317 results for Working or discussion paper, Lincoln University Research Archive

  • Papers presented at the New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society (Inc.) eleventh Annual Conference : Tahuna Conference Centre, Nelson, August 2005

    Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Published on behalf of the New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society by Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, Lincoln University, [2005].

    View record details
  • Demand prospects for beef

    Philpott, B. P.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Paper contributed to New Zealand Institute of Agricultural Science Symposium New Zealand Beef Production, Processing and Marketing’: Hamilton, August 24-28th 1970.

    View record details
  • New Zealand, The Ten, and future market strategies

    McCarthy, Owen

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Photocopied material - reissue of Canterbury Chamber of Commerce economic bulletin, no. 559, published 1972.

    View record details
  • Marketing of agricultural and horticultural products : selected examples, apples, barley, summerfruit, wool

    Nicholson, K. B.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This report provides insights into selected primary industries in New Zealand. The primary industries covered are apple, barley, summerfruit, and wool. Production, marketing, and organisation are examined, along with quality control and market trends.

    View record details
  • Existence advertising, price competition, and asymmetric market structure

    Eaton, B. C.; MacDonald, I. A.; Meriluoto, L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    We examine a two stage duopoly game in which firms advertise their existence to consumers in stage 1 and compete in prices in stage 2. Whenever the advertising technology generates positive overlap in customer bases the equilibrium for the stage 1 game is asymmetric in that one firm chooses to remain small in comparison to its competitor. For a specific random advertising technology we show that one firm will always be half as large as the other. No equilibrium in pure price strategies exists in the stage 2 game and as long as there is some overlap in customer bases the mixed strategy equilibrium is far from the Bertrand equilibrium.

    View record details
  • Papers presented at the New Zealand Branch, Australian Agricultural Economics Society Conference, Flock House, Bulls, July 1989

    Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Published on behalf of the New Zealand Branch, Australian Agricultural Economics Society by Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, Lincoln College, [1989].

    View record details
  • The impacts of the Thailand-Australia Free Trade Agreement and Thailand-New Zealand Closer Economic Partnership on Thailand dairy import prices

    Suriya, P.; Gan, C.; Hu, B.; Cohen, D.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This study investigates the impacts of the Thailand-Australia Free Trade Agreement (TAFTA) and Thailand-New Zealand Closer Economic Partnership (THNZCEP) on Thailand dairy import prices. The study employs an import price model to examine the effects of the Thailand tariff reduction for New Zealand and Australian dairy products on the prices of New Zealand and Australian dairy products.

    View record details
  • Papers presented at the New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society (Inc.) Fifth Annual Conference : "Public - v - private interests : the role of the state in agriculture" : incorporating the 23rd Annual Conference of the New Zealand Branch of the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society (Inc.) : Blenheim Country Lodge, July 1998

    Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Published on behalf of the New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society (Inc.)

    View record details
  • The future profitability of beef production in New Zealand

    Johnson, R. W. M.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Paper contributed to New Zealand Institute of Agricultural Science Symposium "New Zealand Beef Production, Processing and Marketing", Hamilton, August 24-28th 1970.

    View record details
  • Rational expectations of own performance: An experimental study

    Clark Jeremy; Friesen Lana

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    According to rational choice theory, people will choose their careers, level of work effort or investment based in part on their expectations of success. But are people’s expectations of their likelihood of success accurate? Evidence accumulated by psychologists suggest that on average people underestimate their risks and overestimate their abilities relative to others. We test for such optimistic bias in experiments where people must predict their relative or absolute success in incentivebased verbal and maximization contests. We ask subjects to provide initial and revised point estimates of their success rates, either hypothetically or with a scoring rule that rewards forecast accuracy. We then passively measure the quantity and quality of subjects’ efforts and subsequent outcomes. Bias in forecasts is evaluated at the aggregate level as done by psychologists, but also at the individual level using realized outcomes. We find limited evidence of excess optimism only in relative maximization contests when encountered first, and excess pessimism or accuracy elsewhere. Experience across contests and updating does not always increase the accuracy of self-assessed forecasts, and even when accuracy improves biases are rarely eliminated entirely. Methodologically, we find no evidence that a modest quadratic scoring rule introduces moral hazard for own-outcome forecasts, but neither does it increase forecast accuracy or lower variance.

    View record details
  • Credit constraints and impact on farm household welfare: evidence from Vietnam's north central coast region

    Tran, M. C.; Gan, Christopher; Hu, Baiding

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This study aims at identifying factors affecting formal credit constraint status of rural farm households in Vietnam’s North Central Coast region (NCC). Using the Direct Elicitation method (DEM), we consider both internal and external credit rationing. Empirical evidences confirm the importance of household head’s age, gender and education to household’s likelihood of being credit constrained. In addition, households who have advantages of farm land size, labour resources and non‐farm income are less likely to be credit constrained. Poor households are observed to remain restricted by formal credit institutions. Results from the endogenous switching regression model suggest that credit constraints have negative impact on household’s consumption per capita and informal credit can act as a substitute to mitigate the influence of formal credit constraints.

    View record details
  • Valuation of impacts of incursions on biodiversity: A review of the literature

    Sharp, Basil M. H.; Kerr, Geoffrey N.; Kaval, Pamela

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This report provides an overview of the economic literature on invasive species with focus aimed at economic valuation. The report opens with an overview of economics concepts related to invasive species. Costs of invasive species are then discussed, followed by a description of the pathways and impacts of incursions relevant to valuation, economic models underpinning valuation of incursion events, valuation methods and methodological options, as well as prospects for benefits transfer. Conclusions and recommendations are then presented.

    View record details
  • Papers presented at the New Zealand Branch Australian Agricultural Economics Society Conference, Blenheim, June 1986

    Agricultural Economics Research Unit

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Published on behalf of the New Zealand Branch of the Australian Agricultural Economics Society

    View record details
  • Recent developments in the meat industry with particular reference to Otago and Southland

    Pilling, R. G.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Based on a paper presented to Otago Branch, N.Z. Economic Society, October 22nd, 1969.

    View record details
  • Covenants as a policy mechanism for providing conservation of natural features : survey of QEII covenantees in Canterbury

    Saunders, C.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Conservation covenants have received scant attention internationally as a tool for providing conservation. This paper examines their use in New Zealand where they have been almost the sole policy measure in protecting land under private ownership. Under these covenants landowners or managers surrender some of their property rights in perpetuity in return for little if any compensation. The motivation for this is important in understanding their applicability to other situations. A survey of covenantees in the Canterbury region of New Zealand did highlight a high proportion had entered the covenant for altruistic reasons the main attraction being protection in perpetuity. Whilst the covenanted land was managed less intensively three quarters had alternative uses mainly development and forestry implying a not insignificant positive opportunity cost for covenantees. However on the commercially managed holdings the covenanted land was only a small part. The survey highlights the fact that landowners or managers are more willing to providing conservation than may be expected given an appropriate mechanism. Conservation covenants may therefore have wider appeal especially where there are limited resources. They are suited best to areas of land which are small proportions of commercial holdings; uncontroversial and well defined management prescriptions which are static; little active management; and little conflict between the conservation and other objectives for the land.

    View record details
  • Battle of the nations: consumer perceptions of wine origins

    Forbes, S. L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether purchasers identify a wine’s country of origin and what their perceptions are of products originating from various wine producing nations. Design/methodology/approach: An interviewer‐administered questionnaire was used to examine the views of 399 consumers as they made actual purchase decisions inside stores in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Findings: The results indicate that the majority of consumers can identify the origin of the wine they purchase (83%). In addition, the perceptions of wine that consumers hold do vary based upon a wine’s country of origin. Practical implications: These results suggest that country of origin perceptions differ across wine producing nations and that these differences are likely to be associated with a financial cost or benefit to wine producers. Originality/value: Few previous country of origin studies have asked consumers, at the time of purchase, if they can identify the origin of the product they have chosen. This study adds to current knowledge by providing evidence that wine purchasers are likely to know the origin of the wine they purchase and that their perceptions of these origins will indeed vary.

    View record details
  • Red deer : the economic valuation

    Sandrey, R. A.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    With the current downturn in traditional livestock farming investment New Zealand a great deal of interest is being shown in diversification. It is becoming increasing apparent that few options are open to many farmers. Deer and goats are the two most quoted livestock alternatives, but both are constrained by biological factors. Goats are still in a feral updating phase, but the era of feral deer recovery is possibly over. Those deer required to build the herds of the future are predominately domesticated livestock. This last season (1985/86) has seen a dramatic decline in the value of female deer. Controversy exists as to the causes of this decline, as changes to the livestock taxation system were announced during the season. The declared intention of these livestock tax changes has been to obtain neutrality of the taxation system across investment decisions. It is not the purpose of this paper to address the taxation issue, and we will assume that neutrality has been achieved. Weaner hind prices have declined from a forward sale value of some $2,600 in November 1985 for March to May 1986 delivery to some $800 to $1,200 for the same animals at sales over the March-June 1986 period. (See Appendix 1).Declines of weaner values of this nature will have very little impact upon the future time path of the New Zealand deer herd. Until such time as some female weaners are culled for meat, the expansionary phase of the industry will continue. The major impact the decline will have on herd growth is via an expected decline in live capture animals. These animals are becoming less and less important to the New Zealand deer herd, so this effect will be minimal. The most important effect of the decline in values is that of equity. Those farmers in deer farming before the decline in values have seen the value of their animals drop dramatically. For those selling this has been a real loss, for those building up herds the drop has been a substantial paper loss. Gainers have been those buying at the reduced prices and those contemplating purchasing deer. The purpose of this report is to examine the determinants of the economic valuation of female deer and to obtain a valuation to aid those contemplating investing in red deer. Specifically, adult and weaner hind values will be calculated and some sensitivity analyses conducted around the base assumption used.

    View record details
  • Impact of microcredit on rural households: an evaluation using panel data

    Khoi, P. D.; Gan, Christopher; Nartea, Gilbert V.; Cohen, D. A.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    This paper investigates the impact of microcredit on rural households. The impact of a microcredit program on target households is subject to two main sources of bias, observed and unobserved bias. To evaluate the microcredit program’s impact, we used the 2006 and 2008 Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys and applied the Propensity Score Matching approach and Fixed Effects models. The results show a greater consumption and income impact for the ‘true poor’ when only the poor group is included in the comparison. This implies that the ‘true poor’ benefit more from involvement with a microcredit program than do low-income households. In addition, greater impacts were identified in the Mekong River Delta, assuming that endogeneity is significantly controlled for in the models.

    View record details
  • Formal collaboration amongst four tertiary education institutions to advance environmental sustainability.

    Merfield, C. N.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    There is increasing awareness in the tertiary education sector in Australia and New Zealand that many of its activities are not environmentally sustainable and need to be changed. In most cases tertiary educational institutions (TEI) are working individually to address environmental sustainability (ES) while taking advantage of a range of information sources and networks, such as Australasian Campuses Towards Sustainability (ACTS) to help them achieve their ES aims. In the Canterbury region of New Zealand the four major TEIs have formed an official joint working group to address environmental sustainability on all their campuses. The Environmental Sustainability Working Group (ESWG) started in late 2003 as a grass roots network of staff and students who were interested in ES from the four institutions. The vision was to provide a forum for mutual support, sharing knowledge, information and experience, thereby resulting in faster implementation of ES initiatives at the member institutions. To give the group sufficient ‘authority’ to achieve its aims it was considered vital that the group be officially recognised by the institutions and have the support of senior management. This was achieved under the ‘umbrella’ organisation the Canterbury Tertiary Alliance (CTA) (www.cta.ac.nz). The CTA is a formal alliance between the University of Canterbury (UC), Lincoln University (LU), the Christchurch College of Education (CCE) and the Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT) and was formed in 2001. The aim of the CTA is “to ensure that Christchurch's four major providers develop tertiary education choices in Canterbury in a complementary way. This ensures cooperation in best practice, cost efficiencies, collegiality and ultimately benefits our students” (www.cta.ac.nz/news/cta1.pdf , examples of other CTA activities are joint purchasing initiatives for information technologies and libraries and reciprocal library borrowing rights). Terms of reference for the Environmental Sustainability Working Group (Figure 1) were endorsed by the CTA executive in June 2004. The CTA executive consists of the Vice Chancellors, Principal and Chief Executive of the member institutions and other senior managers. With this authority the ESWG moved on to develop it first major project: waste minimisation.

    View record details
  • Spam: solutions and their problems

    Eaton, B.; MacDonald, I.; Meriluoto, L.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    We analyze the success of filtering as a solution to the spam problem when used alone or concurrently with sender and/or receiver pricing. We find that filters alone may exacerbate the spam problem if the spammer attempts to evade them by sending multiple variants of the message to each consumer. Sender and receiver prices can effectively reduce or eliminating spam, either on their own or when used together with filtering. Finally, we discuss the implications for social welfare of using the different spam controls.

    View record details