68 results for Unclassified, 2014

  • Editorial: Surveillance, Copyright, Privacy

    Pearson, EE; Farnsworth, J; Fisher, K (2014-12-01)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

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  • Forced assimilation and development : the Chinese-Indonesians under Soeharto's New Order (1965-1998) : a research project presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development, Development Studies, Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Sidjaya, Calvin Michel (2014)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    Chinese Indonesians are an ethnic minority who have settled in Indonesia since at least the 15th century who comprise 1.2% of the Indonesian population. From 1965-1998, Chinese-Indonesians became subject to various assimilationist laws under the rationale that this ethnic minority had failed to integrate into Indonesian society. Under Soeharto’s administration, Chinese-Indonesians had to give up their political and cultural rights, although they were allowed to participate widely in the economic sector. This desk-based research studied assimilationist laws and their impact on the ‘development’ of Chinese-Indonesians by studying various laws and through the use of an online questionnaire to a sample of Chinese-Indonesians. At first glance, this ethnic group can be classified as ‘developed’ at least economically, however when investigated further, systemic political and cultural exclusion has harmed their full human development. The case of Chinese-Indonesians reflects Amartya Sen’s argument in ‘Development as Freedom (1999), that wealth is only one aspect of human development. However care should be taken when considering the Chinese-Indonesian case. Generalisations should not be made about the harms that can result from assimilation policies as they were formulated during the Cold War. Assimilation is still important but should not be coercive and ensure multiple identities (such as ethnic and national identity) can coexist. This research report also uses right to development as framework. It concludes that the right to development may not be inclusive to Chinese-Indonesians’ situations because it still narrow down development as ‘growth’.

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  • How have women been empowered by gender-focussed development projects in post-Taliban Afghanistan? : reviewing the literature which incorporates the critical consideration of two gender focussed development projects : a research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    McMillan, Robert Melville (2014)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    This research report examines the empowerment approach within the Gender and Development (GAD) discussion, providing an emphasis on women’s empowerment as an instrument of post-conflict reconstruction in post-Taliban Afghanistan. Utilising a comprehensive literature review, the report establishes the framework of Naila Kabeer as a consistent base for the comparing and contrasting of two gender-focussed development programmes in Afghanistan. The contextual background of empowerment programmes pursued over the past decade in Afghanistan are presented with an examination of the challenges and opportunities encountered pursuing women’s political, economic, social and psychological empowerment. A specific consideration of the New Zealand-led Provincial Reconstruction Team in Bamyan Province, Afghanistan, and the Community Development Council initiative within the Afghanistan National Solidarity Programme is undertaken. The report concludes that while there have been enormous symbolic advances for women’s political empowerment in the national sphere, the more private and local the sphere examined: the less decision-making agency Afghani women are empowered to exercise. While seeking to provide opportunities for women’s economic empowerment the programmes have made little practical change to women’s income or financial agency. The two gender-focussed programmes examined have made significant compromises to the extremities of the local context, and are considered ‘gender accommodating’ rather than ‘gender transformative’. The large body of literature concerning Afghanistan substantiates that the road to gender equity will stretch across the generations and is necessarily gradual to remain sustainable. As Afghanistan enters further political turmoil, the empowerment attained by Afghani women in the past decade must be expressly guarded.

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  • Evaluating contestable grants in facilitating NGO-government collaborative projects to create safer, peaceful communities : a case in Papua New Guinea : a research presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Camilus, Betty (2014)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    Monitoring and evaluation is a key feature in contracting relationships between government, donors, private sector, NGOs and the wider civil society in law and justice service provision. However, less effort are placed on evaluating the impacts of NGO-Government collaborative projects funded with contestable grants to create safer, more peaceful communities. This research explores the role of monitoring and evaluation of projects funded with contestable grants focusing on issues and challenges raised by the lack of evaluation and identifies ways in which local communities define a successful collaborative NGO-Government project. The research proposes a potential evaluation pathway as a culturally appropriate monitoring and evaluation tool.

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  • Considerations for a collaborative approach to post-conflict development and transitional justice in Syria : a research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development, Master in International Development, at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Patterson, Amanda (2014)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    Neither transitional justice nor post-conflict development is possible without the other. Thinking about reconstruction, and development more generally, requires an understanding of core political issues of ownership, governance and participation which are similarly key concerns of transitional justice. Such issues also need to be informed by longer-term processes for development which includes strategies for rehabilitation, reform and reparation, all consequences of war which influence development outcomes. A consideration of how post-conflict development objectives can inform a transitional justice process for Syria identifies key areas of convergence and divergence between the two fields as well as debates pertaining to the prioritisation of justice versus peace, international law, and contextualising strategies to individual states and post-conflict situations. In Syria, where work is already under way by multiple organisations and activist groups to facilitate, gather and document evidence of human rights violations in preparation for a future transitional justice process: a 'good-enough' approach to governance (Grindle, 2004), the strengthening of civil society to provide national level support, and institutional reform are identified as key areas for development intervention. However, the success or otherwise of development interventions in these areas will rely upon a number of critical factors: the willingness of a transitional government to take ownership of post-conflict development and transitional justice processes, facilitate citizen participation by first addressing Syria's severe humanitarian crisis, and accept independent or international involvement where required; the capacity of Syrian civil society to provide national level support following an intense and prolonged period of conflict; the state of Syria's post-conflict physical and human resource; and the willingness of a divided Syrian society to accept cross-community human rights initiatives or a transitional government comprised of any one party where violations have been committed by both sides of the conflict.

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  • Sport as a vehicle for development in Vanuatu : a review of the literature and analysis of the Women's Island Cricket Project : a research project presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of International Development, Development Studies, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Farrell, Julie Ann (2014)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    Approaches to development delivery have changed significantly post World War II. Current development delivery practices are often referred to as the 4th paradigm of aid delivery. A focus on the concept of empowerment through the delivery of aid has become very popular, especially in relation to women’s development (Cornwall & Brock, 2005, Batliwala, 2007). The 3rd Millennium Development Goal with an aim to empower women is a good example of the increased international focus on and support for, the development of women around the world. This popularity has also surfaced within the new and emerging Sport-for-Development paradigm. The marrying of Sport for Development and empowerment seem to be synonymous in a number of aid projects. However due to the fact that empowerment is a multi-faceted and contested term, there are issues concerning implementation and effectiveness of Sports for Development projects. Monitoring and evaluating Sport for Development projects continues to be an issue many writers lament about. As many have empowerment as an end goal, this is something that causes disquiet in the development field. With the above-mentioned in mind, this research project aimed to investigate, via a desk-based study and field observations, in what ways the Women’s Island Cricket Project in Vanuatu has contributed to women’s empowerment and identify what some of the consequences of this empowerment of participants were at the personal, family and community level. Using Kabeer’s (1999, 2005) notion that empowerment is about the ability to make choices to improve one’s life, and transform one’s life, I consider whether the women involved in the cricket project had acquired agency – the ability to transform – and whether the women have changed the way they feel about themselves and have been able to improve their own self-efficacy. My research identified that Island cricket has considerable ‘buy-in’ by the participants of the Women’s Island Cricket Project and their families. I conclude that this project has been successful, resulting in empowerment-type behavioural change for participants. Whilst paternalistic attitudes towards women exist in Vanuatu, on Ifira Island, the project has challenged and transformed some of these historical attitudes. Development Alternatives for Women of a New Era’s idea that women’s solidarity adds to empowerment (Sen & Grown, 1988) was observed by me when attending the Women’s Island Cricket Committee meeting. Whilst Vanuatu women who play cricket are the focus of this aid project, the reality is that despite sport for women not being equal with empowerment opportunities available to male sports people, well-planned and well-organised Sport for Development projects that involve local women in the planning, implementation and evaluation, are meritorious and provide considerable scope to transform participant’s lives.

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  • Integrating community-oriented policing and traditional justice systems as police reform and development in post-conflict countries : a research project presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development, School of People, Environment and Planning, Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    McLeod, Catriona (2014)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    Police reform in post-conflict countries has seen the increasing implementation of the community-oriented policing model as a means to introduce democratic policing as a component of the peace building process. However, in many post-conflict countries the situation of legal pluralism exists, where multiple justice systems operate in the same space. Many communities often rely on customary or traditional forms of justice as the formal state justice system does not extend to their location or have any real influence or authority. This research project used document analysis to investigate the contribution community-oriented policing can make to those communities that rely on traditional justice systems. This report introduced two community-oriented policing mechanisms, tara bandu ceremonies in Timor-Leste and the Community Officer Project in Solomon Islands, as case studies. These two mechanisms were analysed and compared with a specific focus on their respective levels of community participation and how they responded to raising awareness of the principles of human rights. The case study analysis found that the tara bandu ceremonies had high levels of community participation and support due to them being an endogenous social structure and the extensive involvement the communities had in developing their respective tara bandu ceremonies. This was in contrast to the Community Officer Project which is an introduced structure and one in which the community appeared to have no real input into the design and implementation process. These findings led to the conclusion that in integrating community-oriented policing and traditional justice systems, consideration should be given to utilising pre-existing traditional structures that have the support of the community.

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  • PV in Blueskin: Drivers, barriers and enablers of uptake of household photovoltaic systems in the Blueskin communities, Otago, New Zealand

    King, Geoff; Stephenson, Janet; Ford, Rebecca (2014-10)

    Unclassified
    University of Otago

    Copyright The Authors

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  • New Zealand’s future transport system: drivers of change. Initial report from the NZ Delphi study.

    Stephenson, Janet; Hopkins, Debbie; McCarthy, Alaric (2014-12)

    Unclassified
    University of Otago

    A workstream of the Energy Cultures research programme Centre for Sustainability, University of Otago http://energycultures.org

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  • Energy Cultures 2: Data Mining: Trends in Household and Business Energy Use

    Williams, John (2014-10-01)

    Unclassified
    University of Otago

    A workstream of the Energy Cultures research programme Centre for Sustainability, University of Otago http://energycultures.org

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  • The Porirua Protocol: Guidance to prevent clozapine-related constipation

    Every-Palmer, Susanna (2014)

    Unclassified
    University of Otago

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  • Flaunting it on Facebook: Young adults, drinking cultures and the cult of celebrity

    Lyons, Antonia; McCreanor, Tim; Hutton, Fiona; Goodwin, Ian; Barnes, Helen Moewaka; Griffin, Christine; Kerryellen, Vroman; O’Carroll, Acushla Dee; Niland, Patricia; Samu, Lina (2014-03)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    Copyright © Antonia Lyons; Tim McCreanor; Fiona Hutton; Ian Goodwin; Helen Moewaka Barnes; Christine Griffin; Kerryellen Vroman; Acushla Dee O’Carroll; Patricia Niland; Lina Samu Print publication available from: http://www.drinkingcultures.info/

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  • Our children, our choice: Priorities for policy.

    Ritchie, Jenny; Harvey, Nola; Kayes, Marianne; Smith, Carol (2014-06)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Children’s rights were invited late to the table of human rights’ discussions. Since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCROC) in 1989, there has been growing recognition of the rights of even very young children. Aotearoa New Zealand has pledged certain rights to our children, founded in recognition of Te Tiriti o Waitangi (1840), the laws of the land, and international treaties. As well as UNCROC, we are signatories to the United Nations International Convention of the Rights of Indigenous People (2007). In addition to the most basic protected rights explicitly stated in national and international treaties and laws, there are moral imperatives to protect the most vulnerable. We live with our children in communities as much as we live in political states and interconnected economies. These children’s rights include, but are not confined to: care and protection, food, shelter, and education. Implicit in these rights is quality of life: children have the right to access such qualities and conditions as: loving and respectful care; protection from mental, emotional and physical maltreatment; nutritious food to support health and growth; access to warm, dry shelter; and access to appropriate education. In 2014, we are failing in our pledges to honour the rights of our children. The nature and quality of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECCE) provision becomes more critical as children are expected to spend ever more time in care. About Child Poverty Action Group Child Poverty Action Group (CPAG) is an independent charity working to eliminate child poverty in New Zealand through research, education and advocacy. CPAG believes that New Zealand’s high rate of child poverty is not the result of economic necessity, but is due to policy neglect and a flawed ideological emphasis on economic incentives. Through research, CPAG highlights the position of tens of thousands of New Zealand children, and promotes public policies that address the underlying causes of the poverty they live in.

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  • “Cool” Asia in a local context : East Asian popular culture in a New Zealand classroom

    Kolesova, Elena (2014-12-22)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    The central issue is not only what can every discipline learn from popular culture, but also how can popular culture become a successful tool of learning for different disciplines. The fact that it is such an attractive tool of learning for students does not make it easier to answer the question of what we, as teachers of popular culture, want our students to learn and understand when we use this powerful tool in our classroom. The course East Meets West was introduced in 2003 as a part of a suite of ‘global electives’ for all students enrolled in degree level programmes, e.g. Marketing, Business Management, Sports Management, Communication Studies etc at Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand. However, the majority taking the course were Bachelor of Arts [BA] students majoring in Japanese, Chinese or European languages. Some students were choosing to study Asian languages and, first of all, Japanese language to satisfy their obsession with East Asian popular culture. Japanese popular culture certainly played a key role, but interest in popular culture from other East Asian countries was equally present. Since 2010 the majority of students enrolled in this course were students enrolled in Communication Studies. Similarly to the BA students, their interest in this course was equally determined by their previous engagement with East Asian popular culture. The aim of the course has been to explore the influence of East Asian popular culture on the Western popular culture. The main emphasis was on visual popular culture, e.g. anime, film, advertising or street fashion. However, other genres or types of popular culture were also considered.

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  • The migrant and the media : maintaining cultural identity through ethnic media

    Noronha, Sandra; Papoutsaki, Evangelia (2014-12-22)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Evidence shows that mainstream media in New Zealand does not fully address the communication needs of these ethnic groups nor does it represent them in a balanced way (Robie, 2009). This is where ethnic, migrant, diaspora media play an important and supporting role by providing an alternative to an increasingly homogenised mainstream media. For ethnic communities, access to such media gives them an avenue to understand more clearly issues affecting their community, a stronger sense of identity and social cohesion and a connection to a perceived transnational community. While there is an increasing concern that mainstream media fails to reflect migrant issues and concerns, a plethora of migrant media exists in parallel that helps fill this gap (Williamson and DeSouza, 2006). Auckland alone has a vibrant ethnic media scene with media spread across print, radio, and web. Its strong Pacific Islands population, for instance, has created a lively media scene with a strong radio and online media presence contributing to the creation of a distinctive cultural diasporic identity (Papoutsaki and Strickland, 2008). With this background, this essay explores the function of different migrant media in New Zealand drawing examples from across the board with a particular focus on Indian media. This includes traditional media (i.e. print, TV, magazine, and radio), and online media. In this, the traditional communication networks of ethnic community and religious associations and their use of web, films and events is also taken into consideration. By exploring the role, challenges and potential of ethnic media, this essay seeks to understand how these media represent the diverse voices of migrant groups, in addition to providing content relevant to their needs as migrants (i.e. content that counterbalances the mainstream host culture as it is represented in the mainstream media).

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  • Race, racism in everyday communication in Aotearoa / New Zealand

    Revell, Elisabeth; Papoutsaki, Evangelia; Kolesova, Elena (2014-12-22)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    This essay is based on theories of ‘new racism’, which explain how race and racism continue to play an integral role in our lives, but in subtle and often hidden ways. This approach informs the discussion in this essay that focuses on some of the issues that emerged from a critical collaborative autoethnographic project that explored how race is manifested in everyday communication interactions in New Zealand. The discussion, more specifically, draws on what we call here ‘conversational tact’ and its three sub-themes of ‘everyday racialised ethnic terms’, ‘the everyday racialised use of ethnic stereotypes’, and ‘everyday censorship and silence around race in conversation’. These themes have been chosen as the focus of this essay because they sit together under a larger theme that looks at the way in which people communicate race through their everyday patterns of speech and vocabulary in New Zealand and help us unmask ‘racial micro aggressions’ (DeAngelis, 2009; Sue et al, 2007).

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  • Theory U and team performance: presence, participation, and productivity

    Hays, Jay (2014)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    This chapter applies Scharmer’s Theory U to team performance, productivity, and learning. Key topics covered include counterproductive thought patterns, or habits, and how they can be overcome; the complementary notions of collective presence and authenticity; and the critical contributions of shared reflection and dialogue to team learning and evolution. These and other elements of Scharmer’s Theory U enable extraordinary collaborative effort and confer team advantages in terms of innovation, competitiveness, and sustainability. Strategies presented for promoting team evolution help readers to see how Theory U might be put into practice in their respective organisations and communities.

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  • Sydenham 2020 - Industrial Occupation

    Budgett, Jeanette; Bogunovich, Dushko (2014)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    East Sydenham, traditionally a working class area on the southern fringe of Christchurch is today an inner city suburb with interesting potential for redevelopment. South of Moorhouse Ave, it reveals a remarkably consistent urban footprint of industrial factories, warehouses and commercial premises. Outside the mooted Green Frame and the CBD (Central Business District) of Christchurch’s Blueprint, East Sydenham might easily fall outside the purview of the city planners. Such areas display pragmatic commercial forces at work - a condition that seems to occur largely without architects.

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  • The Polycentric City: What does it mean for Christchurch?

    Bogunovich, Dushko; Budgett, Jeanette (2014)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Almost three years after the Second Earthquake, it is becoming clearer that the CBD has a long way to go to full recovery. It may take 20 rather than 10 years before a new Central City Christchurch emerges from the present wasteland. That poses the question whether there are alternative, or additional, strategies beyond the Blueprint. Larger Christchurch has more centres of activity than the CBD. And indeed, some of them are manifesting themselves quite robustly already. They are also proliferating in numbers, to the point that Christchurch increasingly looks like a textbook example of ‘doughnut city’ – an urban area with functional suburbs, but an almost empty core. This year’s Summer School opted to investigate the ‘polycentricity’ of Christchurch – whether as real, potential, or desirable - in an attempt, not to undermine the hard work of rebuilding the Centre, but to make propositions complementary to the Blueprint. The three studios interrogated the concept itself; what it means in an era of rampant urban sprawl and the quest for sustainability; and whether Christchurch’s given physical conditions offer specific opportunities not present in other cities. Polycentricity is not only possible in Christchurch: it already exists – as you would expect in a city of this size, with such flat topography and such low density. Before the earthquakes, it manifested itself mostly in the form of one dominant CBD and many suburban sub-centres. These sub-centers were originally modest local shopping centres with community facilities, but over the past 20 or 30 years some of them morphed into shopping malls, which now anchor the major suburban centres. After the earthquake, the city all but lost the main centre – the CBD – while the existing malls prospered. Compounded by the housing shortage, and the Council’s allocation of new green field sites for residential developments on the fringe of the city, new suburban centres are appearing further out from the centre. Polycentricity is also desirable in Christchurch. The city is growing horizontally more than ever and the CBD is proving to be less accessible for a growing number of people. What this studio has shown is that polycentric development is not only possible but likely very desirable at the inner city scale.

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  • Oceanic Architecture

    Austin, Michael (2014)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Pacific pavilions The Oceanic way of building boats involves duplicating hulls “One would imagine that a contrivance so simple and practical for pro- curing stability and increased carrying capacity would have been adopted everywhere, but as a matter of fact it belongs almost exclusively to the Indo-Pacific area.” Until very recently no one would have thought that the America’s Cup, the premier global yachting contest, would be sailed in multi-hulled craft originating from the Pacific. In the same way that we can characterise the Oceanic canoe as uniquely multi-hulled there are a number of generalisations that can be made about Pacific Island buildings. The first is that they are universally single-celled pavilions. Small or large, Pacific buildings are always unicellular, and free-standing in open space. Differentiation and separation are achieved not by walls and partitions, but by space, much as islands are separated by sea. This term for this spacing is va, an Oceanic word, that, with numerous complex variations and translations, is applied to both the social and physical worlds. Fundamentals In the Pacific the gabled house form, which goes under variants of the term fale and which is known in New Zealand as the whare, is also standard. The gable cross section is, surprisingly, an inherently unstable form and it is, of course, a form that is not confined to the Pacific. The characteristic of the gable in Oceania is that posts support the ridge pole, which has the structural benefit of eliminating outward thrust on the wall posts; in the West this lateral load is usually resisted by trusses or buttresses. Sometimes this ridge post is truncated to become a king post, but always the ridge is propped. These props have all manner of symbolic associations. In the Māori whare the ridge post, or poutokomanawa, is the heart of the named ancestor who is the house. This identification is detailed and literal. The gable house form, in all its variations, is utterly fundamental to Pacific architecture.

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