement odour as an early indicator of spoilage. This result indicates the potential for drip to be utilised more widely for the analysis of meat metabolites. Additionally, samples could be discriminated by processing plant of origin using multivariate data analysis. Increased levels of pyruvate and decreased levels of glucose in samples from Plant 2 indicated their bacterial populations had progressed to a later stage of growth than the bacterial populations in samples from Plant 1.

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  • Frontiers of decision theory : This dissertation is submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Economics, School of Economics and Finance (Albany) Massey University

    Pan, Siwen (Addison) (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The well-known jury paradox – the more demanding the hurdle for conviction is, the more likely it is that a jury will convict an innocent defendant – heavily relies on Bayesian updating. However, with ambiguous information (e.g., a forensic test with accuracy of 60%, or more), standard Bayesian updating becomes invalid, challenging the existence of this paradox. By developing novel theoretical models and by testing their predictions in laboratory settings, this thesis advances our understanding of how individuals process more realistically imprecise measures of information reliability and how this impacts on information aggregation for the group decision-making. Hence, our findings inform the institutional design of collective deliberation, from small to large group decision-making.

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  • Quantifying the Benefits of Rat Eradication to Lizard Populations on Kapiti Island : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Conservation Biology Massey University, Palmerston North New Zealand

    Gollin, Jennifer Fleur (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In New Zealand the introduction of mammalian predators and human modification of habitat has led to the reduction and extinction of many native species. Therefore an essential part conservation management is the assessment and reduction of exotic predator effects. Many lizard species in New Zealand are threatened, and the eradications of exotic predators from islands has aided in the recovery of many species. Where comparisons can be made on islands before and after rat eradication this can provide a unique opportunity to quantify the benefit of these actions. In 1994–1996 research was carried out on Kapiti Island by Gorman (1996) prior to the eradication of kiore (Rattus exulans) and Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). This involved sampling six defined habitats using five methods in order to establish density data for lizard species present, as well as recording data on vegetation and weather. In the summer of 2014–2015 I repeated this research using pitfall traps, spotlighting and daytime searching to sample five habitats along pitfall trap lines and transects established by Gorman (1996). This provided data on density, size distribution, behaviour, habitat use and vegetation to compare to the 1994–1996 data. Five species were found; common skinks (Oligosoma polychroma), brown skinks (Oligosoma zelandicum), copper skinks (Oligosoma aeneum), ornate skinks (Oligosoma ornatum) and common geckos (Woodworthia maculatus) in four of the five habitats sampled. Common skinks, brown skinks, copper skinks and common geckos all increased in density based on encounter rates since the rat eradication, and were found in new locations. However, some changes were explained by measured changes in the vegetation. Ornate skinks still appear rare which may be due to the presence of avian predators like weka (Gallirallus australis) preventing recovery of the species. There has been little change in the size distribution of grassland skinks species, and populations still lack large (> 6 cm snout-to-vent length) individuals. This may be due to avian predators removing large individuals from the population or the change in vegetation making habitats more suitable for smaller skinks. There has also been no apparent shift toward terrestrial behaviour in common geckos. This may be caused by an arboreal food source or arboreal behaviour providing protection from nocturnal predators. My research shows that there have been clear benefits to some of the lizard species present on Kapiti, but some changes have not occurred as predicted. This provides direction for further research, including effects of avian predators, and information to improve decisions about potential translocations to Kapiti.

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  • Risk Management and Market Participation among Traditional Cattle Farmers in Monze District of Southern Province, Zambia : A thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in AgriCommerce at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Chilala, Belindah (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Traditional cattle farmers are the major contributors to the beef industry in Zambia as they account for 85% of the country’s cattle population. Traditional farmers however, are reluctant to sell their cattle and are more likely to sell when cushioning against crop production risk. Although some scholars say farmers sell their cattle more when faced with risk, there are other scholars who say the opposite that farmers are less willing to sell their cattle when faced with risk as they are trying to preserve their cattle asset. This study was therefore done to identify sources of risk, risk management strategies, risk attitudes, cattle market participation and cattle selling channels of traditional cattle farmers in Monze district of Zambia. Mixed methods research was done by first using qualitative research through in-depth interviews to inform the quantitative research done using a questionnaire survey. Likert scale type of questions were used to capture the farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies. In order to better understand risk perceptions of the farmers, upside and downside risk of the farmers were presented using risk choice matrix. The risk importance index was used to present the perceptions of risk and risk management strategies of the respondents. Regression tree analysis was used to investigate relationships between market participation and the respondents’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies of the farmers and their risk attitudes. Pearson’s chi-square was also used to investigate these relationships. The results showed that the majority of surveyed farmers from Monze were risk averse. It was also found that these farmers mainly perceived production and market risk to be the most important sources of risk. These farmers did not perceive risk to be an opportunity but rather saw it more as a threat. It was also found that the farmers exhibited four types of market behaviour based on how they participated in cattle markets. These were traders, sellers, buyer and holders. A farmer’s market behaviour was affected by different perceptions of risk and other farmer characteristics such as the main income generating activity of the farmer and the number of cattle owned by the farmer. It was therefore seen that there was some influence of risk perceptions on market behaviour of farmers. These perceptions were affected by the risk attitude of farmers which were affected by the location of the farmers. It is therefore important to understand risk attitudes and perceptions of individual farmers from different farming areas.

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  • A study of Innovative Entrepreneurship in Marlborough, New Zealand : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Arts) in Social Anthropology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Lynn, Amanda (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This study responds to the call, made by Anthropologist Alex Stewart, for anthropologists to re-engage with the entrepreneur. The broad aim of this study is to describe and analyse the lived experiences of innovative entrepreneurs in Marlborough, New Zealand. The study is informed by a constructivist-interpretivist paradigm. The research design is based on contemporary interpretative phenomenological analysis conducted within long term participant-observation fieldwork. The study is transdisciplinary in that it is informed by the disciplines of anthropology, economics, psychology and business. Innovative entrepreneurs are an important focus of study due to their role in economic and social change. Thus far anthropological studies have not focused on the innovative entrepreneur in New Zealand. This study makes an original and significant contribution to entrepreneurship studies. I present rich, empirical data on innovative entrepreneurs viewed through the anthropological lens. As such, my study embraces the “humanness” of the participating innovative entrepreneurs. I describe five shared themes that coalesce in a process that guides innovative entrepreneurship. These shared themes are: perfectionistic striving (an adaptive and targeted striving for improvement), pragmatism (openness to new ideas, testing and applying them), development (purposive change within and outside of the self), meaningful reward (validation of value) and being valuable (solving problems to improve outcomes). This process begins with the desire, formed early in life, to be valuable and leads to a life-long process of problem identification and solution construction. This results in self-development as well as developmental outcomes such as businesses and products. I recommend a life span human development approach to future research that includes the collection of deep empirical data and offer a new definition of the innovative entrepreneur. While the innovative entrepreneurs in my study desire to be valuable, the social world in which they are embedded is not always compatible with them. Through analysis of the rich points in the social data I present original social models describing social sets in Marlborough and obstructive processes that usurp institutional power by reinforcing these sets. As entrepreneurs become more visible and influential as leaders they can be drawn into obstructive processes causing some innovative entrepreneurs to avoid—as much as possible—both the local support institutions and the social sets. This has implications which I discuss and I recommend further research to expand upon my findings.

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  • Transgressive Gestures: Women and Violin Performance in Eighteenth-Century Europe : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music in Musicology at Massey University and Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand School of Music

    Jordan, Hester Bell (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Studies concerning eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century women musicians abound within recent musicological scholarship, but the focus on singers and keyboard players – whose musical activities are understood to have “affirmed” their femininity – has had the effect of obscuring players of less typical instruments. Violin-playing, frequently cast as a man’s activity and imbued with indecent associations, was a case in point. Yet despite the connotations of the instrument, a small but significant group of women did play the violin: it is these violinists that this thesis takes as its central focus. Looking first at the complex reasons behind objections to women’s violin performance, a number of factors that restricted women’s access to the violin – including the influence of the male gaze and limits placed on women’s physical movement – are revealed. Particular conditions nevertheless enabled certain women to play the violin, namely the personal, educational, and economic support available from diverse sources such as family members, patrons, and institutions like convents and the Venetian ospedali. In addition to placing women violinists in their historical context, this thesis centres on an analysis of a violin concerto by one of the most well-known female violinists of the era, the Italian virtuoso Regina Strinasacchi. The analysis of Strinasacchi’s Violin Concerto in B flat major is strongly performance based and focuses on the issue of gender and physical movement (performance gesture), topics which were of much interest to eighteenth-century commentators who witnessed women violinists performing. As such the analysis engages with concepts from “embodied” musicology. In exploring Strinasacchi’s concerto we see that female violinists could experiment with a variety of gendered roles through violin performance, embodying both masculinity and femininity through their transgressive gestures. By taking a closer look at women’s violin performance and experiences, this thesis aims to show that these violinists were not as peripheral to the workings of the wider musical community as is sometimes implied. Furthermore, it aims to put women violinists more firmly at the centre of their own stories, challenging the tendency to treat female violinists as novel anomalies.

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  • Job Satisfaction and Its Relationships with Age, Gender and Educational Background in a Vietnamese Context : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Business Studies (Management) at Massey University, Manawatu New Zealand

    Pham, Minh Quang (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study aims at examining the reliability and validity of a Vietnamese version of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) which was developed by Spector (1997). It also reveals the current overall job satisfaction and investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and age, gender, and educational background among a specific community, the auditors and ex-auditors in Vietnam. With these goals, a quantitative cross-sectional design has been employed for the research. A pilot study with 68 Vietnamese respondents establishes a solid foundation for the final Vietnamese-translated version of the JSS. In the main study, a sample of 202 Vietnamese auditors and ex-auditors is recruited. The JSS in Vietnamese demonstrates a high internal consistency with the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of α = .91. Moreover, an exploratory factor analysis reports an underlying construct of nine dimensions, which is similar to the original version of the JSS. The convergent and divergent validity of the scale are also analysed and return satisfactory results. The present research suggests that the auditors and ex-auditors in Vietnam are generally satisfied with their jobs and, surprisingly, the auditors are reported to be happier than their ex-colleagues in every job aspect. There is no relationship found between the overall job satisfaction and age or gender for this specific community, while a significant correlation between job satisfaction and educational background is confirmed. However, the women of this community are reported to be more likely to experience a lower level of job satisfaction when they get older or when they have a better educational background. The present study provides audit companies in Vietnam with recommendations for improving the job satisfaction of their employees. Its findings suggest that these firms should pay more attention to their older female employees as well as the ones with higher educational backgrounds due to their vulnerability to a lower level of job satisfaction than the opposite gender. Furthermore, directions and indications for future research are also offered in the present dissertation.

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  • Reasoning ability and performance: A study of New Zealand corrections officers : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Jackson, Bryony (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The performance of frontline staff is one of the most central elements of an effective correctional system. This thesis reports findings related to the organisational psychology of the correctional environment, with special attention to person characteristics that may predict job performance of corrections officers. The empirical study investigated components of reasoning ability (abstract, verbal, numerical reasoning) on a sample of officers (N = 88) working in seven prison facilities throughout New Zealand. Overseas research repeatedly identified cognitive abilities as a predictor of job performance across a range of occupational settings, including jobs similar to corrections officers. The current study sought to examine this relationship on a New Zealand officer sample, to provide evidence for criterion-related validity of psychometric assessment of reasoning ability, with implications for use in personnel selection procedures. An analysis of internal relationships among ability components was also undertaken. Consistent with theoretical models and extant empirical findings, abstract, verbal, and numerical reasoning were found to be positively related to one another. However, the given components of reasoning ability were unrelated to job performance in the local occupational setting. Potential explanations for the findings are offered in terms of limitations in the measurement tools and processes (e.g. scope of the performance appraisal tool). It is likely that given the unique job tasks and challenges of the corrections environment, officer performance requires important characteristics outside of reasoning ability, when officers perform affect-laden tasks (e.g. understanding their own and others’ emotions and emotion- driven behaviours). Further investigation of potential predictors such as emotional intelligence is warranted, and is expected to assist prediction of performance in a corrections setting.

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  • Molecular and bioinformatic analysis of the perA locus in Epichloë : this thesis is presented as a partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Genetics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Berry, Daniel (2011)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Fungal endophytes of the Epichloë genus form largely mutualistic symbioses with coolseason grasses, systemically colonising the intercellular spaces of the host in a strictly regulated fashion. The endophyte receives protection and sustenance from the host, and in return provides benefits such as increased growth, drought resistance and protection against herbivores. Protection against herbivory is mediated through the production of bio-protective fungal secondary metabolites (SM). Examples of these SMs include lolitrem B, the causative agent of ‘ryegrass staggers’ in stock, and the insect feeding deterrent peramine. The genes responsible for the production of each of these SMs are usually found clustered together in the genome, and are often closely associated with a range of transposon relics. SM gene expression occurs only when the endophyte is growing in planta, indicating the presence of plant-fungal signalling. This study investigated the locus structure and organisation of the gene perA that encodes the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase PerA, which is both essential and sufficient for production of peramine. It was found that perA and its flanking intergenic sequences exhibit considerable transposon-mediated variability across Epichloë, and that this transposon activity is likely responsible for the taxonomically discontinuous production of peramine both within and across Epichloë spp. The major facilitator superfamily transporter gene EF102 is divergently transcribed from and co-regulated with perA (EF103). Transcriptome data were used to identify transcription start sites for both genes. Comparative analysis of the intergenic sequence separating EF102/perA from 10 Epichloë isolates covering six different species refined the perA translation start site, and identified conserved regions in the promoters of both genes proposed to be important for regulation. A motif search identified a conserved DNA motif present multiple times in the promoters of both genes. Deletion analysis of EF102 revealed the gene probably does not encode a peramine transporter, as was hypothesised; however the four independent ΔEF102 mutants exhibited a reduction in peramine production relative to wild type, resulting in an alternative hypothesis that EF102 encodes a transporter for a PerA substrate precursor molecule such as glutamate.

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  • Roman War-Making and Expansion in the Mid-Republic: A Re-evaluation : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in History at Massey University, Manawatū New Zealand.

    Dare, Glenn John (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Rome’s seemingly unstoppable march towards empire during the mid-republican period was a world-altering event. The story of Rome rising from a small city-state to becoming the mistress of the Mediterranean has been told and interpreted countless times, but it is a story often concerned only with Rome and gives little agency to the many other peoples that shared this geographical and temporal space with Rome. The narrative of events of the mid-republican period has been interpreted as evidence for Rome’s bellicosity and also for her desperation for defending herself and her friends. Historians find in the ancient sources the evidence to support their theories regardless of whether they are advocating an aggressive or a defensive posture of Rome. Either side of this argument is monocausal and lacks a certain amount of interpretive awareness of the inherent complexities and nuances involved in such historical events. This study is an attempt to acknowledge the complex nature of any set of events that lead to war, and this is particularly so in the environment of the ancient Mediterranean. Many factors induced Rome towards war and conquest; these included concerns for defence, economy, and status. The ruling class, collectively and as individuals, also sought glory and fame by excelling at war and the Roman political system was focused on men serving the state, and the ultimate service to the state was to be successful in war. Pressures from the interstate environment of the ancient Mediterranean and the internal culture interacted synergistically to guide the decision makers in Rome to determine on war in some instances rather than any alternative. In this study the ancient sources will be revisited and analysed without any preconceived theory. The goal is to let the ancient sources tell the story with all the complexities that, by their very nature, matters of war had.

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  • Whai tikanga: In pursuit of justice. Māori interactions with the criminal justice system and experiences of institutional racism : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, New Zealand.

    Brittain, Eleanor (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The criminal justice system in Aotearoa, New Zealand has a destructive history of interactions with Māori. Considered alongside the broader context of colonisation, this history provides a backdrop against which to understand contemporary Māori experiences of institutional racism. This research project aims to provide a robust understanding of Māori historical, contemporary and lived experiences of institutional racism within the criminal justice system. Participants were five Māori adults who have had personal encounters with the criminal justice system. They were interviewed about their experiences within the criminal justice system, with a focus on their experiences of institutional racism. As Kaupapa Māori research, within the field of discursive psychology, deficit constructions of Māori were rejected and there is an explicit inclination toward a constructive narrative of Māori culture, identity, and history. From the analysis emerged four recurring linguistic resources; blatant racism, Māori and Pākehā identities, Māori as trapped in the criminal justice system, and Māori identity and culture as strength. Participants’ perspectives of the criminal justice system reveal that prevailing power relations facilitate the belittling of Māori identity, intrude on Māori rights, and diminish cultural integrity. Institutional racism is constructed as enduring and guided by notions of Māori cultural inferiority. The criminal justice system has persistently operated to disadvantage and marginalise Māori and the discussion extends on arguments for a separate Māori criminal justice system.

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