22,935 results for Thesis

  • Feed value of tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis) for goats and preferential browsing activities by goats and sheep in multi-species shrub/pasture conditions : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in agronomy

    Pande, Rameshwar Singh (1990)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The objective of the thesis work was to investigate the feed value and diet selection of tagasaste foliage vs lucerne hay chaff; browsing activities in mixed conditions of tagasaste shrub/pasture; and the preference ranking for forage shmbs species including tagasaste in multi-shmb/pasture conditions by goats as well as sheep. 1. Two eiperiments were carried out in The Animal Physiology Unit, Massey University and Grassland Division DSIR, Palmerston North. A) Indoor experiment: to evaluate DM intake, feed selection, digestibility, chemical compositions of tagasate foliage and lucerne hay. B) Outdoor experiment: to evaluate browsing activities of goats on mixed conditions of tagasaste shmb and pasture and goat behaviour. 1.1 DM intake, in- vivo OMD, in- vitro OMD and body weight change were similar for both tagasaste foliage and lucerne hay groups. DM intakes were 33.37 ± 1.64 (g/kg BW/day) for tagasaste foliage and 26.49 ± 2.22 (g/kg BW/day) for lucerne hay. In - vivo DMD were 70.42 ± 1.35 % and 66.94 ± 1.35 % for tagasaste and lucerne hay chaff respectively. Similarly, in- vitro DMD were 62.48 % vs 66.63 % for tagasaste and lucerne hay group. Tagasaste leaves only were higher in in - vitro DMD compared to stems only. In- vitro DMD of leaves were 69.29 % whereas for stems were 47.45 %. Tagasaste foliage and lucerne hay chaff were similar in Nitrogen (3.16 vs 3.21 % DM); NDF (45.89 vs 45.39% DM); ADL (7.10 vs 6.76% DM). But ash content in tagasaste foliage was less than half that of lucerne hay (5.18 vs 11.92 % DM). Goats selected most leafy parts of the tagasaste foliage, which were high in Nitrogen content and digestibility but lower in NDF and lignin than the feed offored. In the feed refusal of tagasaste foliage Nitrogen content was 2.52 % DM; and NDF and ADL were 55.1% and 9.0% respectively. However, such type of selectivity were not distinct while feeding on lucerne hay chaff, possibly due to its homogeneou$· nature. During the indoor measurement periods body weight change were 0.026 ± 0.008 (kg/day/kg BW) and 0.036 ± 0.008 (kg/day/kg BW) for tagasaste foliage and lucerne hay group respectively. 1.2 Goats spent more time on browsing on tagasaste foliage than grazing on pasture. Percentage of activities on browsing observations were 36.0 ± 2.08 % compared to 22.2 ± 2.08% for grazing and 41.7 ± 2.08% on idling. Goats browsed tagasaste foliage up to 1.5 m height. Bipedal stance was frequently observed. Goats ate dead bark of tagasaste branches particularly towards the end of the experiment period when there was no more foliage to browse. The use of artificial shelter was rare, instead of that they selected open and relatively dry places for night camping. Overgrazing might be harmful for better performance of tagasaste plants. Body weight changes in mixed conditions of tagasaste shrub /pasture conditions were higher than in indoor conditions while feeding either on tagasaste foliage or lucerne hay chaff as a sole diet. In shrub/pasture conditions body weight change was 0.133 ± 0.02 (kg/day/kg BW) and 0.122 ± 0.02 (kg/day/kg BW) for the two groups. 2. In the second trial preference for browsing by goats and sheep in multi-shrub species and pasture conditions including tagasaste, preference ranking for shrub species, and overlap of browsing activities between goats and sheep were evaluated in DSIR, Ballantrae Hill Station. The tested species were six leguminou~ shrubs includii:ig tagasaste, three non leguminous shrubs and two erect grass species. Leguminous species: tagasaste (Chamaecytisus palmensis (Christ) Hutch.), broom (Cytisus scorparius (L)Link.), tree medic (Medicago arborea L.), black locust (Robinia pseudocacia L.), gorse (Ulex europaeus L.), short spine gorse (Ulex europaeusL.). Non leguminous species: tauhinu (Cassinia leptophylla (Frost.F.)R.Br.), ceanothus (Ceanothus griseus (Trel.) Me Minn.), and manuka (Leptospermum scorparium J.R.et, G.Frost.). Erect grass species: toetoe (Cortaderiafulvida (Buchan) Zotov.), pampas (Cortaderia selloana Schult) Asch.& Graeb.). 2.1 The browsing activities of goats were high compared to sheep. Goats and sheep ranked shrub species differently, but the differences were not extreme. Similarly, proportional utilizations of shrubs were higher in goats compared to sheep. Overlap of browsing activities for shrub species was higher in summer and autumn than in winter. Goats spent 44.67 ± 1.3 % of activities on browsing compared to 11.56 ± 1.3 % of sheep. Grazing activities between goats and sheep were 48.57 vs 80.49 ± 1.3 %of total observation respectively. Similarly idling activities were 6.76 vs 7.95 ± 1.3 %for goats and sheep respectively. Low idling activities during the two hours record period might be due to the overnight fasting of the animals. 2.2 The most intensively browsed species were tree medic, tagasqste and ceanotlius by goats as well as sheep. Among the other species goats preferred gorse and short spine gorse compared to other shrub species while sheep preferred black locust and broom. Less preferred species were pampas, tauhinu, toetoe and manuka. Utilization of these species was higher by goats than by sheep. A comperison between these results and those of Lambert et al., (1989) indicated that there were some difference in estimates of preference made under indoor and outdoor conditions. The results indicate the potential of common grazing with goats and sheep especially in shrub/pasture conditions, in the absence of shrubs incorporation of tagasaste in goat farming systems could be useful .

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  • Bull beef systems for Wairarapa hill country : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science at Massey University

    Journeaux, Philip Ross (1987)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the viability of a number of bull beef production systems integrated with sheep, within summer dry and summer wet Wairarapa ·hill country environments. This was achieved by construction of a spreadsheet feed budget simulation model, based on representative wairarapa pasture growth and animal production data. The model balanced feed requirements over fortnightly periods, with unconsumed feed transferred between periods subject to allowances for senescence and decay. Gross margin analysis was used to investigate the financial profitability of the systems examined, including the base sheep policies used. A survey of commercial sheep/bull beef hill country farmers within the Wairarapa was carried out to verify the assumptions made in model construction and to identify practical problems/opportunities. Several off- farm factors were then considered (eg supply of bulls, availability of killing capacity, United States beef market) in terms of their on-farm impact and the outlook for bull beef, over the next 2-3 years. Following analysis of the survey and off-farm data, several farmers were re-visited individually, and then a follow-up group meeting was held, to discuss the results of the model and survey analysis. The study showed that there are a number of bull beef systems which are viable and profitable on Wairarapa hill country, and that the number of bulls farmed on hill country is likely to increase in the future. while some farmers were achieving levels of production indicated feasible by the model, many were producing below these levels. There is therefore considerable opportunity to increase meat production and profitability on these farms. There is also considerable opportunity, in terms of the supply of bulls, for the bull beef industry to expand within New Zealand, although there are some market uncertainties which could hinder this. The overall conclusion from this study is that the production of bull beef offers considerable scope to increase the profitability of North Island hill country farming, and that this industry will continue to expand.

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  • The segmental sensory innervation of the skin of the sheep : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Veterinary Science from Massey University

    Kirk, Edwin James (1967)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The interest in the segmental basis of cutaneous sensory innervation evinced by the ancient Greeks was developed into a major contribution to experimental biology by the studies in man and animals by Sherrington, Head and Foerster. The present study is one of a number of more recent investigations of the dermatomes in animals from which a great deal of comparative information has been obtained. The particular significance of a study of the functional anatomy of the sheep in relation to veterinary medicine has been discussed. The experimental work described in this thesis involved particular consideration of the following 1. The features of the topographical anatomy of the vertebral column of the sheep which were found to be of importance in the experimental procedures. 2. The value of the "remaining sensibility" technique as a means of defining the dermatomes of the sheep. 3. The use of figurines and photographs in the schematic representation of the experimental results. 4. The justification for basing the definition of the dermatomes largely on the responses to pinch stimuli. 5. A discussion of the features of the dermatomes of the sheep in relation to embryological development and the observations which have been made in other species. 6. The changes in muscle tonus in the limbs which followed section of the dorsal spinal nerve roots or damage to the spinal cord. 7. The aberrations in feeding, defecation, micturition and respiration produced by various dorsal root sections. 8. The major pathways in the spinal cord followed by the primary afferent fibres, as revealed by the Marchi technique. 9. A general consideration of the significance of studies such as the present, and their possible extension to include deeper somatic or visceral structures. Details of the dorsal root sections undertaken have been provided in an appendix.

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  • Dynamic response of rotationally periodic structures : thesis submitted in fulfillment of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering, Massey University, School of Engineering and Technology, February 2014

    Mubarak, Rana Noman (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Due to their structural dynamics, rotationally periodic structures (RPS) have always been an area of interest for engineers and scientists. RPS is found in almost all industries and could be as large as jet turbines to as small as hard disk drives. We come across with RPS on daily routine like washing machine tub, small gears in home appliances and brakes in automobile etc. With such an influence in our life, an RPS dynamic response to the environment is crucial to keep them working and hence is the focus of the thesis. The research involves three major responses on rotationally periodic structures (RPS) namely vibration, thermal and shock. Hard disk drives and integrally bladed rotors (IBR) has been selected as research models. On vibratory response in rotationally periodic structures, effects on structural designs and free vibrations of integrated bladed rotor (IBR) have been investigated in this research. The migration of natural frequencies is characterized through parametric studies considering changes in blade angle and blade thickness of an underlying uniform axis-symmetric rotor. Recurring coupled repeated doublet modes, defined as replica modes, have been observed in this study by characterizing blade vibrations in-phase or out-of-phase to disk vibrations. Veering and clustering of replica modes’ natural frequencies are observed with respect to the blade design parameters. Existence of replica modes has been verified via experimental studies. Fourier content for the low frequency replica component is found to be sensitive and tuneable to blade angle design. For the thermal response of RPS, structural thermal analysis of spindle disk assembly used in hard disk drives (HDDs) was adopted. With the view toward understanding the underlying physics and to minimize the corresponding repeatable run-out (RRO) of track following position error signal (PES) in high track per inch (TPI) magnetic disk drives, analytical representations of thermal expansion mismatch between disk and spindle hub structure formulated in form of operators and finite element analysis (FEA) are employed. Parametric studies with analysis taken at different operational temperatures suggested that RRO can be minimized significantly when location of spindle notch is properly located. RRO harmonics resulted from the thermal expansion mismatch and structure misalignments are studied and concluded with simple algebraic expression related to number of fasteners used in the disk-spindle assembly. On shock response of RPS, head gimbal assembly (HGA) in HDD was analysed. Experimental observation of de-bonding phenomena between head gimbal assembly (HGA) and suspension for a commercial 3.5-inch enterprise HDD under non-operational 250G shock test was performed. In this research the experimental observation and numerical finite element studies were conducted to understand the effect on the mechanical failure of HGA when it is subjected to non-operational shock in the parked position on the ramp. Different design modifications were adapted to withstand shock waves. It was observed that by changing flexure angle in HGA, shock stress can be reduced. FEA simulation results have been presented to verify the findings. The research findings in this thesis can be implemented in the industry where RPS has been widely used, as for example the new replica modes discovery in bladed rotors can also been applied on small scales like as on hard drive, where no. of blades can be replaced by no. of fasteners and the spinning hard drive will be benefited by studying its vibrations with concentration on replica modes. Furthermore, the serendipitous finding of HDD platters expansion under thermal stress can be beneficial in actually storing more data per inch as it has been recently used in TAMR (thermally assisted magnetic recording) technology. Gears, brakes, washing machines to name a few can get supported from the findings in the thesis where controlling vibrations, shock and heat is crucial.

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  • Having their say : six Pacific girls talk about their experiences in a New Zealand secondary school : a thesis completed in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Second Language Teaching at Massey University, Palmerston North

    Bell, Zana (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The problems faced by Pacific students in the New Zealand education system have been examined over the years, but very often the analysis of learning problems has been complicated by factors associated with wider issues such as socio-economic background (for instance, Hawk & Hill, 1996). The participants in this present study generally come from professional backgrounds, have succeeded well in their home schools and are studying in New Zealand on scholarships. They live in the secure environment of a hostel where after-school study is actively provided for. Thus, by removing socio-economic and home factors from the situation, it is possible to focus more on the learning situation itself. The factors that contribute both positively and negatively to the learning situation are explored by following the progress of six, secondary school girls through an academic year; four were new arrivals to New Zealand and two were in their second year here. Through a series of interviews, the year is seen through their eyes, as closely as possibly describing the girls' experiences as they saw them. Teachers are also interviewed, their interpretation of the classroom situation presenting interesting points of comparison and contrast to the girls' perceptions. The results of this study indicate that both teachers and students can underestimate the problems faced by Pacific students. The teachers, misled by the students' very fluent communicative ability, are not sufficiently aware of the problems that the students face when working with academic English. Further, the girls' quiet demeanour in class can be interpreted as passivity or lack of ability. The students on the other hand, applying their own cultural experiences to a New Zealand classroom, misunderstand the rules in play. They see nothing to emulate in the New Zealanders' behaviour, yet are frustrated and bewildered when these students do better than them. Academic expectations in New Zealand are different and the extent of these differences are not fully appreciated by either teachers or students and require greater changes both in teacher delivery and in student study habits. There are also affective factors such as leaving home, culture shock and stress which can further impede learning. The study maps the factors that appear to contribute most as constraints on learning and proposes a two-way model which recognises and addresses these factors. Additionally, it makes some recommendations for schools, recognising not only the constraints but also the factors that appear to facilitate learning. The study suggests that in proposing this model, it may be possible to better understand the learning situations of other Pacific students which are currently often overshadowed by socio-economic concerns

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  • Current diagnosis and treatment practices for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with children : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Kingi, Denise (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a condition that affects many children and their families. Given the severity and pervasiveness of ADHD, diagnosis requires a thorough and comprehensive evaluation procedure along with multimodal treatment strategies tailored to the specific needs of the individual child. The present study aimed to identify the current diagnostic and treatment practices for ADHD with children to ascertain their consistency with current scientific research and recommendations. Additionally, the study aimed to highlight cultural issues surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD with Maori and Pacific Islands children. The research was conducted in two stages consisting of two separate samples. First, data were collected from parents/guardians of 47 children currently diagnosed with ADHD via survey based questionnaires. Second, information was elicited, also via questionnaires, from practitioners who provided data for 19 of the children participating in the stage one of the study. Overall, findings from the present study reveal inconsistent application of the recommended diagnostic procedures as well as discrepancies between parent and practitioner reports. In addition, results clearly identified stimulant medication as the main treatment prescribed for children with ADHD. However, the establishment of appropriate ongoing monitoring for treatment effectiveness and possible side effects was lacking. The underuse of systematic behavioural treatments evident from the findings is of concern given that empirically-based literature emphasises the importance of multimodal therapy. Cultural differences identified in the study are discussed and limitations of the research are noted, along with suggestions for future research.

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  • The computer as an agent of inclusion : a study of current practice : a thesis submitted as partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education (Special Education), Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Kearney, Alison (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis investigates the nature and extent of computer use for learners with special needs and the context in which they are used. It investigates and documents the practices and beliefs of teachers who believe the computer to be an effective tool for including learners with special needs in regular class settings. The research addresses a number of problems associated with the use of computers in this field. First the lack of critical debate over the use of computers to facilitate the inclusion of learners with special needs in New Zealand schools. Second, while the computer has the potential to overcome many barriers faced by these learners, arguably, this is not always happening and in some cases, the computer can erect other barriers to inclusion. Finally, while it is known what the computer can do for learners with special needs, clarification is still needed on how to do it. The research explores these issues through the perceptions of the teacher who has a vital role to play in the successful use of computers for learners with special needs. The research is designed over two phases. It involves a purposive sample of teachers who have a learner in their class with a Ministry of Education funded computer for reasons of special need. Phase one uses a survey method in which a questionnaire is the vehicle of data collection. Phase one is divided into two parts: (a) the nature and extent of computer use by learners with special needs and the beliefs and practices of the teachers. (b) a comparison of the beliefs and practices of those teachers who believe the computer to be an effective or very effective tool for the inclusion of learners with special needs into regular classes with those teachers who do not believe computers to be effective in this role. Phase two employs a form of ethnographic research where semi structured interviews are used to collect data from six teachers who believe the computer to be an effective tool for inclusion. A analysis of the nature and extent of computer use reveals that most teachers feel confident and competent in implementing computer technology for the learner in their class, and believe that the computer has many advantages. It is less clear however, whether these advantages are being utilised. Most learners were funded through the Ongoing Resourcing Scheme, and the majority had more than 21 teacher-aide hours per week. They used their computers for less than once hour per day and predominantly in the areas of English and Mathematics. Most learners had an IEP, and the computer was written into that plan. The teachers who believed the computer to be an effective tool for including learners with special needs in regular classes identified a number of common beliefs and practices. A belief and commitment to the concept of inclusion, and the importance of integrating the computer into the regular curriculum, (including assessment and the Individual Education Process,) as well as the computer philosophy of the school were significant findings of the research. In sum, the research provides: • an overview of the nature and extent of computer use by learners with special needs, • identifies the beliefs and practices of teachers who belief the computer to be an effective tool for the inclusion of learners with special needs and • highlights ways in which the teacher, the computer and the environment in which it operates might best accommodate the needs of learners with special needs in inclusive ways.

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  • Strong in their spirits : women managers in the social services : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Social Work

    Hawken, Dianne Barbara (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    And where the words of women are crying to be heard, we must each of us recognise our responsibility to seek those words out, to read them and share them and examine them in their pertinence to our lives (Lorde, 1980: 15). Social services world-wide is a predominantly female profession with mainly female clients, yet is primarily managed by men. Although internationally there is considerable literature on women in management the main focus has been on how women can adapt to fit in to the male world of management. In Aotearoa New Zealand there has been little research on women in social services management. This qualitative study examined the experiences and practice of eight pakeha women, mainly middle managers, in a number of social service agencies in Aotearoa New Zealand. The thesis sought, by listening to their voices, to illuminate how they experienced organisational life and how they managed. The women in management literature was analysed within a framework that combined management theory and feminist theory (Padgett, 1993), management in the social services was explored, and research studies on women in human service management were examined. In this study the women managers' experiences fell into two distinct areas: their struggles and their strengths. The women felt "out of kilter" with the organisational culture and the current managerial climate. This was partly explained by feminist theory as being the result of the genderedness of organisations within our patriarchal society. The recent organisational changes through the implementation of managerialism in the social services was another significant factor. Juxtaposed to their struggles, were the strengths of the women, their skills, qualities and practices. They were competent managers with distinctive styles of operation. Drawing from the literature and the findings, four key feminist management practice principles were identified that offered an inclusive, transformational, woman-centred and service-oriented way of managing.

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  • Making kai in Godzone : New Zealand food programming, nostalgia and national identity : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Media Studies at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Day, Paul Robert (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis investigates how national boundaries and shared belonging can be evoked through the mediation of food culture and the past. The dynamic terrain traversed is where food culture, nostalgia and collective national identity meet on the television screen. New Zealand is a compelling nation in which to undertake such a study as nation-making continues to take place against a backdrop of post colonialism, competing national visions, the impact of modernity, the centrality of food to national survival and increased global interdependence. The key to accessing these insights are two highly popular local television productions which utilise food narratives; Coasters (2011) and The Food Truck (2012). This genre of television programming is becoming increasingly important with the growing global emphasis on utilising food as a language for telling stories about personal identity and collective narratives. This study provides a unique insight with an analysis informed by the principles of Michel Foucault and reinforced by first hand industry perspectives. Clear patterns of statements are indentified in a study of narrative form, aesthetic signs and representations of food culture. There is also an exploration of what powers the making of these statements through an investigation of the unique business and institutional environment for television in New Zealand. This thesis uncovers a number of key negotiations which take place through food and the use of nostalgia which reengage and redraw the legacy of colonialism and modernity. A fantasy food culture is evoked which attempts to re-forge the mythical link between food and memory and in doing so informs notions of shared identity. These statements of the past and food are reinforced by the industrial popularity for food narratives. However, this popularity also reveals risks to broader and more inclusive statements being made through food and the past which may provide “Kiwis” with richer insights into what it means to be New Zealanders.

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  • Student procrastination : a clarification and longitudinal analysis of its relationship to perfectionism, locus of control, and stress in university students : a research project presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Towers, Andrew James (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The current study sought to clarify the conflicting relationships between student procrastination and three academically related measures of personality: perfectionism, locus of control, and perceived stress. The study also examined the nature of these relationships in a longitudinal assessment over the course of a university semester. 213 first year undergraduate students (146 females and 67 males) completed the Aitken Procrastination Inventory, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Academic Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Stress scale within the first four weeks of a university semester, and again one week before the end of semester examination period. High procrastination at both the start and the end of the semester was related to an external academic locus of control and low levels of self-oriented perfectionism. Stress and socially prescribed perfectionism had little relationship to levels of procrastination at both the start and the end of the semester. Only academic locus of control was elevated at the end of semester. Only academic locus of control was elevated at the end of semester as compared with the start of semester. The only significant predictor of end of semester stress levels was a high level of socially prescribed perfectionism at the start of the semester. The results were discussed with regard to the personalizing of academic control, the retraining of maladaptive causal attributions, the procrastinators 'last minute rush' theory, and the implications of these factors for future procrastination intervention strategies.

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  • Structure and dynamics of alluvial forest in the Pohangina Valley : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Botany

    Lusk, Christopher Harley (1984)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Species' population structures and replacement patterns are quantitatively described from intensive sampling of forest on alluvial surfaces of three ages. Observations and evidence from a range of other sites are incorporated to assist in tracing the development of forest on alluvial surfaces of the study area, and in examining factors influencing this development. Cockayne's postulate that: " ... the most important principle underlying succession in New Zealand forests is the relation of the different species to light." is investigated with respect to the study area. A Relatively even-aged totara-dominant dense podocarp stands have developed on floodplain surfaces made available by progressive channel down-cutting and lateral migrations. On older surfaces these first generation stands are replaced by forests dominated principally by the angiosperms tawa, titoki and mahoe. On a terrace surface c.2,000 - 3,000 years old, forest variation appears attributable to dynamic processes as well as differences in site drainage. On mesic sites tall tawa-dominant forest prevails, although recent windthrows have produced low groves of mahoe and other small angiosperms, and also apparently stimulated some podocarp regeneration. On xeric terrace sites, titoki and rewarewa dominate the canopy. Low densities of podocarps on the mesic terrace sites attest to very sparse regeneration after the demise of the dense first generation stands. The discontinuous size class distributions of podocarp species on these sites appear at least partially attributable tc speradic regeneration following major windthrows. Podocarp densities are higher on the terrace xeric sites, regeneration of matai and totara apparently being favoured by the lower vegetation density and higher understorey light levels. On these sites matai shows an all - sized stable population structure, and a cyclic discontinuous replacement of totara seems possible. Seedling growth experiments showed both totara and kahikatea to be less shade-tolerant than two large angiosperm species (titoki and pukatea, respectively) typically seen to be replacing them in old growth forests on their respective sites. Except on the terrace xeric sites, light levels measured in forest understoreys were mainly below the compensation point experimentally estimated for totara seedlings. These findings confirm that regeneration of kahikatea and especially totara is likely to be very infrequent in old growth forest on these sites. Cockayne's postulate does not completely explain species establishment patterns within these forests. However, the findings of this study lend support to his interpretation of "light relations" as the primary influence on successional trends, and suggest that regeneration of kahikatea and especially totara is likely to be largely disturbance-dependent.

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  • Active participation of marginalized people in community development and the role of World Vision Myanmar : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in International Development at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Chit, Zeyar (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the participation of the marginalized people in community development, and specifically how World Vision Myanmar facilitates that participation. The Area Development Programme implemented by World Vision in Thabaung Township was selected as a case study. Employing theoretical continuums of participation in conjunction with qualitative research methods, the nature and level of participation of marginalized people and the factors influencing their participation, as well as the role of World Vision Myanmar in promoting their active participation, were investigated. Before the 1990s, the dominant modes of top-down and externally-induced development failed to provide the hoped-for results in reducing poverty. As a result, a more people-oriented approach to development was encouraged and the participation of the previously ignored beneficiaries of development initiatives is now seen as vital in achieving and sustaining development outcomes. However, community participation in development initiatives does not mean that all segments of a community have an equal role in development programmes and share benefits equally. This study found that nearly all community members participate in community development projects initiated by World Vision Myanmar but that the form of their participation varies. Three socioeconomic categories (the rich, the middle-class and the poor) were present in each research village, and the results showed that the poor were marginalized from active participation in important aspects of community development, especially in leadership and decision-making. The poor were characterized by a cluster of disadvantages. This study noted that the decision-making power remained mostly in the hands of the powerful people in the community. However, leadership styles differed between research villages, demonstrating that the poor can contribute to decision-making processes when the leadership style in the communities is inclusive of the marginalized. In contrast, when the leadership style is authoritative and individualized, the poor remain marginalized from development processes. World Vision Myanmar has policy documents and guidelines that encourage the participation of every segment of the community, especially the poor. However, there is still room for the organization to make these guidelines more accessible for Community Based Organizations (CBOs) so that they can apply them more effectively in their communities,

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  • Point process models for diurnal variation rainfall data : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Statistics at Massey University, Albany (Auckland), New Zealand

    Ismail, Norazlina binti (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The theoretical basis of the point process rainfall models were developed for midlatitude rainfall that have different temporal characteristics from the tropical rainfall. The diurnal cycle, a prominent feature in the tropical rainfall, is not represented in the point process models. An extension of the point process models were developed to address the diurnal variation in rainfall. An observed indicator of the rainfall, X is added to the point process models. Two point process models, Poisson white noise (PWN) and Neyman-Scott white noise (NSWN) model were used as the main rainfall event, Y . The rainfall is modelled assuming two cases for the variable X, independent and dependent. Bernoulli trials with Markov dependence are used for the dependent assumption. To allow the model to display the diurnal variation and correlation between hours, the model was fitted to monthly rain- fall data by using the properties of two hour blocks for each month of the year. However, the main point process models were assumed the same for each of the 12 blocks, thus having only one set of point process parameters for the models for each month. There are 12 rainfall occurrence parameters and 12 Markov dependence parameters, one for each block. A total of six models were fitted to the hourly rainfall data from 1974 to 2008 taken from a rain site in Empangan Genting Klang, Malaysia. The PWN and NSWN models with X were first fitted with the assumption that the rainfall indicators are independent between the hours within the two hour block. Simulation studies showed the model does not fit the moments properties adequently. The models were then modified based on a dependence assumption between the hours within the two hour block. These models are known as the Markov X-PWN and Markov X-NSWN models. Both models improve the fit of the moment properties. However, having only one point process model to represent the rainfall events for Malaysia rainfall data was not sufficient. Since tropical rainfall consists of two types of rain, convective and stratiform, the PWN and Markov X-NSWN model were superposed to represent the two types of rainfall. A simple method by assuming non-homogenous PWN process for every two hour block did not fit well the daily diurnal variation. A comparison between the six models show that the superposed PWN and Markov X-NSWN model improved the fitting of mean, variance and autocorrelation. The superposed model was then simplified to an 8-block model to reduce the number of parameters. This modification to the point process models succeeded in describing the diurnal variation in the rainfall, but some of the models were not able to fit other properties that were not included in the parameter estimation process such as the extreme values.

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  • Manoeuvre warfare theory and the tactical level of war : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy (Humanities) in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University

    Corbett, Trent (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis will determine the degree to which contemporary Manoeuvre Warfare theory is appropriate at the tactical level of war. In order to arrive at a basic working definition of Manoeuvre Warfare, it will draw mainly on material from the US Marine Corps. Contemporary military doctrine acknowledges the existence of three levels of war, the strategic, operational, and tactical. This was not always the case, as the operational level is a very new construct. Manoeuvre Warfare emerged as a response to the need to link the tactical and strategic levels that resulted in the inception of the operational level. While conceived at the operational level, Manoeuvre Warfare has been applied to all three levels of war. This thesis examines the context of Manoeuvre Warfare, and looks at how the US Marine Corps defines this doctrine. It then defines the three levels of war and looks at the main examples used to support manoeuvre theory before investigating the application of manoeuvre theory at the tactical level of war. This thesis will show that some key aspects of Manoeuvre Warfare are not actually appropriate at the tactical level

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  • A grounded theory study of depression in a sample of men participating in a clinical trial examining the effect of a dietary supplement on depression : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for a degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University, Palmerston North

    Watts, Peter Murray (2002)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Male depression is one of the most misunderstood and under diagnosed disorders in psychology today. Recent research examining male depression has suggested that this misunderstanding is due to an over reliance on positivist research practices. In addition the application of homogenous theories of depression developed from research using predominantly female samples to understand depression in males has clouded the area. In light of this research there have been calls to examine masculine depression, by looking at the experiences of affected males, using a qualitative methodology. The primary objective of the present study was to conceptualise depression based on the experiences of affected males using a grounded theory methodology. The sample consisted of 31 New Zealand males participating in a 12-week, double blind, placebo controlled trial examining the effectiveness of dietary supplementation as an adjunct to usual therapy in the treatment of depression. The basic social process emerging from the men's lived experience of depression involved participants developing a personal paradigm of depression. The development of this paradigm influenced the way the men understood and managed their depression. It evolved with the accumulation of experiential knowledge of their distress, which included experiencing the symptoms of depression, using personal coping strategies, experiencing the build up of depression, and receiving professional treatment. The implications of these findings for researchers and clinicians working in the area of male depression are discussed.

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  • A mathematical model of volcanic plumes : submitted to the Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Mathematics at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

    Duley, Joshua Manfred (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Volcanic plumes and the resultant tephra fallout are of signi cant concern to nations the world over. Several recent large-scale eruptions have caused such disruption to air traffic that huge proportions of European commerce have been severely compromised. The plumes of such eruptions exist beyond any human recourse and must simply be left to extinguish themselves in time. Currently, separate models do exist for plume dynamics and the atmospheric transport of particles, with a mixture of qualitative and quantitative results. In this thesis we develop a mathematical model with some similarities and some differences to those already in use. The model has its core in the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy for the plume's driving gases and suspended particles. While these equations are non-linear and diffcult (if not impossible) to solve analytically, we can solve the equations numerically using a discretisation along the central vertical axis. Initially these equations are provided with full time-dependency, with a view to pursuing such results in the future. However, the numerical results contained here are limited to a steady- flow model of an established and sustained, buoyant plume.

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  • Unbridled optimism : public choice, the public service and electoral law reform : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Social Policy

    Shaw, Richard Hugh (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis addresses issues that are likely to be confronted by the public service in New Zealand as a result of the advent of electoral law reform. During the decade since 1984 the institutional arrangements that circumscribe the activities of the core public sector have undergone a process of considerable change. The proposition extended in this research is that the structural configuration that has emerged out of the process of public sector reform will face a number of significant challenges in the emerging political environment. In the context of a milieu shaped by the imperatives of proportional representation, two particular characteristics of the contemporary public service may prove problematic. Specifically, the nature of the statutory interface between responsible ministers and the chief executives of government organisations may, in conjunction with an 'atomised' core public sector, function so as to compromise both the impartiality of public servants and the ability of an administration to develop and implement policy in a strategically consistent fashion. The extent to which such difficulties are likely to occur will be the result of the convergence of a series of variables, including the calibre of political leadership provided by future Prime Ministers, and the nature of the advice and guidance provided to public servants in the new climate. Perhaps most significant of all, however, will be the precise configuration of future parliaments returned under the new electoral system. The fusion of the legislative and executive arms of government under New Zealand's constitutional arrangements means that patterns of legislative representation influence the formation of governments; in the future, those patterns may exercise a more direct influence upon the environment within which the public service operates than has historically been the case in New Zealand.

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  • Well-being and local government : a New Zealand case study : Kaipara District Council; its responsibilities and responses to the regional museums of Kaipara, 2002 - 2011 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Museum Studies, Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Stevens, Mary (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines the concept of ‘well-being’, as first introduced by the Local Government Act in 2002, with particular emphasis given to cultural well-being. With no definitions in the legislation, it does this by focusing firstly on understanding the meaning of the terms and then secondly, by a case study of one local authority and its response to cultural well-being through relationships with the three local museums. Kaipara District Council (KDC), a small, rural local authority, was chosen as the case study. Three key research questions were posed. What is the meaning of “well-being” in the context of the LGA 2002? How is well-being, and in particular cultural well-being addressed by KDC and its long term planning documents? How does KDC work with the regional museums of Kaipara to meet the legislative mandate for cultural well-being? Answers were sought by undertaking an historical study of well-being and its long development on the international scene, then concentrating on KDC’s long term planning documents. An interview with the district’s Mayor about the practical application of cultural well-being and relationships with the regional museums, was offset with interviews conducted with representatives of each heritage organization about the reality of District Council/Museum interaction from their perspective. The research demonstrates that even without a definition, there was abundance of information available to form a good understanding of the concept. On the other hand, there was so much information that finding an encompassing definition for the term would be impossible. The research also demonstrates the difficulties that small authorities, with inadequate staffing and governance representatives, face when presented with a complex piece of legislation. Both Council and Museum representatives struggled to comprehend the meaning of cultural well-being but while KDC believed its response was sufficient, the regional Museums were not satisfied. This thesis argues that KDC falls short in meeting its cultural well-being responsibilities but there is much that the region’s iii museums can do themselves to improve the situation. The solution for Kaipara’s museums is transferable to every other museum in New Zealand that finds itself facing similar circumstances.

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  • The benefits of resistance training on blood lipid profile and body composition in Māori men : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Exercise and Sport Science, Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Coley, Karl William (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether 12 weeks of resistance training at time periods of three, 30 minute sessions per week would provide enough stimuli to reduce the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk of blood lipid profile and body composition in sedentary Māori (Indigenous New Zealanders) men. Methods: The study cohort consisted of a convenience sample of 16 Māori males aged 28 – 60y. Participants completed a resistance training intervention consisting of three 30 minute sessions per week for 12 weeks. Measures of pre- and post-BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR), body composition and fasting lipids were made. Pre-, mid-, and post-intervention assessments of strength, aerobic fitness, body composition and blood composition were also undertaken. Exercise was controlled five days prior to the testing; whilst diet was restricted ~12 hours prior to blood tests. Results: Percentage body fat was significantly lower after the 12 week resistance training intervention (P<0.196) were not significantly different after completion of the intervention. Conclusions: This was the first study to investigate the effect of half hour resistance training bouts, three times per week on male Māori as a modality to alter their CVD risk profile. These findings support the hypothesis that resistance training can improve CVD risk profile through a change in body composition; namely a reduction in percentage body fat, increase in LBM, and a reduction in LDL-c. Although in this cohort this intervention has proved effective, further studies of larger populations are required to get a stronger level of significance.

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  • Women's experiences of their partner's attendance at a Men for Non Violence programme : their stories and a discourse analysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Towsey, Frances (1996)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study aims to report and analyse the texts of interviews with eleven women participants as they talk about their experience of their relationships during and after their partners' attendance at a Men For Non Violence (MFNV) programme. The women's partners, from whom they subsequently separated, had attended a MFNV programme while they were living together. Firstly, the women's stories of their private experience are summarised to provide new knowledges of the problem and in turn to be constitutive of a developing public understanding. Secondly, the commonalities in the women's experience, particularly in relation to the MFNV programme, are presented. Finally, a discourse analysis of the transcribed interviews illuminates the socially available linguistic resources used in common by the women in constituting their experiences and selves, with the effects and implications of these being discussed. The majority of the women reported temporary reductions in physical violence with associated increased levels of psychological violence from the time their partners attended a MFNV programme, which supports existing findings. The discourses available to and drawn on by the women reproduce and perpetuate men's non responsibility for their violence and maintain responsibility for women to end the violence, thereby reinforcing an ideology of male dominance.

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