23,249 results for Thesis

  • The possum problem in the Manawatu-Wanganui region : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Agricultural Science in Resource Economics at Massey University

    Lock, Glenda Margaret (1992)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Since their introduction to the Manawatu-Wanganui region possums have increased dramatically in number and are now causing problems in both rural and urban areas. They are responsible for the destruction of indigenous forests and the spread of bovine tuberculosis, a disease that threatens the access of dairy, meat and several other animal products into a number of key overseas markets. The study addresses this by looking at the problems associated with possums and the value that the region places on their control. This was done via two contingent valuation surveys, one in the form of a dichotomous choice question and the other in the form of an open ended question. It was found that 97.8 percent of respondents were aware that possums were causing problems in New Zealand. The region placed a value of between $1.5 million and $7.0 million per year on possum control. Farmers' valuation of possum control was approximately twice that of nonfarmers, possibly reflecting the adverse effect that possums could have on farmers' income stream.

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  • Application of flow cytometry for enumerating individual bacterial cultures from a mixed culture system : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Philosophy in Food Technology at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Horváth, Kylie (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Cultured dairy products are often made with more than one microbial culture. Yoghurt requires the cultivation of several bacterial species for its production and the level of each is important for different reasons. Differential plate count methods to enumerate the separate species in yoghurt are not ideal because many of the bacteria used have similar growth profiles and plate counts take several days to produce a result. A fast specific method for enumerating each culture would be beneficial because quick results would enable tighter control of processing or experimental conditions and the ability to track individual species amongst a background of similar bacteria. Flow cytometry combined with fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FLOW-FISH) was investigated as a potential solution and successful enumeration was achieved within 1 day for a yoghurt microorganism, Streptococcus thermophilus (ST55), grown in M17 medium. This method may be improved to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to reduce the assay time. The chemical propidium monoazide enabled a closer match to plate counts for flow cytometry results using a total viable count assay and may be useful combined with the FLOW-FISH assay for removing non-viable or viable, but non-culturable, cells from the results. An enzyme and/or detergent pre-treatment may achieve successful FLOW-FISH enumeration of cells grown in reconstituted skim milk – a similar matrix to yoghurt.

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  • Sustainability of agroforestry in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Regional Planning at Massey University

    Bray, Tania L (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of this thesis is to assess the concept of sustainability and apply it in a practical sense to New Zealand agroforestry. Sustainable management of natural resources is fast becoming recognised as necessary for the long term survival of our species. The agricultural communities prominence as the major user and steward of New Zealand's natural resources requires change in the values placed on these resources by farmers, and the incorporation of the principle of sustainable management at the farm level. The concept of sustainability is broken into three component parts; economic, environmental and social sustainability. Each of these components is broken again into specific measurable principles. Through literature research and a case study, the principles are applied to agroforestry, and a conclusion reached. It is found that given good management practices and normal business risks, agroforestry had the potential to maintain the natural capital stock and remain relatively profitable. Agroforestry is also found to have the potential to maintain the life support systems and biodiversity of the environment. Finally agroforestry is found to positively impact on rural societies, and provide the necessities of life and is relatively robust to political change. This thesis concluded that agroforestry as practiced in New Zealand is a profitable enterprise which improves the environment and increases the viability of many rural communities.

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  • The use of a geographic information system (GIS) for farm soil conservation planning : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Soil Science at Massey University

    Priyono, Cyprianus Nugroho Sulistyo (1993)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The use of a Geographic Information Systems (PC ARC/INFO) for farm soil conservation planning was demonstrated in several neighbouring properties in the Apiti district, Manawatu. The area (775 ha) was mainly steep and strongly rolling hill country where the dominant land use was pastoral grazing by sheep and cattle. The main objective of this study was to utilize the GIS at each step of the farm soil conservation planning process. The planning process began with a land resources inventory (LRI) where information on basic physical resources relevant to land management and soil conservation was collected and stored in a database before further processing. Factors collected in the LRI included primary factors (soil type, soil depth, slope, rock type and elevation) and secondary factors (existing erosion, land use, fence lines and ownership, and drainage condition). A digital elevation model (DEM) was developed to display landforms. Field observations were also used and local farmers were given the opportunity to become involved in the planning process. The next step involved delineating areas of similar land use capability and potential land use. The areas were also assessed in terms of potential erosion and conservation needs. These operations were undertaken by combining the LRI factors in various ways. Results of these assessments were matched to define land units which have similar physical characteristics. Recommendations for management practices were then made by considering combinations of the factors. The plan was displayed as maps showing the management options available for farmers. Both map overlay procedures and database analyses were carried out at each step of the planning process. As the map overlay is a unique operation in the GIS, it was used to combine necessary factors from the LRI based on a set of criteria. Database analyses were then carried out using macro commands which were developed according to the criteria. The ability of the GIS for database analyses distinguishes the GIS from other systems whose primary objective is map production. The use of database analyses in this study was a particular example for making recommendations in soil conservation planning. However, the techniques are applicable to many different conditions and different purposes. The maps presented in this study are examples of how it is possible to show the results of analyses. Advantages and constraints of such procedures at each step of the planning process were discussed.

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  • Assessment of competency status of residential mental health support workers : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Morrison, Niall (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The present study explored the current competency status of residential mental health support workers (n=121). Competency was assessed through the domains of skills, attitudes and perception of the work environment. Consistent with a recovery model, the National Mental Health Workforce Development Coordinating Committee (1999) put forward 10 basic core competencies that they recommended that all mental health workers should be able to demonstrate in their work practice. Skills and attitudes self-report measures were developed to assess participant performance on these competencies. In addition, a standard measure (Ward Atmosphere Scale) was utilised to evaluate the perceived atmosphere of the participants' work environment. The aggregated results of this study appeared to show that participants were generally competent in a number of areas of work practice. However, deficiencies in critical areas of client support were identified on closer examination of the data. With regard to participants' reported skills, shortcomings were found in particular in the core competencies knowledge, assessment and intervention. Similar deficits were found regarding participant attitudes with shortcomings found in the core competencies knowledge, culturally appropriate practice, assessment and safe/ethical practice. While superior education and training did appear to influence performance on certain competencies, some deficiencies were nevertheless reported by the more highly educated and trained participants. In addition, participants generally characterised their work settings in a very negative manner such that it appears that many settings are not adhering to the philosophies of rehabilitation and recovery. Despite the identification of deficiencies, many participants did demonstrate a number of competencies combined with a commitment to professional growth. In fact, one of the most positive findings in this study was the importance practically all the participants placed on promotion of their own professional growth.

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  • Comparing group-based interventions in older adults with subjective memory difficulties : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctorate in Clinical Psychology, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

    Sothieson, Veena (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The trend internationally and within New Zealand is of an increasing aging population, with numbers of those with dementia projected to increase rapidly. One way to address this issue is to consider the practical and clinical benefits of running memory intervention groups for older adults with memory difficulties/impairment. The current study intended to address some of the limitations found in memory intervention literature by (a) using a social control group as a control comparison, which has not been done before, and (b) separating out components of memory training interventions (i.e., memory strategies and lifestyle education). Therefore, the aim was to determine the extent to which receiving Memory intervention separately from a Lifestyle Education intervention would affect memory functioning in older adults with subjective memory difficulties, when compared with a social control condition. Participants for the intervention group were recruited from rest homes and retirement villages, while social control participants were community-dwelling older adults already taking part in weekly community group activities. A brief cognitive screen and subjective outcome measures were administered at baseline, post Phase 1, post Phase 2, and at six month follow-up. Quantitative and qualitative information from a total of 13 participants were analysed. Results from each of the outcome measures across the four time points indicated that there were no significant benefits of receiving Memory and/or Lifestyle Education interventions, when compared with a social control condition. However, a small sample size, non-equivalent groups, and lack of random assignment were some of the limitations which made it difficult to reach definite conclusions. Content analysis of qualitative information following intervention sessions provided some valuable considerations for running memory groups in future. In light of its limitations, the current study highlights practical considerations and recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, it identifies the value of conducting memory intervention research with older adults in residential care settings.

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  • Archdeacon Anaru Takurua : ko tōna whakapapa, whakapono me tōna whakapono me tōna whakatika : "I am what I am" : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Māori Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Keelan, Ngaio Petra (2013)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Archdeacon of Waiapu Anaru Takurua from Te Whanau-a-Ruataupare in Tokomaru Bay was an accomplished kapa haka exponent in his time, with over 60 years of kapa haka experience. He was also a Mihingare priest for Te Pihopatanga o Aotearoa for over 40 years, and a tutor of Te Hokowhitu-a-Tu kapa haka. However, up till now there had been no full-length biography written about him, due to the dearth of published literature. This research explores the history and background of Anaru focussing on the themes whakapapa, whakapono and whakatika. This thesis is organised in a chronological structure centred on the thematic selection based on the rationale that they frequently feature prominently in Anaru’s life story. This study utilised a Maori-centred research approach in conjunction with a biographical narrative method in analysing the data collected. Anaru’s own personal transcripts that transpired last year from an interview conducted shortly before his passing ten years ago, also complements this research. Supplementing these transcripts are the narratives of kaumatua rangatira participants, who knew him personally, grew up with him or worked with him throughout his life. This study found that Anaru worshiped God in his own true authentic voice, and affirmed his identity as a man of God in Aotearoa –New Zealand. He implemented the guitar, haka, poi and waiata-a-ringa into his karakia services as cultural tools of worship to express the highest activity of the spirit and love of God. Anaru understood the value of whakapapa and as a result committed himself to using his innate gifts, talents and leadership qualities in the church, on marae and in the community. He remained committed to his love for God, his family, marae and church. As a result he devoted years to maintaining and retaining the knowledge endowed to him and transmitted this korero tuku iho, and taonga tuku iho onto the next generation. Even when at times it was met with resistance from both maori and non-maori, believers and non-believers.

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  • An assessment of the income allocation, living standards, housing and living circumstances of low income households in the Auckland Region in 1998 : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts (Social Sciences) in Social Policy at Massey University

    Nsiah, Johnson Emmanuel (1999)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis addresses one important area of social policy; that is, housing which is broadened to include the income allocation and living standards of low income households in the Auckland region. The study used three focus group discussions with five to seven participants from specific groups of low income households in the cities of Manukau and North Shore to focus ideas and viewpoints. Twelve participants (eight from Manukau City, three from North Shore City and one from Auckland City) took part in interviews, which took between 60 and 90 minutes to complete. These participants represented five single parent and three superannuitant beneficiary households and four low income-working non-beneficiary households who supplemented their low income with supplementary payments from Work and Income New Zealand and Inland Revenue Department. Both the group fora and the interviews were recorded on audiotapes and transcribed. The study used the following measures to ascertain the living standards and quality of life of the 12 households studied: income and expenditure approach, relative deprivation approaches, disadvantage indicators and social exclusion, money problem indicators, housing needs or difficulties and qualitative research approach. It was found that most of the 12 households studied: • had experienced poverty, hardships and a reduction in their standard of living and quality of life as compared to the average New Zealand household. • were not adequately housed because of the difficulties of housing affordability and unacceptable housing maintenance by Housing New Zealand. Whilst the Accommodation Supplement was assisting most of the 12 households studied to pay housing costs, 11 of the 12 households who were State House tenants had great difficulty in paying market rents. • were unable to manage their money problems and had to rely on coping strategies such as the use of foodbanks, food vouchers and second hand goods. The findings of this thesis are a powerful indictment on the Income Support, Market Rent and Accommodation Supplement policies of New Zealand Governments from 1991 to 1998. These policies have clearly abandoned 'participation and belonging' as the underlying principle of social policy.

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  • Interaction within the therapeutic relationship : exploring the relationship between the music therapy practices of a music therapy student and the concepts used in intensive interaction : an exegesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Music Therapy, Te Kōkī New Zealand School of Music, Wellington, New Zealand

    How, Shona Louise (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This research project explores the relationship between the music therapy practices of a music therapy student and intensive interaction, a teaching model of communication used with children, young people and adults who experience challenges with learning and relating to others. Secondary analysis of clinical records (session notes and video footage) was used in this theoretical research, using both inductive and deductive methods of micro-analysis to explore the relationship between the two approaches. Themes included two relatively distinct forms of interactive communication – communication which predominantly used music and communication which used other modes. These two groups were then divided into further themes including: elements of music and improvisational musical techniques; visual cues; vocal activity; gestures and body language; movement activity and time/space. These themes were then correlated and compared with the corresponding features and descriptions of improvisational music therapy and intensive interaction. The findings suggest there is a relationship between the concepts used intensive interaction and the improvisational music therapy practices of the music therapy student; they both share features of the naturalistic processes of ‘infant-caregiver interactions’ within the elements of music, with both parties fine-tuning to one another’s rhythmic, melodic, textural and temporal nuances. However, improvisational or creative music therapy combines more complex usage of the elements of music including musical form, structure and texture to provide an interpersonal experience through a therapeutic relationship. That relationship is reliant on the music therapist’s sophisticated skills to combine emotion and music within the improvisational process. The strengths and limitations of the study are stated along with implications for training and further research in the field of music therapy and special education.

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  • Eating habits and nutrition attitudes among pregnant Chinese women in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutritional Science at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Ma, Jingjing (2014)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Immigration to a Western country can lead to dietary changes among Chinese immigrants, which can cause poor diets and health problems. Chinese immigrants' eating habits might be influenced by both Western and traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) nutrition recommendations. These two nutrition recommendations point out eating and nutrition during pregnancy is crucial for both maternal and fetal health, and they provide suggestions on eating habits during pregnancy. The population of Chinese women of reproductive age in New Zealand has increased dramatically. Since there is a lack of evidence about the eating habits and nutrition attitudes of pregnant Chinese women in New Zealand, the current study investigates pregnant Chinese women's eating habits, attitudes towards both Western and TCM nutrition, and possible relations to acculturation. Pregnant Chinese women in New Zealand were recruited mainly via a Chinese website, communities, churches, and the “snow-ball” model. The immigrants' eating habits, attitudes towards Western and TCM nutrition recommendations, and acculturation were measured by an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was completed by 84 pregnant Chinese women, with a median age of 30.0 (95% CI 29.0 - 30.6). The participants' acculturation score was comparatively low (1.98 ± 0.592) compared with the theoretical score range (1.0 to 5.0). Regarding New Zealand nutrition recommendations, some of the findings cause concerns: (1) most of the participants did not meet the recommended intake of vegetables, cereals, and dairy food during pregnancy; (2) although a large proportion of the participants had positive attitudes towards recommended supplements and food for pregnancy, they did not follow the recommendations in practice, especially for the iodine supplements and food rich in iodine (e.g., bread and breakfast cereals). However, it is positive to find that: (1) most of the participants always consumed folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy; (2) a majority of the participants thought it was important for them to limit fat, salt, and sugar intake and most of them seldom or never eat food high in fat, sugar, and salt. A majority of the participants had positive attitudes towards TCM, including: (1) balancing cold and hot (or yin and yang) foods and adjusting their diets according to seasons or body constitutions; (2) eating less greasy food, eating more light food, and eating more spleen and stomach strengthening food. However, only a small proportion of participants had positive attitudes towards foods with specific TCM features and did not consume these foods no matter whether they are recommended by TCM nutrition for pregnancy or not. Meanwhile, a considerable proportion of the participants reported neutral attitudes towards caring and learning about nutrition and most of the TCM nutrition recommendations. Acculturation was positively associated with meeting the New Zealand recommended intake from food groups, but was not positively associated with other eating habits. Acculturation was not related to most nutrition attitudes. It was only positively associated with attitudes towards Western nutrition recommendations for pregnant women and their attitudes towards TCM nutrition recommendation for healthy eating for adults. In addition, there was a positive correlation between attitudes towards Western nutrition and TCM nutrition (p < 0.05). The above findings of the current study provide useful information for health professionals who work with Chinese immigrants in New Zealand. In particular, health professionals should help immigrants to consume sufficient servings of foods and understand the importance of consuming iodine supplements during pregnancy. Additionally, it might be helpful for health professionals to be familiar with overall TCM nutrition recommendations.

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  • The emergence of whistleblower protection in New Zealand : an exploratory study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Business Studies in Human Resource Management at Massey University

    McErlane, Vincent Gerard (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The address of wrongdoing in society is seen as an important goal of government. Yet uncertainty exists as to the most effective and appropriate means to achieve this goal. One recent method that is believed to assist in this is the encouragement of whistleblowing through protective legislation. Leading this development has been the United States of America, with more recent legislation enacted in various jurisdictions in Australia. As a result of recent events here in New Zealand, whistleblower legislation has been proposed. In the present study, a broad examination of the research literature on whistleblowing is presented. This examination provides a foundation whereby legal mechanisms of whistleblower protection in the United States and Australia are examined. Having identified these jurisdictions' more notable points, the New Zealand Bill is considered. Analysis of New Zealand's existing and proposed mechanisms of protection are highlighted and compared with overseas' protections. Findings from this comparison identify significant strengths and weaknesses inherent to the Bill. In particular, this study finds that the New Zealand Bill is likely to suffer from the same shortcomings as those experienced in the United States and Australia. In response to these shortcomings, the study turns to focus on internal mechanisms that may be employed at the organisational level. This exploratory study provides a solid frame of reference in analysing the emergence of whistleblower protection in New Zealand, and lays the foundation for more extensive research to be conducted in the future.

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  • Blueprint for defence : Labour-Alliance defence policy and the Inquiry into defence beyond 2000 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Defence and Strategic Studies at Massey University

    Krogt, Francis van der (2001)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand's defence policies and the New Zealand Defence Force's (NZDF) military capabilities have long been the subject of vigorous public debate. At the centre of the debate have been questions over the need to retain military capabilities usually associated primarily with fighting wars, rather than performing tasks of a lower intensity. This debate reaches a crescendo whenever these capabilities require restoration or upgrading. In the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s, the plans to replace the Royal New Zealand Navy's Leander class frigates with ANZAC class frigates and the Royal New Zealand Air Force's Skyhawk fighters with F-16s occasioned some of the most sustained and bitter disagreements that New Zealand has ever seen. Underlying the debate over capabilities are deeper divisions over a range of issues, such as the appropriate role for the NZDF when the odds in the short to medium term of an attack on New Zealand are so slight. Defence policy statements under successive National-led Governments during the 1990s argued that despite the absence of a military threat, New Zealand's defence policy should be premised on the possibility that a serious military contingency affecting New Zealand's interests could occur well before New Zealand could raise forces to meet the threat - hence the need to retain the widest possible range of options even in times of relative peace.2 2 New Zealand Ministry of Defence, 1996 Defence Assessment, Wellington, 1996, pp.1, 23. It was further argued that other useful objectives would be met by this policy. Critics of this position argue that defence policy would be eminently more useful if it were to concentrate on meeting challenges and performing tasks that can be more confidently expected in the short to medium term. Peacekeeping is often said to be foremost among these tasks. [From the introduction]

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  • A case study of the implementation of learning styles in two primary school classrooms : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    McCallum, Jeannette Frances (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The aim of the National Curriculum is to: Seek to raise the achievement levels of all students and to ensure that the quality of teaching and learning in New Zealand schools is of the highest international standard. (Ministry of Education, 1993) However, current assessment of children's achievement in the New Zealand education system suggests that not all children are successful learners, despite restructuring of the education system and recent curriculum reform. Educational statistics indicate the aim of the National Curriculum is not being achieved. International mathematics results from the Ministry of Education (1997) Third International Maths and Science Study, state that New Zealand has scored below the international average at Year 5 and Year 8 levels. In Ministry of Education (1996) National Education Monitoring Project, non-Maori students performed better than Maori students in all ten Reading and Speaking tasks at Year 4 and six of ten tasks at Year 8 level. Ten years after 'Tomorrow's Schools' Wylie (1999) reports that children from low-income homes and Maori children have gained least from the reforms (p. 7). It therefore seems reasonable that other options for improved student achievement need to be considered. Although there is extensive literature in the U.S.A. about the effectiveness of the Learning Styles approach, there has been little research conducted in New Zealand primary schools. This study reports on the experience of three classes of primary school children (a Year 4 and 5 class for term 4 in 1998 and two Year 3 and 4 classes in 1999) where the teachers attempted to match instruction, learning context and children's preferred learning styles. The study focuses on the following questions: 1. Does knowing one's learning style improve students' learning? 2. To what extent is learning improved when instruction and learning context matches students' learning styles? 3. What are the principal difficulties in implementing learning styles in classrooms, as perceived by teachers? The case study concludes, from the perceptions of children and teachers, that matching learning styles with instruction and learning context does improve learning, especially for those children who underachieve or who learn differently. However, the two teachers report that although they consider the learning style theory is valid and is seen to improve learning and teaching, practicalities of implementation are problematic. Implementing a new teaching methodology is not a simple process. Effective implementation of learning styles requires a paradigm shift in teachers' ideology from teacher-centred to child-centred learning. Whether this paradigm shift is possible within our current educational system, driven by 'New Right ideology' and the traditional concept of a state primary school, is discussed. The study focuses on three issues in the implementation of learning styles: the need for a paradigm shift; school culture and management structures; and, understanding how teachers develop expertise. The study suggests directions for further research, including an action research study to implement a school wide initiative to cater for students learning through their preferred learning styles. Further research could focus on the process of implementing methodological innovations through analysing the institutional setting; its structures, cultures, management styles and practices. Research that focuses on a whole school, as opposed to a single classroom, may provide insight into greater understanding of implementation of changes and achieving a paradigm shift from 'traditional' to 'modern' teaching methodologies.

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  • The autecology and conservation of the North Island Weka (Gallirallus australis greyi) : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in ecology at Massey University

    Bramley, Gary Neil (1994)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    I studied a population of weka in the Waikohu Valley, Rakauroa, near Gisborne from March 1992 to January 1994 using radio telemetry to determine productivity, home range size and resource selection by weka. Fifty-six weka were banded and 28 wore radio transmitters for 1-312 days. The population was estimated to be 39 resident adult birds from call count surveys and banding. Most (68.6%) adult birds found during the study were probably males. The Rakauroa weka population may be declining at a rate of 4 birds per year and without immediate management extinction is likely. Weka productivity was very low, with 12 eggs needed to produce 1 independent chick. Twenty-five breeding attempts were discovered and breeding occurred throughout the year. The reason for this low productivity was not determined, but predation on eggs and chicks by introduced mammals is likely. The first evidence of predation on adult weka by ferrets (Mustela putorious furo) was recorded with 2 radio-carrying birds and 1 other being killed by a ferret. Weka feathers were also found in the gut of a female ferret killed in October 1993. The main cause of weka mortality was being run over by traffic. Six weka died in this way. Weka were found in damp, scrubby areas and occupied mostly ungrazed scrub and bush and woodpiles within their home ranges. Weka used an average of 10.00 hectares with males using significantly larger areas than females. Adults used larger areas than juveniles. Weka were secretive and crepuscular, generalist feeders who used food in proportion to its availability. To test the hypothesis that predation on eggs and chicks was limiting productivity of weka pairs at Rakauroa, I compared the productivity of weka in predator free areas with that of weka in areas with a normal predator density (control areas). The two weka pairs I observed breeding in predator free areas reared 5 chicks to independence. Two pairs in control areas reared no chicks to independence despite 3 breeding attempts. The release of captive-bred weka at Karangahake Gorge by the Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society in 1992 and 1993 provided an opportunity for me to compare the movement, diet and survival of weka at Karangahake with that of weka at Rakauroa. Any difference between weka in the 2 areas may indicate possible reasons for the success or failure of the release. Predation (mainly by dogs, Canis familiaris) was found to be the reason why weka carrying radios released at Karangahake failed to persist. Of 17 birds released between October 1992 and March 1993 only one was known to be alive by 24 June 1993. This has important implications for future releases of weka. The future monitoring and management of weka is discussed in light of my findings. Weka management should begin immediately on the East Coast. Management should aim to improve the production and survival of young weka by predator removal. Areas of scrub and cover should be targeted for management and publicity to lessen the destruction of this habitat and the weka road toll is necessary. The release of weka at Karangahake should not continue, these birds being made available for release at a more suitable site. The release of females (either captive-bred or from offshore islands) into areas such as Rakauroa to improve breeding success and link small remnant populations on the East Coast should be considered.

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  • Chicory (Cichorium intybus) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata); physiological and morphological responses to water stress, defoliation, and grazing preference with implications for the management of the Herb and Legume Mix : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Plant Science, Massey University, Te Kunenga ki Pūrehuroa, New Zealand

    Cranston, Lydia Margaret (2014)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Herb and legume sward mixes containing chicory (Cichorium intybus), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and white clover (T. repens) are being increasingly used by farmers to improve animal performance compared to perennial ryegrass and white clover swards. However, little is known about the agronomic properties of this Herb and Legume Mix. The objectives of this research were to examine key factors likely to affect the success of the Herb and Legume Mix as a perennial sward mix. This thesis included a series of glasshouse experiments, a grazing experiment (examining plant parameters and animal grazing preference) and a mowing experiment. The glasshouse experiments indicated that chicory and plantain have different strategies for coping with moisture stress. The results suggest plantain may be more productive under moderate drought due to its greater shoot mass fraction, whereas chicory may be more productive and persistent under severe drought due to its greater root mass and taproot diameter. The Herb and Legume Mix accumulated greater annual dry matter when removed under Hard grazing (post-grazing residual of 4cm) compared to Lax grazing (post-grazing residual of 8cm). Hard grazing favoured plantain growth and persistence, while Lax grazing favoured red clover growth and resulted in chicory with a larger taproot diameter. It was concluded that grazing management decisions should be determined by ensuring optimal management of chicory. Ewe lambs displayed grazing preference for species within the Herb and Legume Mix; however this varied between seasons and was affected by the species availability, vertical access and palatability. The Herb and Legume Mix had a greater herbage nutritive value than the ryegrass and white clover sward and had a more stable composition over time than pure swards of chicory and plantain under a wide range of defoliation regimes. The results suggest the Herb and Legume Mix might be a more flexible perennial forage option than pure swards of chicory and plantain. Overall the results of this thesis indicated that the Herb and Legume Mix can be successfully utilised in most New Zealand grazing systems as a perennial forage sward.

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  • EEO and the promotion of women in the secondary education sector : legislating for change : a thesis submitted in partial fulfulment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Administration at Massey University

    Spence, Gail P (1995)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis explores the ways in which two co-educational secondary schools in Aotearoa-New Zealand responded to the requirement under the State Sector Amendment Act (1989) to develop and implement an equal employment opportunities (EEO) policy that would enable women to move into senior administrative positions. The period covered is the May 1989-July 1992 term of office of the new Boards of Trustees established under the Tomorrow's Schools reforms. The study presents, examines and theorises the social, political and educational contexts in which the policy evolved. In the attempt to locate significant sites of struggle in the EEO debate and assess their implications for the promotion of women teachers to senior positions in educational administration, a political model of policy is employed based on a theory of discourse inherent in feminist post-structuralist perspectives. The focus of the research study is on the EEO policy implementation process as it was occuring in two historically specific settings. That process consisted of ongoing struggles between contenders of rival and competing interests. These interests construed in and through discourses specific identities, roles and attributes which were seen to compose our subjectivities, shape decisions and affect appointment practices and outcomes. Interviews were held during 1992 with eighteen personnel in a range of teaching and administrative positions in the two schools. The transcripts were then used to produce a view of the discursive constructions within the field of EEO and place these alongside existing written reports and records, official policy documents and literature analyses. The study found evidence of an internal struggle between competing models of EEO. As well, EEO was discursively constructed as a unified concept through a discourse which competed for allegiances against other discourses within the power networks. Specifically, attention was paid to mapping the links between "teachers, gender and careers" (Acker, 1989) and to the complex positioning of multiple discourses within merit as an ideological construct. This thesis opens up to scrutiny particular discursive constructions and uses, and argues the need to recognise and assume responsibility for each of our own discursive practices and positionings. This necessitates working towards coherence between the discourses of EEO and the discourses of secondary education sector employers' personal and broader professional lives.

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  • Using parent newsletters to enhance junior primary school mathematics : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Educational Studies (Mathematics) at Massey University

    Savell, Janice Robyn (1998)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Parent Newsletters were investigated as a means of increasing home-school contact in the Junior Primary School mathematics classroom. An action research model using three cycles, was used to develop and trial the newsletter. The first newsletter was based on BSM activities and used by five teachers at a school sited in a military housing area. The second and third formats of the newsletters were written in consultation with one teacher to integrate with her topic based mathematics programme in a Palmerston North primary school. A questionnaire was used to gather background information and invite parents to be interviewed for further comments. Teachers and responding parents were interviewed in a semi-structured format. Participants commented on a range of other home-school contact issues. A follow-up interview was conducted with the parents from the Palmerston North school three months after the newsletters had ceased. Teachers and parents were positive about the benefits of the newsletters. Newsletters did increase parental awareness of the junior school mathematics programme. For one child with special needs an obvious improvement in classroom performance was directly attributable to the effect of the newsletters. Interviews revealed a number of inconsistencies between parents and teacher views of their roles and responsibilities. Problems of parent-school communication were highlighted. Teachers supported the newsletters, but felt that heavy workloads did not allow time for teacher production. The research tentatively confirms the value of mathematics newsletters as a means of helping children and as a means of keeping parents informed. additionally, the research gives rise to questions on the duality of information flow and equality of benefits accrued.

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  • The mediating role of workplace relationship and communication satisfaction on the relationship between e-mail attitude and organisational commitment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University (Albany)

    Marchant, Lynette K (2000)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    As an exploratory piece of research, this study investigated the use of e-mail by university staff and examined the relationship between e-mail attitude and organisational commitment. The mediating role on the attitude-commitment relationship by both satisfaction with overall communication and satisfaction with workplace relationships was also examined. A questionnaire was designed which incorporated Minsky and Marin's (1999) scale of Social and Nonsocial Uses of Electronic Messaging Systems, measures of satisfaction with the use of e-mail and with e-mail as a communication medium, Meyer and Allen's (1993) revised Organisational Commitment Scale, and subscales from Hill, Bahniuk and Dobos' (1989) Mentoring and Communication Support Scale and Furnham's (1996) Organisational Climate Questionnaire. A scale to measure e-mail attitude was developed specifically for this study using the tri-component model of attitude theory. The questionnaire was sent to all staff at Massey University's Albany and Palmerston North campuses (N = 2253). Of the number sent, 575 were returned, with a proportional representation from the two campuses and the five colleges of the university. Use of e-mail was found to be predominantly used for task related purposes, with administration being the most commonly reported function that e-mail was used for. Factor analysis demonstrated three underlying components, affective, behavioural and cognitive, of the E-mail Attitude Scale. A series of hierarchical multiple regressions as outlined by Baron and Kenny (1986) were conducted to explore the potential mediating effects of both communication satisfaction and workplace relationship satisfaction. Communication satisfaction completely mediated the relationship between affective attitudinal component and both normative and affective organisation commitment. In turn, the satisfaction with workplace relationship variables partially mediated the relationship between the affective attitude component and affective commitment, with only collegial social support partially mediating the relationship between affective e-mail attitude and normative commitment. The results are discussed in relation to relevant demographic variables. Limitations and potential directions for future research are also highlighted.

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  • The repudiation movement : a study of the Maori land protest movement in Hawkes Bay in the 1870's : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University.

    Cole, Sharron Mary (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Repudiation Movement was a Maori land protest organization that aroused suspicion and fear in the minds of Europeans in Hawkes Bay in the 1870's. It was a movement that adopted European methods and institutions as its means for solving land grievances and was led by influential Chiefs and by some Europeans. This adoption of the movement by these Europeans led to much animosity and conflict and accentuated the polarization of European political factions at provincial and national level. Despite its evident uniqueness when compared with other Maori protest movements, the Repudiation Movement has yet to become the object of an historical analysis that poses the obvious questions - how and why? M.P.K. Sorrenson, M.D.N. Campbell and Alan Ward have mentioned it briefly in their historical studies of broader issues and have made a number of fairly general observations about its causes and methods. The only detailed study that has been aimed specifically at Maori land protest in Hawkes Bay is P.J. Coleman's M.A. thesis in 1949.(1) (1) P.J. Coleman, 'The Native Lands Act and Hawkes Bay: Some Considerations on the Alienation of Maori Land in the Provincial Period of Hawkes Bay Government', Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Victoria University, 1949. Coleman's work concentrated mainly on the period of the 1860's following the Native Land Act and examined in depth the Hawkes Bay Native Lands Alienation Commission of 1873 largely ignoring the protest after 1873. Coleman's analysis was somewhat restricted by his lack of sources and his undue reliance on the Hawkes Bay Herald which research has shown must be used with great caution as it was an instrument of propaganda against the movement.

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  • Making a difference : the lived world of nursing practice in an acute care setting : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing at Massey University

    Paterson, Bronwyn (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study examines the practice world of twenty two registered nurses working in medical and surgical wards of an acute general hospital in New Zealand. It is argued that nursing practice is a complex, context-specific, activity and needs to be studied using methods that do not assume an objective, context-free reality. The work of Patricia Benner (1984) guided this study which utilised a qualitative research approach to enter the lived world of nursing practice. Through descriptions of work days and a sharing of clinical exemplars, an understanding of the broader context of nursing practice was gained, areas of skilled performance in nursing emerged, and the meaning of making a difference for the nurses in the study examined. The central role of mutual advice and support in facilitating significant incidents in practice was apparent. An examination of the types of experiences which challenge current practice and change it in some way provided insight into the importance of experience in developing clinical expertise and the vital role of local knowledge in facilitating practice. Nursing practice emerged as crucial to patient welfare and safety in the acute care setting.

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