23,249 results for Thesis

  • Development of an automatic lameness detection system for dairy cattle : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Mechatronics at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand. EMBARGOED UNTIL 1 April 2018

    Dalbeth, Aaron (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Lameness in dairy cattle negatively effects the welfare of affected cows and is the third biggest cause of economic loss to the dairy industry in New Zealand. As the cost and frequency of lameness continues to increase, profitability will further decrease, unless a more effective and efficient method of detecting cattle lameness is found. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether differences between healthy and lame cattle could be identified by capturing ground reaction forces when the dairy cattle walked over the designed platform. [Partial abstract]

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  • Goal-oriented processes: Exploring the use of goals in music therapy to support young people with autism spectrum disorder : An exegesis submitted to Massey University and Victoria University of Wellington in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy Te Kōkī New Zealand School of Music

    Lowery, Oliver (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This qualitative research project explored how a student music therapist utilised goal-oriented processes to support young people with autism spectrum disorder throughout their course of music therapy. Inductive thematic analysis of selected literature relating to goals in music therapy developed an initial framework of what goal-oriented processes could include. The student music therapist’s clinical data (including session notes, monitoring sheets, client reports and reflective journal entries) was then coded through deductive secondary analysis, from which five key themes were formed. The findings indicated that clients’ goals were supported by: employing a client-centred philosophical approach; nurturing therapeutic relationships; collaborating with clients and their caregivers; utilising the referral, assessment and review processes; and observing and documenting clients’ development. These goal-oriented processes helped to support goals that were meaningful for the clients and their caregivers. Themes were explored in detail using a case vignette to illustrate and provide a context for the findings. Although the context-bound qualitative nature of this research project limits its generalisability, it attempts to provide insight into what goal-oriented processes in music therapy might include, encouraging other music therapists to consider how they utilise goals in their own practice.

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  • Disturbance in the North Island of New Zealand: A case study using floodplain cores from the Coromandel to determine anthropogenic disturbance : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geography Massey University, New Zealand

    Fox, Elizabeth Grace (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    It is well documented that following human occupation of a region, the surrounding environment may undergo drastic changes through vegetation pattern alterations, displacement of fauna, alteration of sedimentation and fluvial regimes, and changes to the composition of the underlying material. Many case studies of anthropogenic disturbance have been conducted in New Zealand. One of the main outcomes of this research is to collate, contrast and compare this wealth of case studies to look for any underlying trends in timing, distribution and magnitude of disturbance nationwide. This thesis focusses on late Holocene records from the North Island, and compared the history of disturbance with that from the South Island (as per McWethy et al. 2010). Based on the combination of palynology, sedimentology and geochemistry, this review demonstrates the pace of disturbance observed in the North Island was very rapid following occupation, a trend also established in the South Island. The other main outcome of this research is to add to the knowledge base of North Island disturbance history, through development of a landscape disturbance history in the Coromandel, using floodplain cores from the Paeroa and Kuaotunu areas. Sediment logging and subsequent XRF-geochemical analysis performed on these cores revealed a ‘mining layer’ that was used as a baseline for mining disturbance in this environment. This layer is interpreted as when European activities began disturbing the environment. Cores extracted from the Paeroa area indicated that the sedimentation rates in the floodplain had increased more than 15-fold since human occupation. Significant rises in the amount of Arsenic and Lead contained within the sediment were also detected. Cores from the Kuaotunu floodplain also showed changes in geochemistry that coincided with historic mining in the area, but reverted back to near pre-mining levels following the initial disturbance. These results suggest that factors such as catchment characteristics and degree of disturbance in an area affect the extent of impact on a site, which may have implications for future management of post mining sites. XRF analysis is a relatively underutilized proxy in New Zealand. It, in conjunction with Particle Size Analysis, has proved valuable in this study and are recommended for application in future New Zealand environmental reconstruction-focused research.

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  • Metadata_Photography and the construction of meaning : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Arts to [i.e. at] Massey University, College of Creative Arts, School of Fine Arts, Wellington, New Zealand

    Nishioka, Mizuho (2010)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Photographic technology is increasingly respondent to a desire for the production and consumption of information. The current age of photography not only possesses the ability to capture the image, but also to capture photographic metadata as supplemental information. Engaging in the premise that the photographic image exists as an incomplete medium to the transfer of information, this research identifies the acquisition of data as a means to resolve interpretation and quantify the photographic image. Inhabiting a complex territory within this structure, the photographic image manifests multiplicity and operates as source, production, and capture of information. This work challenges the perceptions of how to engage with the dialogues created between the photographic image, and the externally appended metadata.

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  • Amelioration of the Impact of Physical Fatigue on Cognitive Performance by Phytochemicals: The Effect of a Blackcurrant Supplement : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Psychology at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Harold, U'Nita (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Exercise-induced physical fatigue is thought to impair the cognitive functioning, and therefore mental performance, of the brain. Intervention studies have demonstrated that phytochemical supplementation can facilitate improved cognitive and physical performance. However, little is known about phytochemical supplementations’ ability to ameliorate physical fatigue effects on cognitive performance upon congestion. To investigate this hypothesis, the present study investigated the effects phytochemical compounds, from a blackcurrant supplement, had in regards to reducing physical fatigue effects on cognitive performance while under mental loads. Seventy-two healthy participants completed >10 mins of a high intensity intermittent cycling task (HIIT) (physical fatigue cohort) or >10 mins watching an emotionally neutral documentary (control cohort). Half of the participants in each condition received a blackcurrant supplement one hour before beginning the experimental session. Baseline cognitive tasks and mood questionaries were completed before ingestion of a blackcurrant extract, again before post-task measurements were completed, and also immediately following the experimental session. Analysis of the subjective selfreports revealed that HIIT was successful at inducing physical fatigue, however, had no effect on subsequent cognitive performance. Further analyses demonstrated that supplementation with a blackcurrant extract had no influence on cognitive performance. The null results for an effect of physical fatigue on cognitive performance made interpretation of this finding difficult. Overall, effect size calculations indicated that a larger sample size would not have resulted in statistically significant findings. It was concluded that the specific high intensity intermittent exercise used in the present study, did not induce a level of fatigue in participants’ that would subsequently impair cognitive performance. Blackcurrant supplement did not demonstrate an ability to enhance cognitive performance following a physically fatiguing task. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed and some potentially useful future studies outlined in the second and third chapters.

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  • A culturally-focused life cycle sustainability assessment: Analysis of forestry value chain options with Māori land owners : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Doctor of Philosophy in Life Cycle Management At Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Pizzirani, Stefania Maria (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this research was to 1) explore the potential for the more distinctive representation of Māori culture in Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), and 2) understand the relationship between culturally-focused LCSA and the Māori decisionmaking process. These two interrelated aspects were investigated through participatory engagement with three members of the Ngāti Porou iwi (tribe), and through collaborative development of three forestry LCSA scenarios (radiata pine, rimu, and mānuka). Aligning with principles of kaupapa Māori research, a participatory LCSA methodology approach was created which encapsulated five phases: 1) understand Ngāti Porou aspirations and concerns, 2) co-develop options for forestry scenarios, 3) co-develop and select LCSA indicators (including a cultural indicator), 4) LCSA indicator data collection and modelling, and 5) communication of results. The methodology utilised a mixed methods approach as Stage 1, 2, 3, and 5 are predominantly qualitative while Stage 4 is predominantly quantitative. Culture was represented in the participatory LCSA in two ways. Firstly, a bespoke cultural indicator (Cultural Indicator Matrix) was co-developed to distinctly include culture within LCSA. The Cultural Indicator Matrix was based on and adapted an existing cultural decision-making framework (i.e. the Mauri Model) in order to ensure its capability to represent both Ngāti Porou aspirations and the forestry value chains explored in this research. The Cultural Indicator Matrix was completed by each participant and subjectively measured the impact they perceived each forestry process or product had upon a range of Ngāti Porou aspirations. Secondly, a participatory research approach was utilised that itself made the LCSA process more culturally-focused. The participatory approach relied on active engagement with the research participants throughout the LCSA study, primarily with the utilisation of semi-structured interviews. Such collaborative participatory engagement with the research participants allowed for their cultural input, preferences, and knowledge at each stage of the LCSA process. This research has yielded several original and meaningful results: 1. The Cultural Indicator Matrix is a new culturally-focused mechanism which can be used to support the Māori decision-making process. The participants viewed the Cultural Indicator Matrix as an effective method for gathering community impressions of how potential forestry life cycle processes could impact upon their cultural aspirations. 2. The participants felt the participatory LCSA aspect was crucially important; the open and consistent communication between themselves and the LCSA practitioner provided them with more control, access to information, understanding of the LCSA process, and enhanced their acceptance of the final results. They considered that the results of the culturally-focused LCSA gave them “validation” and “direction”, and justified their interests in pursuing forestry options for their land. 3. The participatory LCSA process led to the identification of a need to formally include a Cultural Compliance process with the LCSA. The Cultural Compliance process is comprised of six cultural components occurring throughout the forestry life cycle. Recognition of these components helps to ensure that appropriate and necessary cultural considerations are taken into account during relevant forestry life cycle processes. It is unlikely that this insight would have been reached if not for the participatory engagement focus of this LCSA research. 4. The development and analysis of three forestry scenarios using a range of sustainability indicators generated distinctive datasets on the life cycles of radiata pine, rimu, and mānuka. As the rimu and mānuka scenarios are particularly underrepresented in forestry-life cycle literature, this research has provided a contribution to knowledge regarding these two forestry options. For the first time, indigenous culture has been represented alongside economic, social, and environmental impacts in LCSA. This comprehensive presentation of results facilitates the decision-making process by providing the decision maker(s) with information about the “big picture”, thus supporting educated and informed decisions. Furthermore, a culturally-focused LCSA approach helps to ensure that culture is not lost during the decision-making process, but rather is an active component. Finally, of critical importance, both the culturally-focused LCSA process and associated results will further enable the recognition cultural groups, including their values and aspirations. The explicit acknowledgement of culture in LCSA will engender more awareness and protection for culture, lessen the isolation and marginalisation of culture, and empower cultural groups to develop and pursue brave choices.

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  • The effect of dietary nitrogen on nitrogen partitioning and milk production in grazing dairy cows : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Master of Animal Science at Massey University Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hendriks, Stacey (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Two experiments were conducted during spring (8th October to 12th November 2009) as part of a larger study, to study the effects of increasing levels of crude protein (CP) in pasture on milk production, dry matter intake (DMI) and nitrogen (N) partitioning in dairy cows. The first experiment was undertaken over 25 days (8th October to 1st November 2009), where fifteen multiparous, rumen fistulated, early lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (505 ± 10.4 kg liveweight; 4.1 body condition score ± 0.044, mean ± standard deviation) were assigned to one of three urea supplementation treatments: Control (0 g/day urea; ~20% CP), Medium (350 g/day urea; ~25% CP) and High (690 g/day urea: ~30% CP). Urea was supplemented to the pasture-based diet to increase CP content while maintaining similar concentrations of all other nutrients across treatments. All cows were offered ~20 kg dry matter (DM)/day perennial ryegrass-based pasture (CP = 20.6 ± 0.56% DM; metabolisable energy (ME) = 11.8 ± 0.06 MJ/kg DM). Cows were acclimated to their urea treatment over a 25 day experimental period. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased dietary CP in grazing cows on DMI and milk yield. Dry matter intake was estimated using a back calculation method from the energy requirements of the cows. The results indicate a complex interaction between DMI, milk yield and urea intake. As dietary CP increased, the milk yield increased; however, as urea’s contribution to total dietary CP concentration increased, the increase in both DMI and milk yield was less. Milk yield decreased when urea supplementation increased beyond 350 g/day, and the interaction evident in milk yield was mirrored in yields of fat, CP and lactose (P <0.001, R2 = 0.47). A 16.5% increase in N intake resulted in a 42.5% increase in milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration; however, the relationship was restricted to low MUN concentrations. Urinary N increased linearly as a result of N intake, although the relationship was restricted due to the underestimation of urinary N and the limited range of N intake values. The 28% increase in urinary N excretion resulted from a sharp 3.6% decline in N efficiency as dietary N content increased. The main conclusions of this thesis were the ability for excessive urea intake to reduce milk yield in grazing dairy cows. Further research is needed to determine if high soluble NPN concentrations in fresh pasture would affect DMI and milk yield in the same way. Increasing N intake results in linear increases in MUN, urinary N and UUN. These relationships could provide useful tools to predict urinary N excretion due to the strong relationships between these variables. Further research is needed to develop robust prediction equations for the relationships between these variables in grazing dairy cows before they could be used as regulatory tools.

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  • An ecological perspective on the motivational trajectories of high school students learning English in rural areas in Vietnam : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Applied Linguistics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

    Pham, Huy Cuong (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This study explores the motivational trajectories of four students learning English at a rural high school in Southern Vietnam. It draws on a person-in-context relational view of motivation (Ushioda, 2009) as the overarching theoretical framework and uses ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1993) as an analytical tool to develop insights into the ways motivation is implicated in a multiplicity of settings and social relationships. Specifically, it aims to identify motivational affordances for these students, the synergistic effects across settings on their language learning motivation, and their motivational trajectories within and across settings and relationships. The study utilises a qualitative case study design, relying primarily on interviews from social practice perspectives and observations. The data collection, spanning approximately one and a half years, comprised two main phases, one on-site and one off-site. In the first phase, data were gathered in different settings, including the school, the participants’ homes as a site for private tuition, and other more informal public spaces such as food stores. In the second phase, Skype interviews and Facebook exchanges were the main means of data collection. The findings suggest that while language affordances were evident in both formal and informal learning settings, students developed diverse individual motivational trajectories. Their motivational constructions resulted from a synergy of environmental and idiosyncratic elements pertinent to their own language learning conditions, social relationships, and personal appraisals of such affordances and learning opportunities. These relationships and students’ agentive use of resources were shaped and reshaped by their interactions with significant others within and across settings. Sociocultural features related to the school systems, local and national education policies, family traditions, cultural values, and future prospects also have synergistic impacts on their L2 motivation. The present study illustrates the value of interpreting the situated and dynamic nature of L2 motivation using an ecological paradigm. It also points to the need to adopt a set of data collection methods, tools, and data sources that diverge from more conventional means to explore L2 motivation. The study offers a fresh theoretical and methodological approach for future research geared towards lifewide adaptive perspectives on English language teaching and learning.

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  • 'As a matter of fact I've just about had enough'; : battle weariness and the 2nd New Zealand division during the Italian campaign, 1943-45 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Appleton, Ian Clive (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    By the time that the 2nd New Zealand Division reached Italy in late 1943, many of the soldiers within it had been overseas since early 1941. Most had fought across North Africa during 1942/43 – some had even seen combat earlier, in Greece and Crete in 1941. The strain of combat was beginning to show, a fact recognised by the division’s commanding officer, Lieutenant-General Bernard Freyberg. Freyberg used the term ‘battle weary’ to describe both the division and the men within it on a number of occasions throughout 1944, suggesting at one stage the New Zealanders be withdrawn from operations completely. This study examines key factors that drove battle weariness within the division: issues around manpower, the operational difficulties faced by the division in Italy, the skill and tenacity of their German opponent, and the realities of modern combat. Critical to understanding the links between these factors and the weariness that manifested itself within the division are the words of the participating soldiers themselves. Three key outcomes of battle weariness are examined in some detail. Exposure to long periods of combat meant that a large number of the New Zealanders were at risk of becoming psychological casualties. Indeed, casualties diagnosed and recorded as exhaustion and neurosis, consistently reached over 20% of those wounded during the period in Italy. Declining morale became an issue for the leadership of 2nd New Zealand Division. Internal censorship of outgoing letters within the division was summarised at the time and these summaries provide an insight into a widespread gloomy outlook that featured throughout 1944. Not only did the letter writers reflect on the poor conditions they faced in Italy, but news from home appears as a significant driver of frontline morale. Lack of discipline – both in and out of the line – caused real concern to senior officers, and at times reached levels that appear to have become institutionalised. Three topics are explored: looting, the use of alcohol, and cases of combat refusal. This work then examines how the underlying issues driving weariness were addressed through the restructuring of the division, the replacement of long serving men, the use of new technologies, and a period of relief out of the line with an extensive training programme. Finally, the division’s performance during the final offensive in Italy in April 1945, is examined, to gauge the success of the changes made.

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  • Building community resilience in mine impacted communities : a study on delivery of health services in Papua New Guinea : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor Of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Kuir-Ayius, Dora Dau (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to explore the building of Community Resilience in mine-impacted communities in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The study aimed to establish the general relationship between community resilience, community capitals and the delivery of health services. It investigated the delivery of health services in three mining communities in PNG to see how these services contribute to or detract from the building of resilience. The study investigated relevant models of community resilience from the literature, and how the way policy functions in PNG can be related to these models. The study also developed a way of quantifying the impact of mining on health service delivery (through the use of community capitals) and the building of resilience in these communities. Furthermore, the thesis develops an indigenous, Melanesian-centric ‘Bilum Framework’ approach to resilience to create greater understanding of how resilience in the mining communities can be strengthened through improved access to health services. Three mining communities were selected as case studies, each representing a different stage of mining: (i) the beginning; (ii) the operational; and, (iii) post-mine closure. A mixed method approach comprising both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to collect data for this study. A survey questionnaire was designed to collect views of community members who accessed health services in their respective communities. Results from the survey questionnaire were converted to proxy indicators and led to the development of a Community Resilience Index (CRI) to provide a measure of resilience in each community. The qualitative research methods included document analysis, semi-structured interviews, and purposive observations. Document analysis was important in reviewing relevant policy documents and other literature to link theories to the experiences of the people while the latter methods contributed to describing people’s encounters in accessing health services. Analysis showed inconsistencies in the levels of resilience in these communities that varied with the stages of mining: both the beginning and post- mine closure stages demonstrated significantly lower levels of community resilience than the operational phase. Findings from the research indicated a lack of access to health services – a key influence in building resilience – is the result a range of factors including insufficient finances, weak sector governance, and the need for infrastructure and transport. The Bilum Framework is proposed as an approach that allows decision-makers to target assistance to strengthen and support specific community capitals and hence more effectively build community resilience in the mining communities in PNG.

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  • Interaction with text : a study of teachers' mediation of materials in mainstream and ESOL secondary school classrooms : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Second Language Teaching at Massey University

    Davey, Sarah Elizabeth (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The increasingly multi-cultural nature of New Zealand society is accompanied by burgeoning school enrolments of students whose first language is not English (called ESOL students in this study). Immigration, refugee movements, and the recruitment of international students for largely economic purposes, all contribute to this. Whilst many of these students are competent English speakers when they enrol at our schools, large numbers are not. In secondary schools, regardless of English language competence, most ESOL students are placed in mainstream classes for the majority of their timetable, with the addition of a relatively small amount of specialist English language tuition. How do both these mainstream and ESOL teachers address the language learning needs of these students? Because texts remain central to classroom teaching and learning, this study considers how teachers mediate texts with students. It has a particular focus on how this mediation contributes to the language learning environment for ESOL students in both mainstream and ESOL classes, using classroom observation as its primary source of data. This study reveals both predictable and unexpected results. It is not surprising that it finds extensive use of questioning by teachers in their mediation of texts. However, the value of copious recall or display questions for senior secondary school students is challenged by this study, and the importance is asserted of referential questioning to develop critical thinking skills in relation to text. The preponderance of teacher-dominated classrooms and classroom language is a disappointing finding of this study, especially because the study reveals that students say very little in such an environment. More collaborative and interactive teaching methods would help ESOL students use, and therefore learn, English more effectively. Thus the study finds a lot of class time invested in the use of texts, but comparatively little effective mediation to help both native-speaking and ESOL students comprehend the language of the texts. The study reveals the need for teachers to acknowledge their role as teachers of language, and especially to mediate texts with students by teaching reading strategies.

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  • Judging Competency A study of in-training evaluation of veterinary students : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Norman, Elizabeth J (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    In-training evaluations are a common but highly criticised method of assessing the competency of veterinary students completing training. They involve assessment of on-going performance in the workplace, performed by the supervisor. They are highly feasible and one of the few ways that a student’s performance in an authentic context can be evaluated. Psychometric research has suggested, however, that in-training evaluations are unreliable, do not discriminate aspects of performance, and do not predict performance on other assessments, casting doubt on the credibility of scores. Research on rater judgement processes suggests, in contrast, that multiple aspects are discriminated and that accounting for context and inferred reasons for behaviour contributes to rater variability. Very little research has considered in-training evaluation in a veterinary context. In a mixed method study this research investigated how well the in-training evaluation used during clinical placements in one veterinary school captured the aspects of student performance it was designed to capture. It explored the supervisor’s view of student performance, and how that related to the dimensions being assessed in in-training evaluation, and to the constructs of competency articulated in frameworks. Complementary research strands involved analysis of semi-structured interviews with supervisors, common factor analysis of in-training evaluation scores, ordinal logistic regression relating factors to overall judgement, and thematic comparisons of findings with competency frameworks. Together, the nature of what supervisors considered, the dimensional structure of scores, and the relationship of dimensions with the overall judgement suggested that the in-training evaluation is both holistic and discriminating, and that important aspects of performance are student engagement and trustworthiness. The aspects captured by the evaluation aligned well with the design of the instrument, and generally well with the veterinary competency frameworks. However, some areas were highlighted where concepts of veterinary competency and the competencies required in different subdisciplines need further consideration by the profession. The findings give insights into the process of judgement of competency by veterinary supervisors that will inform further research. They support some aspects of a validity argument in relation to scoring processes, and inform the design of evaluation instruments by underscoring the construct-relevance of interrelated dimensions.

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  • Testing the relationship between gut permeability, elevation of systemic lipopolysaccharides and chronic disease : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Gnauck, Anne (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of my thesis was to test whether an increase in the permeability of the gut is accompanied by an increase in the level of systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also referred to as endotoxin. These two parameters were firstly concurrently determined in healthy women after the treatment with a single dose of aspirin which is thought to temporarily increase the paracellular permeability of the intestine. Gut permeability and the levels of systemic LPS in healthy women were then compared with those in women with Crohn’s disease (CD) as the latter are thought to have chronically elevated paracellular permeability of the gut. Both groups also ingested a high fat drink which is reported to results in the elevation of systemic LPS. In addition, faecal calprotectin, a biomarker of ongoing inflammation in the gut, and LPS-binding protein (LBP), a proposed indirect biomarker for the exposure to LPS in the systemic circulation, were determined both in healthy women and in those with CD. Data indicated that both temporary and chronic increase in the paracellular permeability of the small intestine can be reliably determined by the 3-h excretion of lactulose. Further the combination of levels of faecal calprotectin and 3-h excretion of lactulose and mannitol is the most sensitive tool to distinguish between healthy subjects and those with CD. Hence, it is evident that the combination of those three parameters can be used to assess gut health. In contrast, the current available methods for the direct assessment of the systemic level of LPS/endotoxin i.e. the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay for the quantification of endotoxin or ELISAs for the quantification of LPS, are not reliable as the former is interfered by constituents of serum and the latter failed to detect LPS from sources other than those provided from the manufacturer of the kit. Hence, studies suggesting that the consumption of high fat meals lead to elevations of systemic endotoxin and those suggesting that levels of systemic endotoxin is associated with the onset of metabolic syndrome are questionable. It is therefore advisable to repeat those studies when accurate methods for the quantification of LPS/endotoxin in the systemic circulation are available.

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  • Acceleration and Gifted Girls : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Education at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Crawford, Margaret Evelyn (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This study on Acceleration and Gifted Girls investigates acceleration as an intervention in secondary education within girls’ schools in New Zealand. It explains the extent that acceleration is being used for whom and with what processes in the context of New Zealand single-sex education. It focuses particularly on acceleration. A national survey of single-sex girls’ schools provided a general view of acceleration practices and provisions. Three case studies offered a more in-depth exploration. Findings from this study emphasised that schools are designing and evaluating their provisions for their gifted and talented girls, with an emphasis on personalised learning and an appropriate curriculum. Acceleration is used, typically, as part of a continuum of provisions to challenge students at higher levels than their year level. Timetable flexibility, whole class and individual acceleration, multi-level pathways through NCEA, dual enrolment or full entry at universities are all included in the provisions offered to gifted girls. This study highlighted an association between a school’s culture of learning and the school’s culture of care of gifted and talented students. High levels of satisfaction relating to the ways in which schools provided for gifted and talented girls were expressed by both students and their parents.

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  • Third culture young women: Understanding their life experiences and leadership perspectives : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Business Studies (Management) at Massey University, New Zealand

    Chatiya Nantham, Rhema Roja (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Globalisation influences how leadership is understood and practiced and impacts on culturally diverse interactions in New Zealand communities. Examining leadership and intersecting diversity with regards to culture, gender and age could provide a richer understanding of how identity impacts on leadership. Youth are increasingly growing up in multicultural communities, giving rise to a phenomenon widely referred to as Third Culture Kids (TCKs) – adolescents who grow up in cultures outside of their home culture. To date there is no research on the leadership perspectives and development needs of TCKs, and although there are programmes and studies focusing on leadership development for young women, very few of these initiatives focus on culturally diverse young women. This research focused on examining the diverse lifeworlds of third culture young women to appreciate how their intersecting experiences and perspectives influenced their leadership understanding. Using an interpretive phenomenological approach, four third culture young women, selected from a leadership programme for Year 13 (16 year old) young women, were interviewed and asked questions that explored their experiences and perspectives regarding being third culture individuals, young women, and leaders. The responses were analysed using a modified version of Ashworth’s (2003) phenomenological framework to reveal that diverse young women have an awareness of the gendered expectations that society constructs, have an ability to navigate cultural differences, and are able to strategize how to interact with various social groups as a result of their diverse life experiences and intersecting identities. Ultimately, their core values, life experiences, and diverse perspectives as culturally distinct adolescent women shape their leadership understanding and practice. This study concludes that third culture young women are embodying values, perspectives, skills and strategies that suggest their potential as emerging leaders in their communities and future aspirations aligned with their leadership purpose of achieving personal success and helping others. In conclusion there is a need for greater application from academics and practitioners of intersectionality into leadership studies and practice. Recommendations were made with regards to leadership research and development programmes in the future and how these can explore the leadership potential of young, culturally diverse women like young TCK women.

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  • A provisional assessment of risk associated with heavy metal accumulation in New Zealand agricultural soil: Effects of landfarming and fertiliser use on the heavy metal concentrations in plants : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Environmental Management (without major) at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Okafor, Chioma MaryAnn (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study investigated heavy metal accumulation in New Zealand agricultural soil (horticultural soil and landfarm-impacted soil), factors influencing their concentration in leafy vegetables and pasture, and the potential implications to food safety, animal welfare and human welfare. The study also sought to verify the hypothesis that “landfarming poses no threat to pasture and animal welfare” with respect to heavy metal accumulation. In addition, hemp phytoremediation potential was also explored for landfarm-impacted soil. This study is a synthesis of two glasshouse trials that have, as a common denominator, heavy metal accumulation in New Zealand agricultural soil. The first project assessed cadmium accumulation in leafy vegetables (spinach, silverbeet and lettuce) grown on two New Zealand commercial horticultural soils while the second project focused on heavy metal accumulation in pasture (ryegrass) and a cash crop (hemp) grown on agricultural soil that had been amended with drilling waste. Bulk composite soil samples used for this glasshouse trial were collected from commercial horticultural farms in two locations (Pukekohe and Gisborne), while a landfarm-impacted soil and drilling waste from oil exploration and production sites was collected from the Taranaki region. Soil samples were crushed and potted into replicate pots containing (4kg). Lettuce, spinach and silverbeet were seeded in horticultural soils while ryegrass and hemp were seeded in impacted soils. All soil and plant samples were harvested and taken to the Soil and Earth Science laboratory, Massey University Palmerston North for analysis of heavy metal concentration (Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni) and dehydrogenase activity. Descriptive statistics and ANOVA of means was conducted using Minitab 17. The total Cd concentration in the Pukekohe soil was 0.26 mg Cd/kg soil and that in the Gisborne soil 0.11 mg Cd/kg. The Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn concentration in the landfarmimpacted soil was 0.1 mg Cd/kg; 12.57 mg Cu/kg; below detection limit (BDL) for Ni and 29.99 mg Zn/kg respectively. These values were not significantly different to concentrations in an adjacent control soil collected at the same time for the pot experiment (0.1 mg Cd/kg, 11.5 mg Cu/kg, 29.14 mg Zn/kg, and Ni (BDL)). The Cd concentration in all leafy vegetables grown on the horticultural soil and sampled at two time points (spinach, silverbeet and lettuce) exceeded tolerable limits for Cd in agronomic crops (0.05 - 0.5 mg Cd/kg) with the exception of lettuce (in Pukekohe and Gisborne soil at final stage) and silverbeet (in Pukekohe soil at final stage). Spinach showed elevated Cd accumulation (0.27 mg/kg FW) above CODEX (2010) and FSANZ (2011) limits for the Gisborne soil. The heavy metal concentration (Cd, Zn, Ni and Cu) in hemp and ryegrass grown on the landfarm-impacted soil and control were not significantly different but within tolerable limits in agronomic crops (Cu: 5 – 20 mg/kg; Zn: 50 – 100 mg/kg; Ni: 1- 10 mg/kg). Soil pH is the dominant factor influencing metal bioavailability while organic matter content, and oxalate extractable Al and Fe oxide content (sesquioxides) also affects cadmium bioavailability in agricultural soils. There was no evidence of a heavy metal (Zn, Ni, Cu and Cd) concentration above soil limits defined for the safe application of biosolids in horticultural and landfarmimpacted soils. This suggests that animal wellbeing (via soil ingestion) and food safety will not be affected as a result of land application of drilling waste and long history of P fertiliser use. However, cadmium and heavy metal management is necessary to prevent elevated accumulation over time. Elevated Cd concentration in spinach does not pose direct threat to human consumers but has the potential to limit the accessibility of this product in export markets. A soil heavy metal concentration below biosolids guidelines in the landfarm-impacted soil implies that remediation of this land is not necessary. This observation was supported by data on soil microbial activity in the landfarm-impacted soil which showed no difference from the control soil. The data does not support the public perception and industry concerns that heavy metal accumulation in landfarm-impacted soil poses a health risk. In case of a continued halt in milk collection from landfarmimpacted sites by the dairy industries, a cash crop (hemp) with no exposure pathway and high biomass quality (under landfarm-impacted soil) that potentially has high economic value could replace the traditionally ryegrass system, changing the agricultural land use from a food one to a non-food one.

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  • Characterisation of PP2Cβ in regulating tumour suppressor pathways in cancer cell lines : A thesis presented to Massey University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Masters in Genetics

    Miller, Rachel Elizabeth (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Tumour suppressor p53 is a key regulator in preventing neoplastic transformation by inducing cell cycle arrest or death in response to stress-signalling pathways. Consequently, p53 is often non-functional during the early stages of cancer development through either direct mutation or aberrant expression of negative regulators. PP2Cβ is a protein phosphatase which was recently identified as a negative regulator of p53 and cellular senescence. However, the function of PP2Cβ in cancer development is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to characterise PP2Cβ and its regulation of p53 pathways in human cancer cell lines. This aim was split into two objectives. The first objective was to examine the effects of PP2Cβ on p53 pathways and cell proliferation in four cancer cell lines with various genetic backgrounds. A protein analysis using western immunoblotting procedures indicates that p53 pathways are activated in cell lines expressing wildtype p53 and Ras. Consistent with activated p53 pathways, PP2Cβ knockdown significantly reduced proliferation rates, which could be attributed to an increased expression of a p53 target gene, p21 cell cycle inhibitor. The second objective was to investigate the mechanisms regulating of PP2Cβ gene expression. Previously, p63 was identified as a potential negative regulator of PP2Cβ gene expression based on a modular relational database that integrated microarray results with a genome-wide search of p53 family member response elements. It was therefore hypothesized that p63 could negatively regulate PP2C gene expression. Mammalian expression vectors carrying either the p63 or p73 expression cassette were constructed and PP2Cβ expression was analysed upon overexpression of p53 family members (p53, p63 and p73) in two human cancer cell lines. A reverse-transcriptase coupled quantitative PCR showed that overexpression of p63 resulted in decreased PP2Cβ expression in p53 wildtype cell line. Taken together the results presented here suggest that restoration of tumour suppressors such as p53 and Rb activity by PP2C inhibition could be used as a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer treatment.

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  • Characterization of a Partially Purified Carom (Trachyspermum ammi) Extract and Its Influence on Starch Functionality and Digestibility A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Food Technology (MFoodTech) at Massey University (Manawatu Campus), New Zealand EMBARGOED UNTIL 1 March 2018

    Kumar, Ramesh (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The interactions between starches and the components in spices and herbs have been poorly studied so far. This study investigated the preliminary effects of thirty-six different spices and herbs on pasting properties of rice starch. It largely concentrated on the characterization of a partially purified carom extract (from the dried fruit of the Trachyspermum ammi plant) and its influence on the structural, thermal, pasting properties and digestibility of native rice starch. Rheology, differential scanning calorimetry, size exclusion chromatography coupled with a multi-angle laser light scattering, zeta potential, hot-stage optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in-vitro starch digestion analysis were carried out to characterise the carom extract and starch-carom system. The results showed that carom, cumin, fennel, mulberry leaf, perilla leaf, neem and coriander seed extracts showed peak and final viscosity-suppressing effect, while mesona, rosemary, green tea, thyme, and clove extracts showed peak viscosity-enhancing effect on rice starch during starch pasting. The water-soluble fraction of carom had the highest degree of viscosity-suppressing effect as compared to other spices and herbs. With increasing concentration of carom, the peak and final viscosities of rice starch decreased; the onset, peak, and end temperatures of rice starch increased; and granular swelling of potato starch was restricted and delayed. The viscosity-suppressing effect was not caused by pH or small molecular carom compounds such as mineral salts and phytochemicals. A protein polymer in carom extract with an Mw of ~2.08 + 0.10 x 105 Da and isoelectric point of ~3.5 was found responsible for the suppression effect. The protein fraction completely denatured at ~83oC. Micrographs of SEM showed that carom protein appeared as raisin-like clusters. The ability of carom protein to suppress the peak viscosity of starch was also observed in potato, tapioca, glutinous rice, waxy maize, waxy rice, rice, sweet potato, maize, wheat, and pea starches, suggesting that the effect was independent of the source and ratio of amylose to amylopectin. It was proposed that the protein molecules could be interacting with the starch granular surface and/or starch molecules. In-vitro starch digestion study showed that dialysed carom extract with rice starch caused an unusual increment in glucose release. The lower viscosity of the starch-carom gels and/or a carom enzyme stimulatory effect were proposed to be responsible for increasing the rapid breakdown of starch.

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  • Vicarious traumatic exposure among New Zealand health professionals : An exploration of coping strategies and vicarious posttraumatic growth : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Manning-Jones, Shekinah Faith (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The negative effects of working with trauma survivors have been well documented. This thesis provides an exploration of the less researched positive psychological effects of such work, termed vicarious posttraumatic growth (VPTG). Specifically, the research aimed to investigate New Zealand health professionals’ use of coping strategies (social support, self-care, and humour) following vicarious traumatic exposure, how these coping strategies influenced the psychological outcome of vicarious traumatic exposure, and how VPTG related to secondary traumatic stress (STS). It was also of interest whether all types of health professionals coped with, and psychologically reacted to, vicarious traumatic exposure in the same way, or if there were differences between professions. A total of 365 health professionals participated in the current research by completing a quantitative online survey. The final sample consisted of 103 social workers, 76 nurses, 72 counsellors, 70 psychologists, and 44 medical doctors. Humour, self-care, and peer social support were found to be positive predictors of VPTG, while self-care and social support from family and friends were negative predictors of STS. In addition, peer support was found to be a partial mediator of the relationship between vicarious traumatic exposure and STS. Social workers were found to have the highest levels of STS and VPTG, while psychologists were found to have the lowest levels. Regarding coping, generally psychologists and counsellors were found to engage in the highest levels of coping strategies, while nurses and doctors reported the lowest levels. However, the opposite pattern was found for peer support; nurses reported a significantly higher level of peer support than psychologists. Finally, a curvilinear relationship was found between STS and VPTG; moderate levels of STS were associated with the highest levels of VPTG. However, this was only the case among psychologists; among all other professions STS did not correlate with or predict VPTG. Implications of these results are discussed. Investigation into the relationship between humour and VPTG, exploration of coping strategies as mediators, and the systematic investigation of differences between different types of health professionals represent current gaps in the literature. In addition, exploration of the relationship between VPTG and STS represents an under-researched area with mixed results. Therefore, the current research is an important contribution to the current body of literature. It is envisaged that conclusions drawn from this research will have beneficial implications for health care professionals and the organisations they work within.

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  • Airline Passengers’ Pre-­‐Purchase Decision-­‐Making: A Case Study of International Tertiary Students in New Zealand : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Aviation at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Henderson, Jamie Thomas (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The number of students studying overseas is growing rapidly, driven largely by the desire for cultural exposure and greater access to higher quality institutes. With over 100% growth in the past 15 years, this sector also represents an increasingly valuable contributor to the global economy. However, until this point, there is yet to be any research on how this industry acts as consumers and whether they represent a distant airline customer segment in their own right. Airlines represent a significant facilitator of international study. This is particularly true in countries such as New Zealand, which receives 99% of its international visitors by air. Over 100,000 international students currently study in New Zealand, with nearly a third studying at a tertiary level, representing a significant number of generally independent and informed consumers. The aim of this study was to determine if international students represent a unique and distinct customer segment for airlines. This was assessed by how they purchase airline tickets online and whether they conform to the behaviour of more generic customer groups such as leisure or business travellers. This included an examination of how information is searched for and how various purchase criteria are evaluated to make a final decision. A dual-­‐phased, qualitative methodology was adopted with a sample of 40 international students from the Massey University Manawatū Campus. The first stage of the study involved an online observation where participants where asked to search for and purchase airline tickets as if they were doing so for their next journey to or from their home country. This was screen recorded and analysed to show the search patterns and information evaluation that lead to the final purchase decision. Stage two consisted of a semi-­‐structured interview asking participants to explain their search and evaluation process, including the factors that were most influential in their purchase process and why. The results indicate that the unique preferences of international students render them a distinct customer segment for airlines. The majority searched through online travel agents or indirect distribution channels. There were three levels of evaluation criteria were established, with price being the most influential factor in purchase decisions, followed by stopovers (number and length), schedule of international flights and baggage allowance. Definitive flight characteristics (aspects that can be completely defined prior to purchase) and brand appeared to be more influential than more intangible service attributes, which were largely expected or taken for granted and not considered by many participants. Generally, the international students in this study were found to be highly price sensitive, disloyal and not overly patient with respect to travel duration.

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