63 results for Unclassified, 2014

  • Editorial: Surveillance, Copyright, Privacy

    Pearson, EE; Farnsworth, J; Fisher, K (2014-12-01)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

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  • Forced assimilation and development : the Chinese-Indonesians under Soeharto's New Order (1965-1998) : a research project presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development, Development Studies, Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    Sidjaya, Calvin Michel (2014)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    Chinese Indonesians are an ethnic minority who have settled in Indonesia since at least the 15th century who comprise 1.2% of the Indonesian population. From 1965-1998, Chinese-Indonesians became subject to various assimilationist laws under the rationale that this ethnic minority had failed to integrate into Indonesian society. Under Soeharto’s administration, Chinese-Indonesians had to give up their political and cultural rights, although they were allowed to participate widely in the economic sector. This desk-based research studied assimilationist laws and their impact on the ‘development’ of Chinese-Indonesians by studying various laws and through the use of an online questionnaire to a sample of Chinese-Indonesians. At first glance, this ethnic group can be classified as ‘developed’ at least economically, however when investigated further, systemic political and cultural exclusion has harmed their full human development. The case of Chinese-Indonesians reflects Amartya Sen’s argument in ‘Development as Freedom (1999), that wealth is only one aspect of human development. However care should be taken when considering the Chinese-Indonesian case. Generalisations should not be made about the harms that can result from assimilation policies as they were formulated during the Cold War. Assimilation is still important but should not be coercive and ensure multiple identities (such as ethnic and national identity) can coexist. This research report also uses right to development as framework. It concludes that the right to development may not be inclusive to Chinese-Indonesians’ situations because it still narrow down development as ‘growth’.

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  • How have women been empowered by gender-focussed development projects in post-Taliban Afghanistan? : reviewing the literature which incorporates the critical consideration of two gender focussed development projects : a research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    McMillan, Robert Melville (2014)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    This research report examines the empowerment approach within the Gender and Development (GAD) discussion, providing an emphasis on women’s empowerment as an instrument of post-conflict reconstruction in post-Taliban Afghanistan. Utilising a comprehensive literature review, the report establishes the framework of Naila Kabeer as a consistent base for the comparing and contrasting of two gender-focussed development programmes in Afghanistan. The contextual background of empowerment programmes pursued over the past decade in Afghanistan are presented with an examination of the challenges and opportunities encountered pursuing women’s political, economic, social and psychological empowerment. A specific consideration of the New Zealand-led Provincial Reconstruction Team in Bamyan Province, Afghanistan, and the Community Development Council initiative within the Afghanistan National Solidarity Programme is undertaken. The report concludes that while there have been enormous symbolic advances for women’s political empowerment in the national sphere, the more private and local the sphere examined: the less decision-making agency Afghani women are empowered to exercise. While seeking to provide opportunities for women’s economic empowerment the programmes have made little practical change to women’s income or financial agency. The two gender-focussed programmes examined have made significant compromises to the extremities of the local context, and are considered ‘gender accommodating’ rather than ‘gender transformative’. The large body of literature concerning Afghanistan substantiates that the road to gender equity will stretch across the generations and is necessarily gradual to remain sustainable. As Afghanistan enters further political turmoil, the empowerment attained by Afghani women in the past decade must be expressly guarded.

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  • Evaluating contestable grants in facilitating NGO-government collaborative projects to create safer, peaceful communities : a case in Papua New Guinea : a research presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Camilus, Betty (2014)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    Monitoring and evaluation is a key feature in contracting relationships between government, donors, private sector, NGOs and the wider civil society in law and justice service provision. However, less effort are placed on evaluating the impacts of NGO-Government collaborative projects funded with contestable grants to create safer, more peaceful communities. This research explores the role of monitoring and evaluation of projects funded with contestable grants focusing on issues and challenges raised by the lack of evaluation and identifies ways in which local communities define a successful collaborative NGO-Government project. The research proposes a potential evaluation pathway as a culturally appropriate monitoring and evaluation tool.

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  • Considerations for a collaborative approach to post-conflict development and transitional justice in Syria : a research report presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development, Master in International Development, at Massey University, Manawatū, New Zealand

    Patterson, Amanda (2014)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    Neither transitional justice nor post-conflict development is possible without the other. Thinking about reconstruction, and development more generally, requires an understanding of core political issues of ownership, governance and participation which are similarly key concerns of transitional justice. Such issues also need to be informed by longer-term processes for development which includes strategies for rehabilitation, reform and reparation, all consequences of war which influence development outcomes. A consideration of how post-conflict development objectives can inform a transitional justice process for Syria identifies key areas of convergence and divergence between the two fields as well as debates pertaining to the prioritisation of justice versus peace, international law, and contextualising strategies to individual states and post-conflict situations. In Syria, where work is already under way by multiple organisations and activist groups to facilitate, gather and document evidence of human rights violations in preparation for a future transitional justice process: a 'good-enough' approach to governance (Grindle, 2004), the strengthening of civil society to provide national level support, and institutional reform are identified as key areas for development intervention. However, the success or otherwise of development interventions in these areas will rely upon a number of critical factors: the willingness of a transitional government to take ownership of post-conflict development and transitional justice processes, facilitate citizen participation by first addressing Syria's severe humanitarian crisis, and accept independent or international involvement where required; the capacity of Syrian civil society to provide national level support following an intense and prolonged period of conflict; the state of Syria's post-conflict physical and human resource; and the willingness of a divided Syrian society to accept cross-community human rights initiatives or a transitional government comprised of any one party where violations have been committed by both sides of the conflict.

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  • Sport as a vehicle for development in Vanuatu : a review of the literature and analysis of the Women's Island Cricket Project : a research project presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of International Development, Development Studies, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Farrell, Julie Ann (2014)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    Approaches to development delivery have changed significantly post World War II. Current development delivery practices are often referred to as the 4th paradigm of aid delivery. A focus on the concept of empowerment through the delivery of aid has become very popular, especially in relation to women’s development (Cornwall & Brock, 2005, Batliwala, 2007). The 3rd Millennium Development Goal with an aim to empower women is a good example of the increased international focus on and support for, the development of women around the world. This popularity has also surfaced within the new and emerging Sport-for-Development paradigm. The marrying of Sport for Development and empowerment seem to be synonymous in a number of aid projects. However due to the fact that empowerment is a multi-faceted and contested term, there are issues concerning implementation and effectiveness of Sports for Development projects. Monitoring and evaluating Sport for Development projects continues to be an issue many writers lament about. As many have empowerment as an end goal, this is something that causes disquiet in the development field. With the above-mentioned in mind, this research project aimed to investigate, via a desk-based study and field observations, in what ways the Women’s Island Cricket Project in Vanuatu has contributed to women’s empowerment and identify what some of the consequences of this empowerment of participants were at the personal, family and community level. Using Kabeer’s (1999, 2005) notion that empowerment is about the ability to make choices to improve one’s life, and transform one’s life, I consider whether the women involved in the cricket project had acquired agency – the ability to transform – and whether the women have changed the way they feel about themselves and have been able to improve their own self-efficacy. My research identified that Island cricket has considerable ‘buy-in’ by the participants of the Women’s Island Cricket Project and their families. I conclude that this project has been successful, resulting in empowerment-type behavioural change for participants. Whilst paternalistic attitudes towards women exist in Vanuatu, on Ifira Island, the project has challenged and transformed some of these historical attitudes. Development Alternatives for Women of a New Era’s idea that women’s solidarity adds to empowerment (Sen & Grown, 1988) was observed by me when attending the Women’s Island Cricket Committee meeting. Whilst Vanuatu women who play cricket are the focus of this aid project, the reality is that despite sport for women not being equal with empowerment opportunities available to male sports people, well-planned and well-organised Sport for Development projects that involve local women in the planning, implementation and evaluation, are meritorious and provide considerable scope to transform participant’s lives.

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  • Integrating community-oriented policing and traditional justice systems as police reform and development in post-conflict countries : a research project presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of International Development, School of People, Environment and Planning, Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

    McLeod, Catriona (2014)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    Police reform in post-conflict countries has seen the increasing implementation of the community-oriented policing model as a means to introduce democratic policing as a component of the peace building process. However, in many post-conflict countries the situation of legal pluralism exists, where multiple justice systems operate in the same space. Many communities often rely on customary or traditional forms of justice as the formal state justice system does not extend to their location or have any real influence or authority. This research project used document analysis to investigate the contribution community-oriented policing can make to those communities that rely on traditional justice systems. This report introduced two community-oriented policing mechanisms, tara bandu ceremonies in Timor-Leste and the Community Officer Project in Solomon Islands, as case studies. These two mechanisms were analysed and compared with a specific focus on their respective levels of community participation and how they responded to raising awareness of the principles of human rights. The case study analysis found that the tara bandu ceremonies had high levels of community participation and support due to them being an endogenous social structure and the extensive involvement the communities had in developing their respective tara bandu ceremonies. This was in contrast to the Community Officer Project which is an introduced structure and one in which the community appeared to have no real input into the design and implementation process. These findings led to the conclusion that in integrating community-oriented policing and traditional justice systems, consideration should be given to utilising pre-existing traditional structures that have the support of the community.

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  • PV in Blueskin: Drivers, barriers and enablers of uptake of household photovoltaic systems in the Blueskin communities, Otago, New Zealand

    King, Geoff; Stephenson, Janet; Ford, Rebecca (2014-10)

    Unclassified
    University of Otago

    Copyright The Authors

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  • New Zealand’s future transport system: drivers of change. Initial report from the NZ Delphi study.

    Stephenson, Janet; Hopkins, Debbie; McCarthy, Alaric (2014-12)

    Unclassified
    University of Otago

    A workstream of the Energy Cultures research programme Centre for Sustainability, University of Otago http://energycultures.org

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  • Energy Cultures 2: Data Mining: Trends in Household and Business Energy Use

    Williams, John (2014-10-01)

    Unclassified
    University of Otago

    A workstream of the Energy Cultures research programme Centre for Sustainability, University of Otago http://energycultures.org

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  • The Porirua Protocol: Guidance to prevent clozapine-related constipation

    Every-Palmer, Susanna (2014)

    Unclassified
    University of Otago

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  • Flaunting it on Facebook: Young adults, drinking cultures and the cult of celebrity

    Lyons, Antonia; McCreanor, Tim; Hutton, Fiona; Goodwin, Ian; Barnes, Helen Moewaka; Griffin, Christine; Kerryellen, Vroman; O’Carroll, Acushla Dee; Niland, Patricia; Samu, Lina (2014-03)

    Unclassified
    Massey University

    Copyright © Antonia Lyons; Tim McCreanor; Fiona Hutton; Ian Goodwin; Helen Moewaka Barnes; Christine Griffin; Kerryellen Vroman; Acushla Dee O’Carroll; Patricia Niland; Lina Samu Print publication available from: http://www.drinkingcultures.info/

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  • Press, politics and people in Papua New Guinea 1950-1975

    Cass, Philip (2014-05-29)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    [PNG] newspapers show an expatriate population expressing attitudes that were often at variance with official policy and out of sympathy with the needs of the indigenous population. It sometimes shows us what the indigenous population thought and did, but just as often their omission from the pages of the daily or weekly press leaves us to draw our own conclusions. From this we can trace an outline, at least of the changing relationship between the sinabada and the haus meri and the taubada and the haus boi. (The fact that an expatriate couple might be addressed as sinabada and taubada in Papua, but as masta and missis in New Guinea did not change the fact that the meri and haus boi remained just that.) Relationships between expatriates and indigenes did change in the period covered by this book; indeed a seismic shift in power, in attitudes and in relationships between expatriate and indigenous people occurred during these two decades. This book draws on the commercial and church press - and, to a certain extent, official and mission publications - to draw a picture of how those changes occurred and what they meant to the country. The press can be a valuable source for historians, not just as a first draft of history, but as a means of understanding the day to day lives of citizens and their concerns. This is particularly true when a newspaper serves a small community. Stuart’s history of Port Moresby, for instance, is all the better because he uses the Papuan Courier to show what the expatriate community was doing and thinking. In the current narrative the Rabaul Times will serve as just such a mirror of a small expatriate population. The press also provides valuable insights into particular episodes and processes as well as broad historical periods. The Post-Courier provides an example of a paper which reported on local stories that often had national significance in a time of unprecedented social and political change in the Territory. Wantok provides us, across a five year period, the application of the media to promote health, education, human development and national identity.

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  • The Moveable Feast Collective Teach Design

    Jowsey, Susan (2014-11-20)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    The aim of this new eMedia project is to review aspects of the decision making with regards to teaching design and the pedagogical framework employed. Moveable Feast attempted a complex cross disciplinary research based project that encompassed two disciplines and incorporated seventy students drawn from both the first and second years of a three year Design and Visual Arts degree. The Graphic Design staff members lead by Susan Jowsey sought to create a controlled live-learning experience for their students; the city of Christchurch became the case study for this project

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  • Rosebank: Cabbages, Horses and Science – a short film on 3 Rosebank stories

    Woodruffe, Paul (2014-09-10)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    eMedia publication documenting three examples of the Rosebank Peninsula’s remaining past uncovered using film by the everyday collective laboratory.

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  • Preface. In Communication issues in Aotearoa New Zealand: a collection of research essays.

    Bossio, Diana (2014-12-22)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    The aim of this collection is to showcase Unitec’s Department of Communication engagement with contemporary communications issues and this collection presents a rich and diverse response. From questions of race, multiculturalism and cultural politics, to case studies discussing questions of digital accessibility, governance and organisational communications, the research highlights a specifically New Zealand context, but is applicable to global understandings of communications.

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  • Public relations in New Zealand - the missing pieces

    Trenwith, Lynne (2014-12-22)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Modern practitioners of public relations in New Zealand work in diverse areas of communication (PRINZ, 2006, 2011) but the different areas of practice and the skills that each area employs have developed from the early years of public relations activity; from its origins in the two separate yet related strands of tikanga Māori and press agentry. The press agentry strand has been documented by Trenwith (2010) as the occupation emerged from its war time press agentry and propaganda practices to that of the more modern public relations practices. But missing from the New Zealand public relations history discourse is representation that addresses and integrates Māori and Pacific Island public relations ontological and epistemological assumptions.

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  • All the suffering on our backs : rugby, religion and redemption amid the ruins

    Cass, Philip (2014-12-22)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    New Zealand’s All Black rugby team is a national icon, an affirmation of the manly, self-reliant and resilient virtues which New Zealanders like to think they possess. In times of national peril, economic uncertainty and disaster they remain a pillar of certainty and inspiration, present in almost every television news bulletin and daily newspaper. At other times the All Blacks – whether current players or not - have also provided the media with a frame of reference for explaining significant international events to New Zealand audiences. In 2011 the All Blacks were used prominently to report on the Christchurch earthquake and the much greater seismic devastation experienced in Japan. However, as the Rugby World Cup approached both New Zealand and international media also began to invest the performance of rugby players with a quasi-religious expectation that they would somehow provide catharsis and healing for the earthquake victims in New Zealand and Japan. In doing so they reflected processes that had occurred elsewhere, notably in New Orleans after Cyclone Katrina, the 1995 Rugby World Cup in South Africa and London after the July 2007 terrorist attacks. Rugby has been described as a religion in New Zealand. It is certainly an obsession. Located on the fringes of the north Antarctic and exercising little global economic, political or military influence, New Zealand constantly seeks to mark a space for itself on the world stage through sport. Despite the success of its sportsmen and women in a variety of competitions, rugby remains the central, if not the driving force, in New Zealand sport and in its quest for global recognition. New Zealand’s national team, the All Blacks, is freighted with all sorts of social, cultural and quasi-political expectations.

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  • Autonomous language learning study guides : Useful tools in the self-access language learning environment.

    Dofs, Kerstin; Hobbs, Moira (2014)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    This paper reports on a recent trial of Autonomous Language Learning (ALL) guides, at Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT), in Christchurch and Unitec Institute of Technology in Auckland, New Zealand. The guides were developed to meet a perceived need for autonomous learning support in both the language classroom and the Self-Access Centre (SAC). The aim was to investigate whether these guides were effective in fostering autonomy and enhancing learning for students during their out-of-class time. Furthermore, it evaluated how they were being used, what learning was taking place, and if they fulfilled the need for support that teachers and students may require.

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  • Biologically Inspired Techniques for Data Mining: A Brief Overview of Particle Swarm Optimization for KDD. Alam

    Shafiq, Alam; Gillian, Dobbie; Koh, Yun Sing; Rehman, Saeed (2014-02-02)

    Unclassified
    Unitec

    Knowledge Discovery and Data (KDD) mining helps uncover hidden knowledge in huge amounts of data. However, recently, different researchers have questioned the capability of traditional KDD techniques to tackle the information extraction problem in an efficient way while achieving accurate results when the amount of data grows. One of the ways to overcome this problem is to treat data mining as an optimization problem. Recently, a huge increase in the use of Swarm Intelligence (SI)-based optimization techniques for KDD has been observed due to the flexibility, simplicity, and extendibility of these techniques to be used for different data mining tasks. In this chapter, the authors overview the use of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), one of the most cited SI-based techniques in three different application areas of KDD, data clustering, outlier detection, and recommender systems. The chapter shows that there is a tremendous potential in these techniques to revolutionize the process of extracting knowledge from big data using these techniques

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