433 results for Working or discussion paper, 2010

  • Instructional design: Theory and practice.

    Kobeleva, P.; Strongman, L. (2012)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    Describes, using a pedagogical focus, the principles of instructional design in distance learning teaching. The paper comprises five sections. The first section provides definitions and describes concepts of instructional design. In the second section the authors investigate the nature of instructional design. The third section concerns the integration of teaching pedagogy with instructional design. The fourth section describes elements of project management and instructional design. A mini case study that discusses the embedding of literacy and numeracy in an Open Polytechnic Level 2 Horticulture course is included. The fifth section discusses e-learning pedagogy and instructional design.

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  • Shared browsing and book selection in an academic library

    Timpany, Claire; Alqurashi, Hayat; Hinze, Annika; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Vanderschantz, Nicholas (2012)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    While there exist a small but growing body of naturalistic studies of collaborative searching and browsing in digital collections, the corresponding literature on behavior in the physical stacks is surprisingly sparse. Here, we add to this literature by conducting observations of the “retrieval journeys” of pairs of patrons in a university library. We specifically focus on interactions between patrons as they work together to browse and select books in physical collections, to further our understanding of collaborative information behaviour.

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  • Foregone profit in the wine industry

    Neuninger, Rosemarie; Mather, Damien William; Duncan, Tara (2015-06-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Background and Aims: Wine awards are frequently used as extrinsic cues for wine categories. The aim of this paper is to show the forgone profit arising from failures to make optimal use of awards when positioning wine brands to consumer segments. Methods and Results: Four award statuses were tested: a well-known award, multiple awards, a fictitious award used as a control (an award without consumer trust) and, no award. Participants tasted eight wine samples: the first four without extrinsic cues; the next four used extrinsic cues with varying award status. Each sample was rated for liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay. Low-involvement consumers’ perceived liking and price willing to pay were improved by multiple (real gold) awards compared to high-involvement consumers. Conclusions: Trust in awards increased the price consumers were willing to pay for wine with an award. For high-involvement consumers who distrusted awards, multiple wine awards and fictitious awards negatively influenced perceived liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay. Significance of the Study: This is the first study to report on the combined influence of wine awards and consumers’ sensory perceptions of wine on perceived liking, likelihood to buy and price willing to pay.

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  • Understanding the Etiology of Electoral Violence: The Case of Zimbabwe

    Fielding, David (2015-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Recent theoretical and empirical work indicates that incumbent governments are likely to attempt to influence election outcomes by violent means (rather than by bribery and fraud) when their level of popular support is relatively low. However, evidence also suggests that in some countries electoral violence can be quite easy to thwart through peaceful means. This may seem surprising when the incumbent has control over an extensive and well-equipped state security apparatus. The analysis of Zimbabwean data in this paper suggests an explanation: the incumbent prefers to avoid the direct involvement of the state security apparatus when intimidating voters (perhaps because such involvement would undermine the incumbent’s legitimacy abroad), and relies instead on informal groups with very limited organizational capacity. One consequence in Zimbabwe is that the intimidation is heavily focused in places where the incumbent is relatively popular, ceteris paribus.

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  • Cheap Talk in a New Keynesian Model

    Wesselbaum, Dennis (2016-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper shows that the stance of fiscal policy does have significant impact on the conduct of monetary policy in the United States. Further, we document that the implied fiscal-monetary policy interactions are subject to regime instability, using a Markov-switching model. Then, we develop a microfoundation of regime switches using a cheap talk game between central bank and government. As a case study, we simulate the effects of regime switches within an otherwise standard New Keynesian model using the cheap talk game in the state-space of our model.

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  • Smoke alarm detection, broadcast notifications and social implications

    Woods, Alan (2010-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Changes in population demographics and lifestyle choices have led to an increased risk of higher mortality from house fires. The current average of 27 house fire related deaths per year is likely to be exceeded in the following years. The aging population with its natural increase in age related hearing loss and the younger demographic only having mobile phones and no land-lines means there is a need for alternative warning methods of smoke alarm activation. This project develops a proof of concept application that runs on a smart phone and detects an activated smoke alarm. If there is no response by the occupants automatically trigger an alarm to a predefined contact group. This application can reduce the possibility of death or injury by persons unable to respond to an activated alarm.

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  • Assurance of agent systems: What role should formal verification play?

    Winikoff, Michael (2010-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In this paper we consider the broader issue of gaining assurance that an agent system will behave appropriately when it is deployed. We ask to what extent this problem is addressed by existing research into formal verification. We identify a range of issues with existing work which leads us to conclude that, broadly speaking, verification approaches on their own are too narrowly focussed. We argue that a shift in direction is needed, and outline some possibilities for such a shift in direction.

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  • The New Zealand sustainability dashboard: unified monitoring and learning for sustainable agriculture in New Zealand

    Moller, Henrik; Barber, Andrew; Saunders, Caroline; MacLeod, Catriona; Rosin, Chris; Lucock, Dave; Post, Elizabeth; Ombler, Franz; Campbell, Hugh; Benge, Jayson; Reid, John; Hunt, Lesley; Hansen, Paul; Carey, Peter; Rotarangi, Stephanie; Ford, Stuart; Barr, Tremane; Manhire, Jon (2012)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The New Zealand Sustainability Dashboard project will develop a sustainability assessment and reporting tool in partnership with five primary industry sectors in New Zealand. Internationally recognised frameworks and their key generic sustainability performance indicators (KPIs) will be co-opted to ensure that overseas consumers can benchmark and verify the sustainability credentials of New Zealand exported products. We will also design New Zealand and sector-specific KPIs to guide farmers and local consumers to best practices of special relevance to New Zealand society, ecology and land care. Monitoring protocols will be described, where possible for the farmers themselves to rapidly score their own performance across economic, social and environmental dimensions of food and fibre production. A multifunctional web application will be created that facilitates uploading of regular monitoring results and instantly summarises and reports back trends to the growers, to industry representatives, and to agriculture regulators and policy makers at regional and national government levels. Tests of the accuracy and statistical reliability of the KPIs will be coupled with ongoing research on how much the farmers use the tool, whether it changes their actions and beliefs for more sustainable agriculture, and whether stakeholders at all levels of global food systems trust and regularly use the tool. The Dashboard will be more than just a compliance and eco-verification tool – it will also provide a hub for learning to become more sustainable. It will create an information ‘clearing house’ for linking past data sources and at least five existing decision-support software applications so that growers can discover optimal choices for improved farming practice, should the Dashboard alert them that their KPIs are approaching amber of red alert thresholds. We will also design and test two new decision-support packages; one enabling farmers to calculate their energy and carbon footprint and how it can best be reduced; and a whole-farm ‘What if’ decision-support package that explores how investment in improving one sustainability KPI (eg. application of nitrogen fertilser) affects another (eg. farm profit). The Sustainability Dashboard will also include customisation capabilities for use in product traceability; for undertaking surveys of users; for estimating the value placed on different aspects of sustainability by growers, industry representatives, regulators and consumers; for comparing Māori and other communities’ values in sustainability assessments; and for identifying market opportunities and constraints. The Dashboard web application will be designed so it can be quickly integrated into an industry’s/sector’s existing IT platform and infrastructure and this will facilitate rapid uptake. Some host industries may force growers to use the Sustainability Dashboard as part of their existing Market Assurance scheme.

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  • Artificial Neural Networks and Aggregate Consumption Patterns in New Zealand

    Farhat, Dan (2012-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study uses artificial neural networks (ANNs) to reproduce aggregate per-capita consumption patterns for the New Zealand economy. Results suggest that non-linear ANNs can outperform a linear econometric model at out-of-sample forecasting. The best ANN at matching in-sample data, however, is rarely the best predictor. To improve the accuracy of ANNs using only in-sample information, methods for combining heterogeneous ANN forecasts are explored. The frequency that an individual ANN is a top performer during in-sample training plays a beneficial role in consistently producing accurate out-of-sample patterns. Possible avenues for incorporating ANN structures into social simulation models of consumption are discussed.

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  • A New Test of Ricardian Equivalence Using the Narrative Record on Tax Changes

    Haug, Alfred (2016-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper empirically tests the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis with a narrative measure of tax shocks. The present value, at the time of legislation,for tax increases motivated solely by concerns for improving the fiscal health of the government is used for the tests. These tax news represent a switch from debt to tax financing that should have no effects on the economy if Ricardian equivalence holds as a good approximation. Such a tax increase seems to have positive e ects on real GDP in the post-1980:IV period. However, this is due to fiscal anticipation as many of the tax increases are implemented with substantial delays and distortionary taxes increase economic activity before taxes go up, which is caused by intertemporal substitution. Therefore, Ricardian equivalence is rejected.

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  • Dire Straits v The Cure: Emphasising the Problem or the Solution in Charitable Fundraising for International Development

    Clark, Jeremy; Garces-Ozanne, Arlene; Knowles, Stephen (2016-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We conduct a laboratory experiment to test the effect on charitable donations to international development NGOs (INGOs) of emphasising current deprivation in a developing country, versus emphasising the potential good a donation can achieve. Using a double-blind dictator experiment with earned endowments, we find that varying the information/emphasis has no significant effect on total donations, or on the probability of donating. An emphasis on current deprivation does, however, significantly raise the variance of donations, so that conditional on donating, it significantly raises donations compared to emphasising potential gains from the charity’s work.

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  • How do empowerment and self-determination affect national health outcomes?

    Garces-Ozanne, Arlene; Kalu, Edna Ikechi; Audas, Richard (2016-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    There remains a persistent gap in health outcomes between wealthy and poor countries. Basic measures such as life expectancy, infant and child mortality remain divergent, with preventable deaths being unacceptably high, despite significant efforts to reduce these disparities. We examine the impact of empowerment, measured by Freedom House’s ratings of country’s political and civil rights freedom, while controlling for per capita GDP, secondary school enrollment and income inequality, on national health outcomes. Using data from 1970-2013 across 149 countries, our results suggest, quite strongly, that higher levels of empowerment have a significant positive association with life expectancy, particularly for females, and lower rates of infant and child mortality. Our results point to the need for efforts to stimulate economic growth be accompanied with reforms to increase the levels of empowerment through increased political and economic freedom.

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  • A summary of ecosystem service economic valuation methods and recommendations for future studies

    Kaval, Pamela (2010-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This short working paper summarizes ecosystem service economic valuation methods. The paper begins with an introduction to ecosystem services, and then describes the various methods that can be used to value them. An extensive literature review was carried out, illustrating those ecosystem service studies that attempted to value three or more ecosystem services using original data and more than one valuation method. Recommendations are then offered on how to conduct ecosystem service valuation studies.

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  • History navigation in location-based mobile systems

    Müller, Knut; Hinze, Annika (2010-12-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and comparison of concepts that have been proposed to guide users through interaction histories (e.g. for web browsers). The goal is to gain insights into history design that may be used for designing an interaction history for the location-based Tourist Information Provider (TIP) system [8]. The TIP system consists of several services that interact on a mobile device.

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  • A century of the evolution of the urban system in Brazil

    Matlaba, Valente José; Holmes, Mark J.; McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques (2011-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In this paper, we study the hitherto unexplored evolution of the size distribution of 185 urban areas in Brazil between 1907 and 2008. We find that the power law parameter of the size distribution of the 100 largest urban areas increases from 0.63 in 1907 to 0.89 in 2008, which confirms an agglomeration process in which the size distribution has become more unequal. A panel fixed effects model pooling the same range of urban size distributions provides a power law parameter equal to 0.53, smaller than those from cross-sectional estimation. Clearly, Zipf’s Law is rejected. The lognormal distribution fits the city size distribution quite well until the 1940s, but since then applies to small and medium size cities only. These results are consistent with our understanding of historical-political and socio-economic processes that have shaped the development of Brazilian cities.

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  • Classification and regression algorithms for WEKA implemented in Python

    Beckham, Christopher J. (2015-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    WEKA is a popular machine learning workbench written in Java that allows users to easily classify, process, and explore data. There are many ways WEKA can be used: through the WEKA Explorer, users can visualise data, train classifiers and examine performance metrics; in the WEKA Experimenter, datasets and algorithms can be compared in an automated fashion; or, it can simply be invoked on the command-line or used as an external library in a Java project.

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  • Tracking battery state-of-charge in a continuous use off-grid electricity system

    Apperley, Mark; Alahmari, Mohammed Mushabab (2013-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The growing importance of batteries in the delivery of primary energy, for example in electric vehicles and isolated off-grid electricity systems, has added weight to the demand for simple and reliable measures of a battery’s remaining stored energy at any time. Many approaches to estimating this battery state-of-charge exist, ranging from those based on a full appreciation of the chemistry and physics of the storage and delivery mechanisms used, and requiring extensive data on which to base an estimate, to the naïve and simple, based only, for example, on the terminal voltage of the battery. None, however, is perfect, and able to deliver a simple percentage-full figure, as in a fuel gauge. The shortcomings are due to a range of complicating factors, including the impact of rate of charge, rate of discharge, battery aging, and temperature, to name just some of these. This paper presents a simple yet effective method for tracking state-of-charge in an off-grid electricity system, where batteries are in continuous use, preventing static parameter measurements, and where charge/discharge cycles do not necessarily follow an orderly sequence or pattern. A reliable indication of state-of-charge is, however, highly desirable, but need be only of fuel gauge precision, say to the nearest 12-20%. The algorithm described utilises knowledge of the past, and constantly adapts parameters such as charge efficiency and total charge capacity based on this knowledge, and on the occurrence of specific identifiable events such as zero or full charge.

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  • Political orientation of Government and Stock Market returns

    Bialkowski, J.; Gottschalk, K.; Wisniewski, T. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    Prior research documented that U.S. stock prices tend to grow faster during Democratic administrations than during Republican administrations. This letter examines whether stock returns in other countries also depend on the political orientation of the incumbents. An analysis of 24 stock markets and 173 different governments reveals that there are no statistically significant differences in returns between left-wing and right-wing executives. Consequently, international investment strategies based on the political orientation of countries’ leadership are likely to be futile.

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  • Testing for the Invariance of a Causal Model of Friendships at work: an investigation of job type and needs

    Morrison, R. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    The relationship between workplace friendships and organisational outcomes were investigated. Employees from diverse industries responded to an Internet-based survey (n=445). A previously supported model of workplace relationships (Morrison, 2004) was cross-validated, confirming linkages between friendships at work and organisational outcomes. The model was invariant across groups reporting differing needs for affiliation, autonomy or achievement, but non-invariant across groups reporting occupying relatively less or more interdependent jobs. Results suggest that the interdependence of individuals’ jobs affects the salience of work friendships more than subjective needs.

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  • An overview of mining in the Te Aroha mining district from the turn of the twentieth century until the start of the depression

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Apart from the mines owned by Edwin Henry Hardy, mining at Waiorongomai stagnated in the early twentieth century. During its first decade attention largely switched to the Tui district, with new treatment processes promising better results, but, as usual, raising capital was difficult and the government was asked to assist. A mining revival was constantly anticipated, especially by the local newspaper, and for the first time base metals were also investigated. Prospecting encompassed new areas, with the Mangakino Valley and the top of the mountain being investigated more thoroughly than previously. In 1913, the battery was destroyed in a fire but was replaced. During that decade and the subsequent one, mining faded away to almost nothing, and only the onset of the Depression caused any revival.

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