70 results for Working or discussion paper, 2002

  • Ask them! Children's fiction book choices and the implications for libraries

    Irvine, J. (2002)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

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  • Quantum physics and human consciousness: The status of the current debate.

    Jackson, P. (2002)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This paper reviews the literature on the debate about the relationship between the quantum realm and human consciousness. It starts with a brief look at quantum physics, then moves on to look at the key quantum interpretations, covering the Copenhagen Interpretation, Von Neumann's views, the neorealists, and the 'many worlds' and 'many minds' views. Key authors in the literature on the quantum-consciousness debate are then reviewed within a framework of three levels of explanation: neurological, psychological and philosophical. The various analyses are brought together by consideration of the key issues that arose during the review, where these were seen as the quantum-neuron interaction, neurons and consciousness, consciousness and the wave equation, Copenhagen versus the rest, 'many worlds' versus 'many minds', the Cartesian dichotomy, and Chalmers' hard problem. Finally, the paper finds the 'many minds' view the most viable of the views examined.

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  • Real time operating systems in a high-level language C/C++: Pitfalls and possibilities.

    McCall, Tony (2002)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    The process of designing a Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) can be fraught with difficulty. This research sets out to test the validity of using a high level language such as the Borland C/C++ programming language to write the RTOS Kernel and the tasks that will run with that operating system. This inductive study examines some of the major RTOS components and seeks to demonstrate how they can be coded into the C/C++ language. During that process, the problems encountered, and possible solutions, are documented. This enquiry was based on the 80x86 range of processors due to their popularity in large-scale embedded control applications.

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  • A study on salinity instrusion: Case of the Waiwhetu aquifer, Wellington, New Zealand.

    De Costa, G. S.; Jones, A. (2002)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

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  • Does New Zealand have an innovation system for biotechnology?

    Marsh, Dan (2002-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    While there is a large and growing international literature on economic aspects of biotechnology innovation (e.g. work by Carlsson, McKelvey, Orsenigo, Zucker and Darby) these studies concentrate on the United States and Europe. The New Zealand biotechnology industry may be expected to develop along a different trajectory as a consequence of a markedly different set of initial and framework conditions. This paper presents the results of an ongoing study that aims to fill some of the gaps in our knowledge of innovation processes in New Zealand while using the international literature as a benchmark. The size and structure of modern biotech activity in New Zealand is described and compared to other OECD countries using biotech patent data and results from the New Zealand and Canadian biotechnology surveys. The paper then focuses on factors affecting innovation in biotechnology; framework conditions, government policy R&D funding and the role of networks and other linkages.

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  • Racing committees for large datasets.

    Frank, Eibe; Holmes, Geoffrey; Kirkby, Richard Brendon; Hall, Mark A. (2002-06-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper proposes a method for generating classifiers from large datasets by building a committee of simple base classifiers using a standard boosting algorithm. It allows the processing of large datasets even if the underlying base learning algorithm cannot efficiently do so. The basic idea is to split incoming data into chunks and build a committee based on classifiers build from these individual chunks [3]. Our method extends earlier work in two ways: (a) the best chunk size is chosen automatically by racing committees corresponding to different chunk sizes, and (b) the committees are pruned adaptively to keep the size of each individual committee as small as possible without negatively affecting accuracy. This paper shows that choosing an appropriate chunk size automatically is important because the accuracy of the resulting committee can vary significantly with the chunk size. It also shows that pruning is crucial to make the method practical for large datasets in terms of running time and memory requirements. Surprisingly, the results demonstrate that pruning can also improve accuracy.

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  • Population density and spatially constrained selection in evolutionary computation

    Dick, Grant; Whigham, Peter A (2002-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Unpublished

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  • Policy leadership styles and the process of paradigmatic policy change: three propositions

    Wallis, Joe; Dollery, Brian (2002-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper formulates a theory of policy leadership based on propositions that relate to the conditions under which rival leadership coalitions engage in a contest for authority over the system-wide direction of the policy process and differentiate themselves according to distinctive styles in respect of which the demand shifts due to the endogenous accumulation of disappointment over distinct phases of a process of paradigmatic policy change. It both draws from concepts familiar to policy theorists and the work of economic revisionists who have sought to make the expressive dimension of phenomena such as leadership more amenable to deductive analysis.

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  • Perceptions of political marketing in Sweden: a comparative perspective

    Harris, Phil; Lock, Andrew; Nievelt, Terese (2002)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The political marketing academic literature is largely an Anglo-Saxon one, with the main European contributions coming from Ireland and the UK. Comparatively little has been written explicitly about political marketing in Sweden. We offer a brief overview of the key characteristics of the Swedish political system, together with a commentary on the apparent use of political marketing in Sweden drawing upon concepts developed in the American and British literature. We present the results of a study of perceptions of political marketing in local elections in Norrkoping, a middle-sized Swedish town of 90,000. Firstly a series of structured interviews were carried out with the party leaders of the 5 largest parties and with the journalists who report local politics in the town. These included questions aimed at establishing their level of understanding of political marketing. Secondly, two focus groups were carried out with voters in the town, which included an exploration of their experience and perceptions of electoral campaigns.

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  • Erkin Bairam: 1958-2001 His contribution to economics

    Knowles, Stephen; McCombie, John S L (2002-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    With Erkin Bairam’s untimely death on 21 May 2001 at the age of 43, New Zealand lost one its most distinguished and prolific applied economists. Born in Nicosia, Cyprus, most of Bairam’s working life was spent in the Department of Economics at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand. At the age of 33, he became one of the youngest full professors to be appointed in New Zealand, and, by the time of his death, had published over 60 articles and 4 books. Bairam had two main research interests: namely, the theoretical specification and estimation of aggregate production functions and the testing of Thirlwall’s law of economic growth. But his interests went wider than this. He was a gifted applied econometrician and made contributions to econometric theory and also published in the areas of inflation and labour economics. Although he would have been the first to admit that he was not a natural sportsman, he developed an interest in the economics of sport, especially cricket and published some innovative papers in this area. He also undertook some notable work in calculating the research rankings of economics departments (always a contentious issue), with an article being published in the prestigious Journal of Economic Literature (Bairam, 1994a). Bairam’s undergraduate training took place at the University of Essex, where he gained a BA (Hons) in Economics in 1980. He left Essex for Hull, where he was awarded an MA in Econometrics in 1982. He then began work on his PhD thesis entitled Returns to Scale, Technical Progress and Industrial Growth in the USSR and Eastern Europe: An Empirical Study, 1961-75, with John McCombie as his supervisor. He was awarded his doctorate in 1986 and the following year was appointed as a lecturer at the University of Otago. By 1991, after only four years, he had risen to the rank of full professor. This tribute will discuss some of Bairam’s key research contributions, as well as his contribution to the Department at Otago.

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  • Interaction protocols for a network of environmental problem solvers

    Purvis, Martin; Hwang, Peter; Cranefield, Stephen; Schievink, Martin; Purvis, Maryam A. (2002-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Environmental management and emergency response often involves the joint cooperation of a network of distributed problem solvers, each of which may be specialised for a specific task or problem domain. Some of these problem solvers could be human, others could be `intelligent' environmental monitoring and control systems. Environmental software systems are needed not only for the provision of basic environmental information but also to support the coordination of these problem solvers. An agent architecture can support the requirement associated with disparate problem solvers. The various stakeholders in the process are represented by software agents which can collaborate with each other toward achieving a particular goal. The communication between agents can be accomplished by using interaction protocols which are represented by coloured Petri nets (CPN). This paper describes an approach for providing this support by employing a software agent framework for the modelling and execution of environmental process tasks in a networked environment.

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  • Hand-held computers in health care: What software programs are available?

    Gillingham, Wayne; Holt, Alec; Gillies, John (2002-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The technology sector of healthcare is entering a new evolutionary phase. The medical community has an obligation to the public to provide the safest, most effective healthcare possible. This is more achievable with the use of computer technology at the point of care, and small, portable devices could fulfil this role. A Modern Physician/PricewaterhouseCoopers 2001 survey on information technology in Physician practices found that 60% of respondents say that physicians in their organisation use PDAs, compare this with 26% in the 2000 technology survey. This trend is expected to continue to the point where these devices will have their position on a physician's desk next to their stethoscope. Once this electronic evolution occurs, the practice of medicine will change. Doctors will be able to practice medicine with greater ease and safety. In our opinion, the new generation of PDA mobile devices will be the tools to enable a transformation of healthcare to a paperless, wireless world. This article focuses on uses for PDAs in health care. Healthcare software is categorised into the following groups; reference/text book, calculators, patient management/logbook and personal clinical/study notebook. With a focus on the healthcare audience (the user), which can be registrar, consultant, nurse, student, teacher, patient, medical director and surgical.

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  • St John's Ambulance Service, Southern Region: Control centre dispatch profile (1997–2001)

    Hayes, Jared (2002-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The St John's Ambulance Service, Southern Region Control Centre (the control centre) is located in Dunedin City and controls 56 ambulances based in 26 regional stations. The Southern Region covers an area of approximately 54,000 square kilometres, which has a usually resident population of 272,541 (Census, 2001). This report focuses on the dispatch and workload profile of the control centre between the 1st January 1997 and the 31st December 2001. During this period the control centre dispatched ambulances on approximately 135,822 occasions to a total of 118,759 incidents (this includes both emergency incidents and patient transfers). Based on an analysis of these incidents several key findings are discussed in this report. These include: • A 21.8% increase in the total number of incidents handled in the control centre between 1997 and 2001 • A 44 second increase in average activation times between 1997 and 2001 • A strong correlation between increased workload and increased activation times • A large increase in activation times during low and medium workload periods

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  • Multi-agent system interaction protocols in a dynamically changing environment

    Purvis, Martin; Cranefield, Stephen; Nowostawski, Mariusz; Purvis, Maryam A. (2002-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    An area where multi-agent systems can be put to effective use is for the case of an open collection of autonomous problem solvers in a dynamically changing environment. One example of such a situation is that of environmental management and emergency response, which can require the joint cooperation of a distributed set of components, each one of which may be specialised for a specific task or problem domain. The various stakeholders in the process can all be represented and interfaced by software agents which collaborate with each other toward achieving a particular goal. For such situations new agents that arrive on the scene must be apprised of the group interaction protocols so that they can cooperate effectively with the existing agents. In this paper we show how this can be done by using coloured Petri net representations for each role in an interaction protocol and passing these nets dynamically to new agents that wish to participate in a group interaction. We argue that multi-agent systems are particularly suited for such dynamically changing environments, but their effectiveness depends on the their ability to use adaptive interaction protocols.

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  • Leadership and economic theories of non-profit organizations

    Wallis, Joe; Dollery, Brian (2002-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Economic theories of Nonprofit Organizations (NPOs) have modified standard economic assumptions to explain altruism and nonprofit entrepreneurship but have neglected their dependence on leadership due to the traditional reluctance of economists to consider phenomena associated with preference change. The relevance of Hermalin’s (1998) model of leadership by example and Casson’s (1991) theory of leadership through moral manipulation are considered within an NPO context where leaders seek to influence stakeholder commitments to the organization’s quest. The propositions Elster (1998) advanced with regard to the relationship between the emotions and decision making are then applied in a theory that explains how NPO leaders can develop a culture of hope that maintains the quality control and product differentiation advantages claimed for these organizations. It is argued that policymakers should consider the dependence of NPOs on the quality of leadership when choosing the organisational mechanism for social service delivery.

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  • Opal: A multi-level infrastructure for agent-oriented software development

    Purvis, Martin; Cranefield, Stephen; Nowostawski, Mariusz; Carter, Daniel (2002-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The Opal architecture for software development is described that supports the use of agent-oriented concepts at multiple levels of abstraction. At the lowest level are micro-agents, streamlined agents that can be used for conventional, system-level programming tasks. More sophisticated agents may be constructed by assembling combinations of micro-agents. The architecture consequently supports the systematic use of agent-based notions throughout the software development process. The paper describes (a) the implementation of micro-agents in Java, (b) how they have been used to fashion the Opal framework for the construction of more complex agents based on the Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA) specifications, and (c) the Opal Conversation Manager that facilitates the capability of agents to conduct complex conversations with other agents.

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  • Spatio-temporal and object visualization in rugby union

    Moore, Antoni; Whigham, Peter A; Aldridge, Colin H; Holt, Alec; Hodge, Ken (2002-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The use of computer software as an aid to rugby, and sports coaching in general, is becoming increasingly utilized. Videoed sport is the most widely used form of raw data for sports analysis, though it is currently not being used to its full potential. Patterns of player movement and position, both for individuals and groupings of players, are important for understanding the complexities of professional team sports, and yet are not being adequately addressed. This paper outlines a project that aims to support coaching and/or commentary by visualizing and measuring the similarity of video-derived spatiotemporal information, and enabling timely access to relevant video clips. Specifically, methods by which a user of spatially-enabled sports software can visualize spatio-temporal and rugby object information will be discussed. Two issues are examined: (1) powerful spatio-temporal representation techniques for rugby constructs (such as the pitch, players and amalgamations of players: team, scrum, lineout, backline) and (2) user interface design and how it enables rugby object representation alongside the spatio-temporal visualization facility.

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  • National environmental performance: a cross-sectional analysis

    Grafton, R Quentin; Knowles, Stephen (2002-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Using cross-country data from a sample of low, middle and high-income countries, the paper explores the empirical relationships between national measures of social capital (civic and public), social divergence and social capacity upon various indicators of national environmental performance. The results suggest that the mere existence of social capital, as measured by trust, civic engagement and associational activity, is not a sufficient condition for improved national environmental outcomes. The findings indicate, one, how social capital is applied and whether it is directed to environmental stewardship is important in determining its national impact, two, the significance of public social capital and effective national environmental policies in decoupling the link between environmental degradation and economic activity and, three, the possible link between effective environmental policies and public social capital and higher levels of per capita income.

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  • Economic theories of the voluntary sector: a survey of government failure and market failure approaches

    Dollery, Brian; Wallis, Joe (2002-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper attempts to survey the economic literature on demand-based theories of the voluntary sector, which derive from theory of government failure and the market failure paradigm. We discuss scholarly attempts to define the voluntary sector and establish various criteria which characterise voluntary organisations as well as the ways in which different economists have sought to classify the theories of the voluntary sector. Moreover, we examine theories which invoke government failure to explain the genesis of the voluntary sector and review theories premised on market failure, including asymmetric information models, customer control models, principal-agent problems and private philanthropy, and disadvantaged consumers. The paper ends with some tentative extensions and criticisms of the literature on demand-based theories of the voluntary sector.

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  • General-to-specific modelling using PcGets

    Owen, P. Dorian (2002-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This review examines the facilities provided by PcGets version 1.0, an OxMetrics module designed to implement automated general-to-specific model selection in the context of cross-section or dynamic time-series models that are linear in the parameters. A cross-section empirical example is used to illustrate the steps involved, the output produced and the options available for modellers.

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