1,658 results for Working or discussion paper, All rights reserved

  • Ask them! Children's fiction book choices and the implications for libraries

    Irvine, J. (2002)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    View record details
  • Consumer health information: The role of hospital libraries.

    Bidwell, P.; Oliver, G. (2001)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    View record details
  • Consultancy and contract work in the information industry.

    Fields, A. J. (2003)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    The information industry within New Zealand covers a wide range of disciplines. A study has been conducted on the contracting and consulting sector of a group of closely allied fields: librarianship, records management, archives, information management, and knowledge management. The three main objectives of this study are to (1) take a 'snapshot' view of this sector as it exists today, (2) identify common concerns and issues amongst this sector, (3) see whether parallels can be made with similar surveys conducted in other countries. Very little has been written on the contracting and consulting sector of this particular grouping of disciplines. Two studies that share some common ground with this study are Frey's 1985 study on information consultants and brokers in Australia and Warr's 1992 study on information brokers and consultants in the United Kingdom. No studies or publications have been found that specifically cover the New Zealand experience in this sector. The results of this study show that there are many similarities and overlaps among the fields of librarianship, records management, archives, information management and knowledge management. The types of work undertaken, the methods of operating, and the necessary skills and attributes required for this type of work are common throughout this group. Areas in this sector where a high degree of commonality is found include qualifications and education, experience, methods of locating work, skills and attributes needed, form of business operation, use of professional standards and codes, and need for professional development and support. Areas where this sector has a collective 'voice' concern the skill and attributes necessary for success in this type of work, the best and worst aspects of being involved in this type of work, and advice the interviewers they would give to people considering entering this arena, to others already involved in the sector, and to current and prospective employers and clients. These similarities are not necessarily confined to the specific disciplines examined in this study, but are more representative of contractors and consultants of any discipline. Several recommendations resulted from the findings of this study. The most notable of these identified the need for a single directory of consultants and contractors working within these information fields. Consideration could be given to establishing an association of information management consultants in New Zealand, although there is already a wide range of associations for the disciplines involved. An alternative is to establish a special interest group within one of the existing associations. A need has also been identified to promote greater awareness of standards and codes relevant to consulting and contracting in these fields. The recommendation is made that further surveys be run, to gather fuller data on some aspects of work in this sector, or to obtain quality comparative data. The overall conclusion of this study is that those who operate as contractors and consultants in the fields examined have much in common with one another, even though several disciplines are involved in the field. Their work, experiences and methods of operating are closely aligned. There is a tendency for contractors and consultants to cross the traditional boundaries of their original speciality into other areas and to take on an increasing range of work. In this rapidly changing industry, much can be gained by looking further afield and combining the successful elements of discipline-specific knowledge with that of wider consulting and contracting experience.

    View record details
  • A new approach to course revision: Applying critical questions and a philosophical framework to a revision of 71254 Electronic Commerce.

    Natanasabapathy, P. (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This study investigates how 71254 Electronic Commerce fits in with Susan Toohey's (1999) framework of philosophical approaches and the fundamental aspects of course design. It analyses the influence of various factors on the design and delivery of the course and discusses the groundwork carried out as part of the revision for this course at The Open Polytechnic Of New Zealand. The study has enabled the author to take a holistic and systematic approach to course revision through gaining a deeper understanding of the course from a course design perspective. The knowledge gained has enabled the author to make rational strategic decisions about course enhancements, as opposed to doing ad-hoc updates that may not have enhanced student learning. Furthermore, this approach was useful for an understanding of the course's position within the institution's programmes and industry requirements, and it helped to justify the reasons for the course revision changes. While this study focuses on electronic commerce, this approach can be applied to the revision of any course and aspects of this approach could improve the course revision process.

    View record details
  • Multilevel affective counter-conditioning of prejudice and stereotyping.

    Yabar, Y.; Philippot, P. (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This experiment investigates the impact of affective counter-conditioning on both explicit and implicit measures of prejudice and stereotyping. Participants had to perform previous to and following a counter-conditioning session, different tasks explicitly and implicitly assessing prejudice and stereotyping. They were assigned to one of four counter-conditioning conditions: a propositional irrelevant counter-conditioning in which the out-group was associated with the definition of a positive word irrelevant to the intergroup context; a propositional relevant counter-conditioning in which the outgroup was associated with the definition of a positive affect relevant to the intergroup context; a schematic counter-conditioning in which the out-group was associated with the induction of a positive affect; and a control condition in which the out-group was associated with neutral words. Results show that the propositional relevant counter-conditioning decreased prejudice and stereotyping, whereas the schematic counter-conditioning increased ethnocentric biases. Results also indicate that the control and propositional irrelevant conditioning manipulations had limited effect on ethnocentric biases. This pattern of results is discussed in terms of differences in the processing of emotional information.

    View record details
  • Integrative metalearning approach could facilitate improved rehabilitation outcomes for people with severe spinal cord injury.

    Isakovic-Cocker, M. (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    In this research, the residual walking potential for people with severe spinal injury was studied. The primary questions addressed by the research were as follows: (a) What aspects of personal and interpersonal functioning would be greatly affected by severe spinal cord injury (SCI)? (b) What factors may be strongly associated with negative change in the exercise behaviour of SCI people? (c) Is pre-injury normal walking knowledge still available after SCI? (d) If it is, how can it be accessed? The goal of the research was to clarify whether the rehabilitation approach involving normal gait exercise would lead to better outcomes and bring more benefit to SCI people in terms of their physical, emotional, social and vocational well-being. Three independent studies were conducted. In Study 1, a survey questionnaire was used to identify and investigate the beliefs that 219 wheelchair-dependent SCI people had about their post-traumatic physical, psychological and socialvocational life, and to identify the factors that they perceived as being critical influences on their exercise behavior. In Study 2, gait analysis was performed. This compared two walking patterns performed by 20 healthy participants: walking with no aids, or normal gait (NG); and walking with braces, or brace gait (BG). Furthermore, this study investigated the nature of the experience that the participants reported while walking with braces. In Study 3, a comparison was conducted between two walking patterns of a single male participant who experienced an incomplete cervical SCI and was unable to regain his pre-morbid (normal) gait over the five-year post-traumatic period. The participant?s gait pattern was measured and analysed prior to and after introducing guided NG exercise intervention. Study 1 data supported the hypothesis that SCI people do wish to walk again and practice walking exercises, but the nature of this desire changes over time and is influenced by the severity of other impairments (especially bowel and bladder control), the passive nature of the rehabilitation provided and changes in their marital and employment status. In Study 2, the difference between NG and BG was found to be significant. This supported the view that they are two distinctive walking skills. The participant?s perception of low safety and high exertion was closely related to their experience of great discomfort reported during brace walking. The data highlighted several cognitive, emotional and physical factors that could be strongly involved in functional improvements of the current brace aids. Study 3 supported the view that NG walking knowledge was available and accessible after a severe spinal cord injury. Although direct voluntary access to this implicit knowledge remained unavailable, indirect access was gained by means of a client-focused memory reprocessing integrative metalearning approach. This approach involved a collaborative therapist?client relationship, six consecutive rehabilitation stages and consistent support in exercising normal locomotion. The findings of this research enhanced the understanding of changes that SCI people might experience in their personal, emotional, physical and social-vocational functioning. The importance of a holistic rehabilitation approach that strongly integrates normal gait exercises with comprehensive psychosocial rehabilitation was emphasised. The need for early holistic intervention, involving NG exercises and functional electrostimulation, as well as social and vocational rehabilitation, was also emphasised. Overall, the research called for a holistic approach and further integrative study, aiming for better understanding of the critical factors associated with improved rehabilitation, in order to maximise the residual potentials of SCI people.

    View record details
  • Friends or foes: Stereotyping and affective reactions to in-group versus out-group members.

    Yabar, Y.; Philippot, P. (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    In three experiments, the relation between affective reactions to a social group and stereotyping in facial expression decoding (i.e., attribution of stereotypic emotions) was examined. Experiment 1 addressed the relation between stereotyping and overt negative reactions to out-group members (i.e., prejudice). Experiment 2 focused on the relation between stereotyping and overt versus covert negative reactions to out-group members. Experiment 3 explored the relation between stereotyping and overt positive reactions to ingroup members (i.e., liking). As predicted, Experiment 1 showed that people with a low level of prejudice applied negative stereotypes less frequently and less readily when decoding out-group facial expressions than did people with a high level of prejudice. Experiment 2 showed that people with a low level of prejudice applied negative stereotypes when decoding in-group facial expressions, whereas people with a high level of prejudice displayed no difference in stereotypic attribution of emotion to in-group and outgroup expressers. Finally, Experiment 3 indicated that participants, reporting significant in-group liking scores, applied negative stereotypes when decoding out-group facial expressions. Participants reporting low in-group liking scores applied negative stereotypes more frequently to in-group members than to out-group members. Differences in the relation between the attribution of emotions and the affective reactions observed in Experiment 1 as compared to Experiments 2 and 3 are explained in terms of variations in the sample composition.

    View record details
  • Knowledge management: A New Zealand survey into current practices.

    McCullough, G.; Oliver, G.; Symonds, J.; Brown, M. (2004)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This paper outlines findings of a survey of knowledge management practices in New Zealand. Both the government and private sectors were surveyed using a survey instrument originally developed by the School of Management, University of Cranfield, United Kingdom, and enhanced by the School of Information Management and Systems at Monash University, Melbourne. A total of 410 surveys were distributed. Findings show a knowledge management landscape that displays both a consensus on what constitutes knowledge management and contradictory statements on its various aspects. It appears from this exploratory survey that knowledge management is still maturing in New Zealand.

    View record details
  • Instructional design: Theory and practice.

    Kobeleva, P.; Strongman, L. (2012)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    Describes, using a pedagogical focus, the principles of instructional design in distance learning teaching. The paper comprises five sections. The first section provides definitions and describes concepts of instructional design. In the second section the authors investigate the nature of instructional design. The third section concerns the integration of teaching pedagogy with instructional design. The fourth section describes elements of project management and instructional design. A mini case study that discusses the embedding of literacy and numeracy in an Open Polytechnic Level 2 Horticulture course is included. The fifth section discusses e-learning pedagogy and instructional design.

    View record details
  • An analysis of nonverbal communication in an online chat group.

    Gajadhar, J.; Green, J. S. (2003)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    In face-to-face communication, meaning is carried by blending two components: the verbal (with words) and the nonverbal (without words). Nonverbal communication adds nuance or richness of meaning that cannot be communicated by verbal elements alone. Unfortunately, nonverbal elements are generally absent in online discourse. This paper argues that, given time and experience, some of the same richness of face-to-face communication can occur in a virtual text-based medium. This paper describes the results of research on the various methods students in an online chat group employ to overcome the absence of nonverbal elements. The paper reviews academic literature on online interactions, examines the various techniques students new to an online environment use, and discusses the implications of the findings for online educators for group building and student support. Transcripts of the postings of students in an online chat group at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand were recorded, collected, collated and analysed to determine the extent and intent of nonverbal communication used by students in their weekly chats. Our research into students' use of nonverbal communication in online chat points to the need for e-educators to develop effective teaching strategies to encourage student participation in online discussions.

    View record details
  • Quantum physics and human consciousness: The status of the current debate.

    Jackson, P. (2002)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This paper reviews the literature on the debate about the relationship between the quantum realm and human consciousness. It starts with a brief look at quantum physics, then moves on to look at the key quantum interpretations, covering the Copenhagen Interpretation, Von Neumann's views, the neorealists, and the 'many worlds' and 'many minds' views. Key authors in the literature on the quantum-consciousness debate are then reviewed within a framework of three levels of explanation: neurological, psychological and philosophical. The various analyses are brought together by consideration of the key issues that arose during the review, where these were seen as the quantum-neuron interaction, neurons and consciousness, consciousness and the wave equation, Copenhagen versus the rest, 'many worlds' versus 'many minds', the Cartesian dichotomy, and Chalmers' hard problem. Finally, the paper finds the 'many minds' view the most viable of the views examined.

    View record details
  • Psychology practicals: Delivering by use of and interactive CD-ROM.

    Jackson, P. (2000)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    A project is described in which a CD-Rom package was developed for use in delivering psychology practicals to students studying psychology at a distance at the introductory level (stage one) of a degree programme with The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand. Development occurred in two phases: investigation of the concept, and design/development of the package. Design factors such as disk capacity, text versus visual components, interactivity, and navigation problems are discussed. Seven experiments were chosen, covering a variety of domains in the field of experimental psychology and based on the key experiments in these domains. Included in this paper are synopses of the literature reviewed as a part of the investigation phase.

    View record details
  • The anthropomorphic bias: How human thinking is prone to be self-referential.

    Strongman, L. (2007)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This working paper attempts a synthesis of contemporary research into anthropomorphic bias. It provides an explanatory distinction between the concept of anthropocentrism and the more specific applications of anthropomorphism, as well as a critique of existing anthropocentric concepts and theories. The paper enters into analysis of some of the philosophical assumptions behind the related concepts of anthropocentrism and anthropomorphism. It provides a critical survey of the current literature and makes the argument that anthropomorphic bias can be understood as an innate existential tendency of human embodied thought, thereby presenting a potential problem to the fields of the philosophy of science and embodied cognition, and to social scientific experimental design and interpretation. The paper is divided into eight sections dealing with selected areas of discussion of anthropomorphic bias, involving summary explanations of experimental situations and everyday life behaviours: (1) Anthropocentrism and anthropomorphism: Definitions, ontologies, problematics and reflections; (2) Anthropocentrism and ecology; (3) Deep anthropocentrism and counterenvironmentalism; (4) Anthropomorphism and human and animal differences; (5) Anthropomorphism and quantum physics; (6) Anthropomorphism and robotics; (7) The problem of anthropomorphism; and (8) Attitudinal solutions to anthropocentric bias involving new attitudes in scientific and everyday life behaviours. These areas of focus are chosen as they comprise the clearest categories of research for the concept of anthropocentrism at the current time.

    View record details
  • Voices from the other side: User reports of New Zealand library reference encounters.

    Bidwell, P. (2007)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This research examines user satisfaction with the quality of reference service in New Zealand libraries, and reminds library staff of how it feels on the 'public' side of the library desk. It analyses the experiences of Open Polytechnic of New Zealand students asking reference questions in libraries, including whether users were given skills to research their own questions. A strongly positive or negative experience can be a powerful learning tool for library staff. Understanding what users feel went wrong provides important insights, making staff more empathetic when responding to information requests. The paper combines student comments with behavioural guidelines from the Reference and User Services Association (RUSA) and key examples from international research. The research identified issues that inhibited appropriate responses, as well as useful strategies that were appreciated by users. Significant recommendations include Library and Information Association of New Zealand Aotearoa (LIANZA) endorsement of RUSA guidelines, and the formation of a reference services special interest group. All libraries, particularly major reference libraries, should actively encourage staff awareness, library qualifications and training. Collaboration and information sharing should be encouraged, and could be assisted by a New Zealand-based reference discussion forum or web log. The active promotion of key staff as 'reference exemplars' who model good behaviours is a key recommendation. Libraries need to recognise the value of a checklist of essential elements for all reference encounters, and reference policies should include minimum standards for reference service that emphasise information literacy and user education.

    View record details
  • Turing's test, Searle's Chinese room argument, and thinking machines.

    Jackson, P. (2005)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This paper deals with the debate on artificial intelligence (AI) thinking machines. In particular, it asks the question, 'Do AI machines think as we humans do?' The main thrust of this paper is philosophical and does not directly deal with technological platforms for AI. After a brief history of AI, there follows a discussion on the work of Alan Turing, in particular that on his logical computing machine (LCM), his thesis (also Church's), his paper in Mind, covering the 'Imitation Game', and the Turing test, which arose out of it. Turing is seen as the founder of the strong AI hypothesis (machines can think). The work of John Searle is then covered as it relates to this debate. Under particular discussion are Searle's Chinese Room experiment (CRE) and the Chinese Room argument (CRA) that arose from it, in which he attempts to refute the strong AI viewpoint and provide support for his alternative weak AI hypothesis (machines cannot think). The consideration of Searle's work leads to a discussion of issues critical to Searle's view, that of syntax versus semantics, and of intentionality. After a comment on artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a potential technological platform for thinking machines, there follows a discussion on the relationship between AI, thinking and consciousness, in an attempt to clarify what is meant by these terms in relation to the debate addressed here. Finally, a summary is made and tentative conclusions are reached, in which the following views are offered: - The strong AI position is invalid, at least for von Neumann-type machines. However, the weak AI position is valid in so far as such machines can, and currently do, emulate human thinking. - While ANNs provide a potential technological platform for thinking machines, the technology is too nascent as yet. - If truly thinking machines ever do become a reality, their existence will raise a number of challenges, such as our ethical responsibility toward them (as sentient entities) and the threat to us as a species that they might represent.

    View record details
  • Real time operating systems in a high-level language C/C++: Pitfalls and possibilities.

    McCall, Tony (2002)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    The process of designing a Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) can be fraught with difficulty. This research sets out to test the validity of using a high level language such as the Borland C/C++ programming language to write the RTOS Kernel and the tasks that will run with that operating system. This inductive study examines some of the major RTOS components and seeks to demonstrate how they can be coded into the C/C++ language. During that process, the problems encountered, and possible solutions, are documented. This enquiry was based on the 80x86 range of processors due to their popularity in large-scale embedded control applications.

    View record details
  • Managing professional intellect: A review of the approach developed by Quinn, Anderson and Finkelstein, 1996.

    Davies, K. (2001)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This paper reviews the article 'Managing professional intellect: Making the most of the best', by J. Quinn, P. Anderson, and S. Finkelstein, published in Harvard Business Review, March-April 1996, 71-80. The objective of the managerial approach presented by Quinn, Anderson, and Finkelstein is to leverage an organisation's professional intellect. The authors argue that this approach can give an organisation international competitive advantage. Foundational literature and theory leading to the Quinn et al. (1996) paper is traced. While the Quinn et al. approach is supported, implications for New Zealand management are discussed -- including the need to depart from the traditional management approach commonly practised in New Zealand. Research needs based on the Quinn et al. approach are also highlighted.

    View record details
  • A study on salinity instrusion: Case of the Waiwhetu aquifer, Wellington, New Zealand.

    De Costa, G. S.; Jones, A. (2002)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    View record details
  • The professional development needs of New Zealand's records managers.

    Cossham, A. F. (2004)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This research investigates the professional development (continuing education and initial qualifications) needs of records managers and workers in New Zealand. It reviews what is available in both of these areas, what level of qualification is held by records managers, what kinds of professional development they think they need, what barriers they face, and what qualifications are available in New Zealand and Australia. A questionnaire was used to survey records managers, and interviews were conducted with senior professionals in the industry. Qualifications and continuing education were reviewed. The conclusion was that current offerings are satisfying demand, but only just. More importantly, demand needs to increase for records managers to keep pace with changes in all areas of their profession and maintain their importance as one of the information professions.

    View record details
  • An analysis of Diploma of Health and Human Behaviour completions 2002

    Bathurst, J. (2004)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    Demographic data from students enrolled in the Diploma of Health and Human Behaviour during 2002 were analysed to determine what factors contribute to completion rates and what interventions may be needed to improve those rates. Students at risk are male, Maori and Pacific Islanders, and especially those with minimal or no secondary school qualifications. Recommendations for improving completion rates include setting a minimum academic standard for entry, limiting enrolments to one course per semester and reducing the volume of learning material by introducing better textbooks.

    View record details