23,243 results for Thesis

  • Ignorance is Bliss: The Construction of Homelessness in Online News Media in Aotearoa/New Zealand : A thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science (Thesis Only) in Psychology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Mandeno, Celia A (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    As an entity central to our society the news media provides us with narratives that we access as resources in order to construct our understanding of individual and global people, groups, organisations, and phenomenon (Silverstone, 2007). This thesis explores the news media’s construction of homelessness in Aotearoa/New Zealand based on articles sourced from online news media provider stuff.co.nz. The dominant narrative presented through the analysed articles is one that promotes a construction of homelessness that identifies this phenomenon as an issue resulting from individual deficits and personal failings. The narrative of individual deficit is supported through the use of ignorant framings of homelessness that are filled with hegemonic silences. These silences allow for a notable absence of narrative regarding the structural causes of homelessness as a social problem. Through predominantly constructing homelessness as a phenomenon linked to individual deficit the narrative allows for a construction of homelessness that supports the neoliberal ideals of New Zealand’s current right wing government and its use of a penal based welfare system.

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  • An inquiry into students' and teachers' perceptions and use of small group work (SGW) teaching and learning experiences within an international school environment : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Second Language Teaching at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Cameron, Rebecca (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Research into 21st century education has consistently indicated that a key element of preparation for the contemporary workplace is the fostering of skills in collaboration, including the ability to negotiate with others. Furthermore, the advantages for language learners (LLs) in the midst of collaborative small group work (SGW) teams has been demonstrated time and time again in the literature. The approach undertaken drew on Exploratory Practice (EP), evolving into an inquiry into the perceptions of Diploma Programme (DP) school students and their teachers. Ultimately it provides insights into their views on the implementation of a SGW approach as a means of gaining access to grade level curriculum within a multilingual, International Baccalaureate (IB)-accredited school environment, in Germany, where the core curriculum in delivered in English. Data was gathered from the students and teachers in this particular context using multiple data-collection tools, including both quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews over a period of ten weeks. The findings suggest that, overall, both teachers and students have a favourable view of a SGW approach. However, a number of implications have also been drawn regarding the polarity of perceptions uncovered in some instances, specifically with regards to the teaching and learning of subject specific language, and the degree of scaffolding that effective use of SGW requires. The study culminates with several recommendations such as the fostering and maintenance of an institutional climate that celebrates diversity; the on-going professional development for teachers in SGW management techniques and practices; the need for institutional investment in terms of sufficient time and space to implement SGW training, as well as time and purpose-built spaces to deliver SGW more effectively; and finally more active collaboration between teachers and their students, for guiding and informing pedagogical practice, and specifically aimed at enhancing the outcomes for ELLs within similar international school settings.

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  • Livelihood Strategies and Environmental Management Practices in Northern Thailand National Park Communities : A dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Natural Resource Management at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Phongchiewboon, Aurathai (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    In Northern Thailand, the establishment of national parks is at the forefront of efforts to achieve biodiversity conservation and environmental management while providing socio-economic benefits to society. However, national parks regulations and development interventions have created both opportunities and constraints for the Indigenous hill tribe communities living within the national parks. These communities have, out of necessity, adapted and developed their livelihood strategies and environmental management practices to maintain their socio-economic welfare and ecological sustainability. This study employed Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) as a mixed qualitative research strategy to investigate the livelihood strategies and environmental management practices in Doi Suthep-Pui, Doi Inthanon, and Ob Luang National Parks in Northern Thailand. The main research methods used were interviews, observation, and document analysis to support data that gained from the PRA methods. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the livelihood strategies and environmental management practices of six Indigenous hill tribe communities living in the parks. Interviews were conducted with villagers, national park officials, academics, and representatives from non-government organisations and tourism agencies. The interview data was also analysed to investigate how co-management initiatives and livelihood development projects by national parks officials and external organisations influence Indigenous communities’ livelihood strategies. It was found that the livelihood strategies of the Indigenous hill tribe communities encompass a diverse combination of activities related to their social and ecological relationships in order to ensure sustained socio-economic well-being. Communities engage in sustainable agricultural practices, community-based natural resource management activities and community-based ecotourism enterprises as their significant livelihood strategies. However, while there has been some consultation, co-management, and collaborative policy-making between government and local communities, further improvement of transparency, consistency and accountability is needed. It is argued that greater community empowerment and participation in natural resource management decisions is crucial to enhance both sustainable livelihoods and environmental conservation efforts within Northern Thailand’s national parks.

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  • Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents : : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Earth Sciences at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Breard, Eric Christophe Pascal (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are the most dangerous mass flows on Earth. Yet they remain poorly understood because internal measurements and observations are hitherto non-existent. In this thesis, the first measurements and views into experimental large-scale PDCs synthesized by “column collapse” provide insights into the internal structure, transport and emplacement dynamics of dense PDCs or pyroclastic flows. While from an outside point of view, PDCs resemble dilute gravity currents, the internal flow structure shows longitudinal and vertical complexities that greatly influence the PDCs‟ propagation and emplacement dynamics. Internal velocity and concentration profiles from direct observations provide the evidence of an unforeseen intermediate zone that plays an important role into the transfer of mass from the ash-cloud to the underflow. The intermediate zone is a “dense suspension” where particle cluster in bands to form mesoscale structures. These reduce particle drag and yield an extreme sedimentation rate of particles onto the newly-formed underflow. These findings call into question the existing paradigm of a continuous vertical concentration profile to explain the formation of massive layers and an underflow from ash-clouds. Instead, a sharp concentration jump occurs between the intermediate zone, with concentrations of the order of few volume percent, and the underflow, with concentrations of c.45%. PDCs were found to be composed of 4 main zones identified as the underflow, and the ash-cloud head, body and wake. Following the evolution of the PDC structure over time allows the formation of a complex ignimbrite deposit sequence to be uncovered, reproducing experimentally the “standard ignimbrite sequence” reported from field studies. Experiments revealed that each flow zone deposited the particulate load under contrasting emplacement timescales (spanning up to 5 orders of magnitude), which are primarily controlled by the concentration of the zone. The ash-cloud head is the most dynamic zone of the PDC, where proximally mass is intensively transferred downward and feeds the underflow front, while at all times, the finest particles are entrained upward and feed the wake through detachment of large Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Subsequently, kinematic coupling between the moving underflow and overriding ash-cloud leads to a forced-supercriticality, preferentially affecting the head. The wide range of particle sizes and densities yield a spectrum of gas-transport behaviours ranging from a poorly coupled and rapid-sedimenting mesoscale regime up to a homogeneously coupled long-lived suspending regime. Internal velocity and concentration profiles illuminate the role of boundary velocity, which yields forced-acceleration of the ash-cloud. Kinematic coupling of the ash-cloud with the underflow induces a velocity at the lower flow boundary, while shear stress at the ash-cloud/underflow wanes and results in the shrinking of the maximum velocity and concentration heights. Therefore, the ash-cloud can reach high velocities and multiply its destruction potential. The experimental work presented in this thesis provides the first datasets of the internal physical properties of PDCs, which can be used to test the validity of current numerical models and highlight their limitations. This thesis also presents the study of a small hydrothermal blast that occurred at Mt. Tongariro, New Zealand, on the 6th of August 2012. The study of the blast is subdivided into two phases: the PDC phase and the ballistic phase. The detailed study of the PDC along the main propagation axis highlighted the role of the longitudinal zoning of the current, which was reflected in the complex tripartite deposit architecture. The study of the blast-derived ballistic crater field revealed a zone of high crater density that was related to the focus of ballistic trajectories around the main explosion direction. Simple inverse ballistic modelling provided evidence for a shallow blast (c. 5° above horizontal) from Te Maari. Furthermore, a comparison of ballistic block lithologies confirmed the origin of the elongated succession of craters or fissures formed by successive blasting during the eruption.

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  • Modelling food breakdown and bolus formation during mastication : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Bioprocess Engineering at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Gray-Stuart, Eli Mark (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Mastication is a complex process that transforms food into a bolus which can be swallowed safely. However, it can be simplified within an engineering context, where the mouth is the equipment carrying out a unit operation to convert ingested food (raw material) into a safe-to-swallow bolus as the process output. Two questions emerge from this observation (i), ‘What processes transform the food from its initial state into a bolus?’ and (ii), ‘How do humans assess when the food is ready to initiate swallowing?’ This research examines these questions and a mathematical model is developed which can track the bolus properties during mastication. A range of common foods with contrasting textures were examined in an observational study to investigate the rate processes of mastication. A wide range of breakdown pathways and textures were observed, from the brittle fracture of carrots to the work softening of a fibrous beef steak. However, despite differences in their structure and properties, breakdown is dominated by a small number of rate processes. Size reduction and work softening occur at occlusion and account for majority of the structural breakdown. Absorption, dissolution and melting are generally more subtle. These are facilitated by mixing, which is the circulation, gathering, folding and placement of food on the occlusal plane. Mechanical sensory testing (MST) occurs simultaneously to breakdown as the food is manipulated around the mouth during occlusion and between chews. During occlusion this provides gross information about the toughness and hardness, whereas between chews the tongue-palate interactions provide more detailed information about yield and flow. These MST’s assess the properties of volume, adhesion, bolus deformation, particle deformation and particle size. Adhesion refers to the binding forces between the food particles and the oral surfaces. Bolus deformation is important for boluses that do not contain individual particles. If they do then swallowability is constrained by their size and individual deformability. In order for safe swallowing, thresholds for each of the MST properties must be met. These were justified using a hazard and operability study of swallowing, on the premise that attempting to swallow a bolus which does not meet the threshold property could result in aspiration or choking. As mastication proceeds, the properties assessed by the MST’s are evaluated against the required threshold properties and contribute to the decision making process of whether to swallow or continue chewing. From this analysis, this work proposes a universal conceptual model of mastication that combines the rate processes, the MSTs and a decision making model. The conceptual model was then described mathematically. It is universal, that is, it is not specific to any food type, because solid foods follow similar physical breakdown paths where occlusion is of primary importance followed by the incorporation of saliva and the other rate processes. Model parameters require in-vivo experiments about the breakdown dynamics of specific foods. Subject variability was avoided by using single subject studies for three separate foods; brown rice, a sweetened gelatine gel and peanuts embedded in a food matrix. Each case study explored a limited number of rate processes and food properties. Bolus properties predicted by the model were compared to the experimental data. The output of the model, including particle size distribution and moisture content, closely matched the data during mastication and at swallow point using input parameters fitted from the single subject experiments. This work provides a platform for further research into mastication modelling. It is recommended the mathematical model be expanded to mechanistically describe the mixing and work softening of non-particulate food boluses. Additional experimental work would achieve a better understanding of the heat transfer in the mouth which would improve the models ability to handle heat sensitive foods. The model developed here has the potential to aid future food design where a particular breakdown pathway is desired and will reduce the number of time intensive in-vivo experiments needed.

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  • The Church of Worship : an exegesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Fine Art at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Francey, Joanne (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Church of Worship is a cult-like religious hyperreality performance and net-based project that explores and negotiates the parallels between religious devotion and celebrity adoration demanded by popular culture. This thesis uses the postmodern semiotic concept of hyperreality through Jean Baudrillard’s simulation and simulacra, as it’s theoretical framework. The project also explores Persona as a method for exploring the parallels between celebrity and religious icons or the concept of the ‘Hero’. The outputs of the church of worship include; a digital space of worship, performances, literature, and a series of overly refined fine art photographs. This project uses humour, abjection, and consumer and pop-cultural critique as central modalities.

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  • Effect of breed on thermal pain sensitivity in dogs : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Zoology at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Bowden, James (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A problem in assessing pain sensitivity in animals is the variability among individuals within a species. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT) testing is used to measure pain sensitivity in animals. However, little research has been done on within species differences in pain sensitivity, with most studies focusing on the effectiveness of analgesics. This research was carried out to see if there was any variation in baseline TNTs in different dog breeds. To determine TNTs, a heat stimulus was applied to the leg of a dog using a new device that could be remotely activated. This removed the need to restrain the dogs. The time and temperature at which the dog responded behaviourally was recorded. The TNT of dog was recorded six times in a one-hour session, once a week, for four consecutive weeks. In the first experiment the repeatability of harrier hound (n= 11) TNTs over time and the effects of the initial thermode temperature were examined. The results indicated that TNTs were repeatable over the daily test, session however they were affected by week of testing, thermode and initial thermode temperature. It was concluded that using a consistent elevated initial thermode temperature was more consistent than the natural starting temperature. The aim of the second experiment was to investigate differences in TNTs between three dog breeds: harrier hounds, greyhounds, and huntaways (n=10 per breed). A breed effect was found whereby huntaways took significantly longer to respond than harrier hounds and responded at higher temperatures than greyhounds and harrier hounds. There were no differences between greyhounds and harrier hounds. This study provides the first scientific evidence of breed differences in pain sensitivity in dogs. It is concluded that there were differences in thermal pain thresholds between the three dog breeds tested. The study supported the use of TNT testing on dogs and offered new insight into ways to improve the reliability of threshold testing. Future work should use more breeds, evaluate pain sensitivity in other modalities, and assess the effect of analgesics on TNTs in dogs.

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  • The Actin-binding Protein Moesin and Memory Formation in Drosophila : A thesis presented to Massey University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Biochemistry

    Freymuth, Patrick Stephen (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Moesin is a cytoskeletal adaptor protein that plays an important role in modification of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of dendritic spines, which may be crucial to long-term potentiation. Moesin has also been found to be overexpressed in brains affected by Alzheimer’s disease. Despite being identified as a potential memory gene and linked to several neurological diseases, its role in memory has not been evaluated. The role of Moesin in the Drosophila melanogaster brain was investigated by characterizing the impact of modulating Moesin expression on several aspects of development and behavior. Moesin is involved in both brain and eye development. Knockdown and overexpression of Moesin led to defects in the development of the mushroom body, a brain structure critical for memory formation and recall. Further, knockdown of Moesin throughout development resulted in a significant deficit in long-term memory. Additionally, knockdown of Moesin restricted to adulthood also resulted in a significant deficit in long-term memory, which suggests that Moesin also has a non-developmental role in memory. Further, this requirement for Moesin in long-term memory was traced to the alpha/beta and gamma neurons of the mushroom body. Through the use of a phosphomimetic Moesin mutant that mimics the phosphorylated, activated form of Moesin, the regulation of Moesin in the Drosophila brain was analyzed. Expression of this mutant in neurons disrupted photoreceptor development in the Drosophila eye and a novel sensorimotor phenotype attributed to its expression in the brain was identified resulting in a defect in stereotypical climbing behavior. These results suggest a critical role for Moesin in general neurological functioning and the molecular pathways involved in its activation require further investigation.

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  • Photo-identification and its application to gregarious delphinids: Common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) in the Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand : A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Marine Ecology at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Hupman, Krista E (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) remain one of the most poorly understood delphinids within New Zealand waters. Baseline data on their abundance, site fidelity, movement patterns, and social structure remain unknown. This thesis applies photo-identification (photo-id) methods to fill in this data gap and provide the first comprehensive assessment of abundance, site fidelity, movement patterns, and social structure of Delphinus within New Zealand waters. Traditional cetacean photo-id relies on identification of dorsal fin nicks and notches. Photo-id is, therefore, rarely applied to common dolphins due to the lack of distinctive markings for individual identification and their gregarious nature. This study, however, applied this technique to identify unique individuals by examining dorsal fin nicks and notches in combination with dorsal fin pigmentation patterns in an effort to provide an additional stable feature for individual identification. Of all individuals examined, 95.3% exhibited dorsal fin pigmentation, with 92.7% manually identified using pigmentation as the only identifying feature. Novel computer vision and machine learning techniques were applied to examine pigmentation patterns. The correct individual was identified via pigmentation patterns alone 52.5%, 70.8%, and 78.7% of the time within the top-1, top-5, and top-10 matches, respectively. Furthermore, 79.9% of individuals were able to be classified as adult or immature based on pigmentation patterns alone. Overall, results suggested that pigmentation patterns are stable over time (for up to 11 years), although it is not known what proportion of the population exhibits such stability. Pigmentation patterns proved to be a reliable means of identification and can be used as a primary feature for identifying individual common dolphins in the Hauraki Gulf (HG). Future studies should trial this technique for this species in other worldwide populations. To estimate population parameters, mark-recapture (MRC) analysis can be conducted. This thesis examined the challenge of using this technique to estimate population parameters for common dolphins in the HG. The main challenges identified included the: high portion of unmarked animals; low levels of distinctiveness, and; the gregarious transient nature of Delphinus. Despite such challenges, reliable photo-id protocols were developed to increase the accuracy of individual identification and produce estimates of population parameters. These protocols included: combining the use of nicks and notches with pigmentation patterns as a primary feature for identification; classifying individuals as highly distinctive (D1), distinctive (D2), or non-distinctive (D3); the development of a distinctiveness threshold to catalogue individuals, and; for population analysis, stratifying data by the level of individual distinctiveness (by examining differences between D1 individuals only compared to D1&D2 individuals combined). The use of these protocols enabled the identification of 2,083 unique individual common dolphins in the HG between 2010 and 2013. Sighting records from these 2,083 individuals were used in a POPAN framework to estimate population parameters. The total population abundance was then calculated using a mark ratio (for D1 only and D1&D2 individuals) to account for the proportion of unmarked dolphins in the population. The best model selected for D1 individuals included constant survival and probability of entry and time dependant capture probability (ø(.) p(t) β(.)), whereas for D1 and D2 individuals combined, probability of entry varied by time (ø(.) p(t) β(t)). Apparent survival was constant for both D1 (0.767) and D1 and D2 (0.796) individuals. The low apparent survival estimates are likely caused by emigration of transient dolphins. Capture probability varied over time for both D1 (range=0.021-0.283) and D1 and D2 (range=0.006-0.199) individuals. Probability of entry remained constant for D1 individuals (0.062) but varied over time for D1 and D2 individuals (range=0.000-0.413). The total population was estimated at 7,795 dolphins (CI=7,230-8,404) when only D1 individuals were included, but increased to 10,578 individuals (CI=9,720-11,512), with the addition of D2 individuals. The photo-id protocols used here allowed maximised use of the photo-id data and provided a useful approach to estimate population parameters of poorly marked gregarious delphinids. The techniques applied here could be used for MRC studies of other Delphinus populations, or for other similar low marked gregarious species. Considering the large number of individuals found to use the HG, the level of site fidelity for common dolphins within this region was assessed. Likewise, an assessment was conducted to determine if individuals move between regions, primarily to the Bay of Plenty (BOP), and additionally to the Bay of Islands (BOI) and the Marlborough Sounds (MS). Common dolphins displayed long-term site fidelity to the HG, with 2,399 marked individuals identified within this region between 2002 and 2013. These individuals were classified as occasional visitors (95.1%), moderate users (4.8%), and frequent users (0.1%). Individuals were also found to move between neighbouring regions including the Bay of Plenty (2.2%) and Bay of Islands (0.2%). In addition, a number of individuals were defined as travellers moving between multiple regions. Travellers exhibited opposite seasonal peaks in re-sightings between the HG and the BOP, which may represent an influx of individuals from these neighbouring regions. A total of six travellers were observed to move between the HG and the BOP in stable pairs. Knowledge of common dolphin site fidelity to the HG and movement patterns to other regions is vital for identifying management units and, therefore, providing effective conservation of this species in New Zealand waters. The definition of management units requires knowledge of a species social structure. Findings presented here provided the first analysis of Delphinus social structure in the Hauraki Gulf. Considering common dolphin associations may be difficult to study due to their gregarious nature, an assessment of which sighting thresholds were best for conducting social structure analysis was conducted. Sighting thresholds were assessed to determine which is best for: maintaining reliability without the loss of data; association indices, and; representation of the true social structure. Precision of the data increased when the sighting threshold decreased. Levels of association were reported to decrease when restricting the number of times an individual was observed. Notwithstanding, maximum association indices were similar regardless of the sighting threshold used. Social structure analysis was considered to be a ‘somewhat representative’ pattern of the true social organisation of common dolphins in the HG. For these reasons, a threshold of four or more sightings was considered the best representation of social structure for this population Common dolphins in the HG displayed fluid associations at the population level (Coefficient of Association; COA=0.02), although some individuals were found to associate with particular companions (maximum COA=0.46). The population was also classified as a well-differentiated society (S=1.230). Individuals did not form short-term companionships but instead preferred long-term associations. Structured relationships existed, some of which lasted for periods of up to 70 days. The examination of the sociality of gregarious species is therefore possible using photo-id techniques and provides information on association patterns for common dolphins within New Zealand waters. Such information is important to collect over the long-term to be able to determine relationships between individuals which can be used to develop effective management this population. To efficiently manage common dolphins in the HG and New Zealand waters, it is important to be able to identify the natural and anthropogenic pressures faced by populations. To examine this, photo-id was also applied to assess the prevalence of lesions and deformities. The majority (78.0%) of individuals photo-identified exhibited lesions, whereas only 0.5% had deformities. Of all body segments examined, the anterior peduncle exhibited the highest percentage of lesions or deformities (91.1%). A significant difference in the prevalence of lesions between the leading and trailing edges of dorsal fins was also evident. A number of possible causes of lesions and deformities were highlighted including intra- or inter-specific interactions, congenital malformations, environmental conditions, infectious origins, fisheries and vessel interactions, and/or human-induced environmental stressors. Considering the number of pressures faced by this population it is important to monitor lesion and deformity prevalence over time to highlight natural or human induced impacts within the environment. As common dolphins remain part of an open super-population, which inhabits the north-eastern coastline of New Zealand’s North Island, they are therefore, subject to cumulative pressures. Considering a baseline abundance estimate is available, further monitoring and meaningful re-evaluations of this population is required. Proactive as opposed to reactive conservation is, therefore, recommended to ensure effective management of this species in New Zealand waters.

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  • Journey together through the three years: An evaluation of the personal tutor system, a student support model embedded in a Bachelor of Nursing programme in New Zealand : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment for the requirements for the degree of Doctorate in Education at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Hoare, Kathryn Maree (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Student support is an important part of tertiary education with different models, systems and approaches used internationally and nationally. The personal tutor system is one such approach to student support embedded within a new Bachelor of Nursing curriculum in a New Zealand tertiary institution. Through the personal tutor system students were assigned a lecturer, an academic member of staff, at the commencement of their study, for the duration of their programme. The purpose of the personal tutor system was to offer students support with their academic development and personal guidance that involved: scheduled and ad hoc meetings; monitoring of progress; personal assistance; and directing some students to seek additional support. Using a mixed methods design, the personal tutor system was evaluated at the time the first student cohort completed the new programme. The study focused on factors that influenced the personal tutor system experience. Third year students and lecturers were invited to participate in two‐phase data collection that involved the completion of a questionnaire (third year students: n=86 and lecturers: n=19) followed by semi‐structured interviews (third year students: n=38 and lecturers: n=10). Most participants confirmed that their personal tutor system experience was positive. Interpersonal interaction between students and lecturers was a key factor, as relationships were central to the personal tutor system. Flexibility was important as the personal tutor system was not a one‐size‐fits‐all approach to student support. At times, competing responsibilities gave rise to undue tension particularly with lecturers’ availability and accessibility for support. Unfamiliarity with the personal tutor system guidelines led to different interpretations for use and consequently confusion with support expectations. However, almost all participants acknowledged the value and potential for the personal tutor system in the BN programme. Recommendations for changes to the personal tutor system included: the creation a proportional co‐ordination role for ongoing management; a review of the guidelines that linked to support resources; time integrated into the BN programme for flexible arrangements with meetings and contact; and a time allocation for lecturers’ workload with resourcing for associated responsibilities.

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  • Reporting Error in Aircraft Maintenance: are engineers reporting safety concerns? : A thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Aviation At Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Twyman, Kirsty (2015)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Aviation accidents seldom occur as the consequence of an isolated incident, but as the result of a series of contributing factors. The industry has focussed on detecting and predicting these casual factors to support accident prevention. However, the complexity of aircraft maintenance errors makes them somewhat harder to capture. One method adopted to support error identification is error-reporting systems. The primary aim of study was to identify if reporting systems were being utilised by maintenance personnel. The secondary aim was to distinguish the factors that contribute to maintenance personnel rejecting reporting systems as a supportive tool. This was achieved through an online questionnaire. Due to a lack of research on error reporting and usability of reporting systems by aircraft maintenance personnel it proved difficult to use an existing survey, so survey questions were developed from an extensive literature review and a focus group made up of front-line personnel. Survey questions focussed on reporting system design, company attitude, error recognition and finally maintenance personnel personality patterns. Results showed several issues affected reporting system usage including lack of company support, inadequate training, and lack of feedback. Perhaps the most significant discovery were engineers believing that they would report error, but were inadequately able to recognise error. Although regulatory authorities and organisations themselves are seeing the benefits of a positive reporting culture the current study showed there are still significant issues with current reporting systems, without these inhibiting factors being addressed the industry cannot solely rely on self-reporting to manage error.

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  • An Investigation of Nutrition Risk among Hospitalised Older Adults Admitted to the Assessment, Treatment and Rehabilitation Wards of Waitemata District Health Board Hospitals : A Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics Massey University, Albany New Zealand

    Patel, Darshan Arvind (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Background: The proportion of older adults in New Zealand is increasing. Studies shows compromised nutrition status is prevalent in older adults, and can exacerbate poor health. It is therefore important to identify those who are malnourished, or those who are at nutrition risk for early nutrition intervention. Nutrition screening tools allow for the identification of nutrition risk status and initiation of nutritional care to result in improved health outcomes. Current data on the prevalence of nutrition risk in hospitalised older adults in New Zealand is limited. Design: Cross-sectional, observational study as part of a multicentre prospective study. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of nutrition risk among older adults (65-84 years) in the Assessment, Treatment and Rehabilitation (AT&R) wards of North Shore and Waitakere Hospitals. Potential nutrition risk factors including dysphagia risk, muscle mass and hand grip strength will also be investigated, as well as other relevant physiological and socio-demographic risk factors. Methods: Participants were recruited within five days of admission to the AT&R wards. Face-to-face interviews and assessments were conducted on the wards. A questionnaire incorporating participant characteristics, health and support data and validated screening and assessment tools were used. Nutrition risk status was assessed by the Mini Nutrition Assessment-Short Form, dysphagia risk status was assessed by the Eating Assessment Tool, cognitive status was assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and muscle mass was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Hand grip strength was measured using a hydraulic dynamometer. Results: A total of 89 participants took part in the study. Nutrition risk and malnutrition was evident in 43.8 and 27.0 percent of the study participants respectively. Indicated by the Mini-Nutrition Assessment-Short Form, participants with poor nutritional status were more likely to report reduced food intake, unintentional weight loss, requiring aid with activities of daily living, having previous dietetic input and being at risk of dysphagia compared to participants with ‘normal’ nutritional status. Conclusion: A high percentage of hospitalised older adults recently admitted to the AT&R wards had compromised nutritional status. Routine screening is highly advised to identify nutritional risk and instigate nutritional care.

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  • Analysis of spectral response patterns of Kiwifruit orchards using satellite imagery to predict orchard characteristics of commercial value before harvest : : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of PhD Prod Tech in the School of Engineering and Advanced Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Mills, Linda Yvonne (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Several characteristics of kiwifruit determine its value to the kiwifruit marketing company, Zespri Ltd, and to the grower. The foremost of these is the dry matter content. Much effort is expended in predicting the final dry matter content of the fruit as early in the season as possible so that the optimal dry matter content can be achieved. Dry matter content is currently measured through a destructive 90-fruit protocol that may be repeated several times in a season on each maturity block. Remote sensing data available from modern satellites can provide four-colour (red, green, blue and near-infrared) data with resolution down to 1-2m, less than the size of one kiwifruit vine. Many indices can be created from these and correlated to the characteristics of plants with indifferent results. This thesis presents the development of an index wherein the four colours are used to create a three-dimensional unit colour vector that is largely independent of light level. This transform was used to allow the direct visualisation of data from a number of satellite images of the Te Puke kiwifruit growing area in New Zealand over five years, for which dry matter content values were available from the 90-fruit protocol. An attenuation model was chosen to correct the top-of-atmosphere light intensities recorded by the satellite cameras to those at ground level. The method of Hall et al., (1991) was found to reduce the variation of fiduciary pixels by the largest amount and was used. The visualisation revealed that there was an axis along which dry matter was ordered by magnitude. A regression line of best fit was applied to this data producing an R2 value of 0.51 with a standard mean-square error of 0.76. This is significantly lower than the average mean-square error of 1.05 for the 90-fruit protocol. Comparison of the predictive power of other indices, based on one image, showed a range of R2 values of 0.008 to 0.49. The method developed in this thesis produced an R2 of 0.70 for the same data.

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  • From Government to Governance: Small and Medium Enterprise Policy Development in New Zealand 1978 to 2008 : A thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management at Massey University Wellington, New Zealand

    Jurado, Tanya Ruth (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Widespread recognition of the importance of SMEs and their contribution to the economy means that successive New Zealand governments, between 1978 and 2008, placed increasing emphasis on SME policy. SME policy developed over time from being an incidental outcome of general economic policy to targeting particular SME sectors and engaging stakeholders and SMEs themselves in this process. Few studies have examined how this policy process evolved, and this research addresses the deficit by providing a critical overview of New Zealand SME policy development between 1978 and 2008. It examines how SME policy in New Zealand developed over the thirty-year period, identifying the main influences (or inputs) in SME policy development, and what policy outputs were set in place. The approach draws on business history methods and utilises primary sources, such as archival documentation, media reports, contemporary SME research and interviews with participants who played key roles in the development of SME policy. Historical analysis facilitates the examination of the range and diversity of SME policies used over the period under review. The research provides an overview of the external domestic and international influences that shaped and informed SME policymaking processes, and the challenges of meeting the often contradictory nature of government objectives in the socio-economic domain. It shows how over time the social cohesion policy objective, although still underplayed, became more pronounced. Principal inputs into SME policy are found to be the economic and stakeholder contexts, both set in an overall institutional environment. Whereas in the early period the economic context was the primary input into SME policy, by 2008 the input of stakeholders (researchers, academics, industry associations, chambers of commerce, among others) was more significant. The research concludes that, as attitudes and economic thinking changed, so too did SME policy and the way policy developed. A shift to the entrepreneurship paradigm contributed to a fundamental recalibration of approaches – from direct SME support such as the Small Business Agency, to predominantly indirect contextual support. SMEs were no longer considered ‘little big businesses’ but complex and heterogeneous enterprises and the role of stakeholders became more noticeable. Understanding how SME policy has altered over three decades assists researchers, policymakers and other SME stakeholders by contextualizing the evolution of thinking and approaches. As an outcome of this study, stakeholders will have additional clarity to help them contribute to the ongoing development of New Zealand SME policy.

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  • Exploring informal caregivers' health needs from a capability perspective : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Horrell, Barbara Mary (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Despite more than forty years of informal caregiving research, the health needs of informal caregivers continue to generate considerable scrutiny. Most commonly, caregiving is portrayed as burdensome and a health risk, although positive and ambivalent experiences have been reported. This study uses the Capability Approach (CA; e.g. Nussbaum, 2000; Sen, 1980) as a theoretical framework to add another perspective to the existing literature regarding informal care provision for older people. Participatory principles informed the research, insofar as the participants were accorded flexibility, control, and helped to co-analyse some of the data. Undertaken in New Zealand, the research comprised two studies. In Study One, 60 caregivers anonymously participated in an online research forum, in an evolving joint discussion of their health needs. Template analysis (King, 2012) of the forum postings, based on Nussbaum’s (2007) capabilities list, highlighted the relational nature of caregiving and the importance of emotions to the caregiving role. Emotional attachment influenced the caregivers’ freedom to choose how they lived their lives, and emotions in general were implicated in the complexities and tensions associated with the caregiving process. An important finding was the self-abnegation of the caregivers who neglected self-care in order to provide care for another. These results led to a second, prospective study that explored in more depth the role of emotions in the everyday lives of caregivers. Six informal caregivers participated in Study Two which involved up to six successive interviews with each participant. Four of the participants kept a solicited diary, which informed the subsequent interviews. Narratives from the second study provided more nuanced data that affirmed the first study’s findings, and contributed to the overall finding that an ethic of care underpins the provision of informal care for older people. The participants valued having the capability to care, evidenced by their emotional attachment, attentiveness and commitment to providing competent care. The participants approach to self-care and their own wellbeing was inseparable from the wellbeing of the person being cared-for. These findings have important implications for social policy aimed at improving the experience of providing informal care for older people.

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  • Statistical methods for estimating tephra source and dispersal : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Statistics at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Kawabata, Emily (2016)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Tephra refers to any pyroclastic fragments ejected from a volcanic vent and its dispersal is one of the major hazards with explosive eruptions. The attenuation of tephra fall thickness is most commonly estimated after contouring field measurements into smooth isopachs. I explicitly describe the variability in thickness by using a semiempirical tephra attenuation relation as a link function. This opens the way to fitting models to actual tephra observations through maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The method is illustrated using data published from the 1973 Heimaey eruption in Iceland. Complex eruptions commonly produce several phases of tephra fall from multiple vents. When attempting to precisely reconstruct past eruptions from the geological record alone, separate phases are often indistinguishable. Augmented by a mixture framework, the MLE attenuation model was able to identify the sources and directions of tephra deposition for the 1977 Ukinrek Maars eruption in Alaska, US, from only the tephra thickness data. It was then applied to the unobserved 1256 AD Al-Madinah eruption in Saudi Arabia. The estimation of the spatio-temporal hazard from a monogenetic volcanic field is criti- cally dependent on a reconstruction of past events. The Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF) has produced about 50 volcanoes in the last 250,000 years. Although inconsistent, age data for many of these volcanoes exist from various dating methods with various re- liabilities. The age order of some pairs is also known due to the overlaying of lavas (stratigraphy). A discussion is provided on how informative priors are obtained via ex- pert elicitation, on both the individual volcano ages, and the reliabilities of the dating methods. A possible Bayesian model for reconciling the available inconsistent volcano age data to estimate the true eruption ages is also discussed. To improve these eruption age estimates, some of the volcanoes can be correlated with the better dated tephra layers recovered from five maars in the field. The likelihood of any combination of volcano and tephra, incorporating the spatial variability based on the attenuation model and temporal components, is evaluated and is maximised numer- ically using linear programming. This statistical matching provides an improvement in the volcano age-order model and age estimates of the volcanoes in the AVF.

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  • "Where did I park my car?" : a mixed methods investigation on mild cognitive impairment diagnosis in New Zealand : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of a Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology at Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand. EMBARGOED until 11 May 2017

    McKinlay, Alison R (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as an objective impairment in cognitive function which spares everyday functional ability. The syndrome is shrouded in controversy regarding definition, cut-off criteria, and clinical utility. Consequently, it is an uncertain label for the client being diagnosed by their healthcare practitioner. To date, minimal research in New Zealand has focused on MCI within specialist assessment services. Reasons for this paucity of literature will be discussed throughout this thesis. The current research aimed to identify how practitioners deliver and perceive cognitive impairment diagnosis, and examine how clients respond to receiving this diagnosis. Client experiences were framed within the common sense model (CSM). This theory originates from health psychology, where coping behaviour is said to be influenced by the cognitive representations that a person has about their condition. Although the framework is previously discussed in relation to chronic illness, international researchers have started to examine the utility of the model in explaining MCI diagnosis response. Given this context, the CSM framework guided the client-focused components of this thesis. In Study One, 57 practitioners who diagnose cognitive impairment completed a questionnaire on labels applied to MCI and beliefs about the value of diagnosis delivery. Responses were analysed using content analysis to gain an impression of professional practice. Cognitive disorder - not otherwise specified (CD-NOS), early dementia, and normal ageing were reported to additionally label the symptoms of MCI in clinical practice. In Study Two, client responses were examined in a small clinical sample (N = 9) diagnosed with MCI and CD-NOS. Participants were interviewed twice within six months of initial diagnosis. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to gain insight into how people cope and make sense of their diagnosis over time. Descriptive analyses were also undertaken with a subset of Study Two data to examine changes and differences in coping strategies over time. Findings suggest that participants may not see their diagnosis as an illness or significant health threat in the first six months following diagnosis. This prompts a question on the suitability of an illness model with reference to diagnosis response. Findings from this research add to the literature by highlighting practice associated with an evolving form of clinical diagnosis in NZ.

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  • The association between equine Papillomavirus type 2 and equine Squamous cell carcinomas : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Knight, Cameron Greig (2015)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Appendix A removed due to copyright restriction.

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  • Japanese ESL students' use and perception of English linking and intrusive sounds : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts in Second Language Teaching at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Wickins, Glenn (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study investigates the use of linking and intrusive sounds in English by Japanese students studying university preparation English as a Second Language (ESL) courses at a tertiary institution in New Zealand. Such students covet a native-like accent, which in part comes from the ability of native English speakers to resolve the interruptions in the constant stream of language that they are producing. Producing a constant stream of English sounds more “natural” and “fluent”. Native English speakers have options to help them do this, which are called sandhi. This study focuses on six such features of connected speech: linking /j/, /w/ and /r/ sounds which are only pronounced when the following word begins with a vowel; and the intrusive versions of the same three sounds used to remove hiatus (interruptions in the flow of speech) between two vowel sounds. The purpose of this study is to investigate potential links between the usage of sandhi techniques and the current proficiency level of learners to see how teachers can best encourage the use of these “natural-sounding” features. By collecting speech samples from 38 participants and comparing them to the linking patterns of native English speakers as reported by other studies, this study endeavours to draw some conclusions about the usage of sandhi in Japanese ESL students.

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  • Implementation of lean, agile or leagile in consumer electronic retail companies : a comparative study between China and New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master in Logistics and Supply Chain Management at Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand

    Xiao, Jun (2016)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Since 1960s, a large number of researchers have focused on how organisations have made large investment to streamline their supply chain to improve customer satisfaction and increase their internal productivity, all with the aim of achieving a competitive advantage against competitors on the market. Much research has been conducted on lean management techniques, aiming to reduce the costs of supply chains by minimizing their length and agile management aiming to increasing the robustness and flexibility of supply chains. An emerging field of research combines the two principles indicating that an organisations success lies in the combination of both. This is the case in the consumer electronics industry. The consumer electronics industry generates an array of products and services increasingly used in nearly every human endeavour, now deeply entwined in our social fabric, electronic products and systems now support critical aspects of communication, education, finance, recreation, and government. In the past few years, China in particular have become increasingly important in the consumer electronics as well as other industries. As an importer to New Zealand, a market for consumer electronic goods has been rapidly amplified over the years introducing a market for more relevant companies to be established and the market competition to become more competitive. This research focused on the implementation of lean, agile and leagile strategies in four consumer electronic retail companies from China and New Zealand. It is aim of this research to better understand the inner supply chain management strategies and practices of these four companies, and analyse how these strategies improve their supply chain performance. Finally, the research will find out what New Zealand’s companies should learn from China’s successful companies by comparing these strategies and identifying the environments these four companies operate in. This research will aim to uncover characteristics associated with the success of Chinese consumer electronics companies, specific to lean, agile and leagile strategies and see whether New Zealand has the infrastructure to gain the same competitive advantage using these strategies. Keywords: supply chain management, lean, agile, leagile, consumer electronic retail industry

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