77 results for Working or discussion paper, 2006

  • Multilevel affective counter-conditioning of prejudice and stereotyping.

    Yabar, Y.; Philippot, P. (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    This experiment investigates the impact of affective counter-conditioning on both explicit and implicit measures of prejudice and stereotyping. Participants had to perform previous to and following a counter-conditioning session, different tasks explicitly and implicitly assessing prejudice and stereotyping. They were assigned to one of four counter-conditioning conditions: a propositional irrelevant counter-conditioning in which the out-group was associated with the definition of a positive word irrelevant to the intergroup context; a propositional relevant counter-conditioning in which the outgroup was associated with the definition of a positive affect relevant to the intergroup context; a schematic counter-conditioning in which the out-group was associated with the induction of a positive affect; and a control condition in which the out-group was associated with neutral words. Results show that the propositional relevant counter-conditioning decreased prejudice and stereotyping, whereas the schematic counter-conditioning increased ethnocentric biases. Results also indicate that the control and propositional irrelevant conditioning manipulations had limited effect on ethnocentric biases. This pattern of results is discussed in terms of differences in the processing of emotional information.

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  • Integrative metalearning approach could facilitate improved rehabilitation outcomes for people with severe spinal cord injury.

    Isakovic-Cocker, M. (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    In this research, the residual walking potential for people with severe spinal injury was studied. The primary questions addressed by the research were as follows: (a) What aspects of personal and interpersonal functioning would be greatly affected by severe spinal cord injury (SCI)? (b) What factors may be strongly associated with negative change in the exercise behaviour of SCI people? (c) Is pre-injury normal walking knowledge still available after SCI? (d) If it is, how can it be accessed? The goal of the research was to clarify whether the rehabilitation approach involving normal gait exercise would lead to better outcomes and bring more benefit to SCI people in terms of their physical, emotional, social and vocational well-being. Three independent studies were conducted. In Study 1, a survey questionnaire was used to identify and investigate the beliefs that 219 wheelchair-dependent SCI people had about their post-traumatic physical, psychological and socialvocational life, and to identify the factors that they perceived as being critical influences on their exercise behavior. In Study 2, gait analysis was performed. This compared two walking patterns performed by 20 healthy participants: walking with no aids, or normal gait (NG); and walking with braces, or brace gait (BG). Furthermore, this study investigated the nature of the experience that the participants reported while walking with braces. In Study 3, a comparison was conducted between two walking patterns of a single male participant who experienced an incomplete cervical SCI and was unable to regain his pre-morbid (normal) gait over the five-year post-traumatic period. The participant?s gait pattern was measured and analysed prior to and after introducing guided NG exercise intervention. Study 1 data supported the hypothesis that SCI people do wish to walk again and practice walking exercises, but the nature of this desire changes over time and is influenced by the severity of other impairments (especially bowel and bladder control), the passive nature of the rehabilitation provided and changes in their marital and employment status. In Study 2, the difference between NG and BG was found to be significant. This supported the view that they are two distinctive walking skills. The participant?s perception of low safety and high exertion was closely related to their experience of great discomfort reported during brace walking. The data highlighted several cognitive, emotional and physical factors that could be strongly involved in functional improvements of the current brace aids. Study 3 supported the view that NG walking knowledge was available and accessible after a severe spinal cord injury. Although direct voluntary access to this implicit knowledge remained unavailable, indirect access was gained by means of a client-focused memory reprocessing integrative metalearning approach. This approach involved a collaborative therapist?client relationship, six consecutive rehabilitation stages and consistent support in exercising normal locomotion. The findings of this research enhanced the understanding of changes that SCI people might experience in their personal, emotional, physical and social-vocational functioning. The importance of a holistic rehabilitation approach that strongly integrates normal gait exercises with comprehensive psychosocial rehabilitation was emphasised. The need for early holistic intervention, involving NG exercises and functional electrostimulation, as well as social and vocational rehabilitation, was also emphasised. Overall, the research called for a holistic approach and further integrative study, aiming for better understanding of the critical factors associated with improved rehabilitation, in order to maximise the residual potentials of SCI people.

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  • Friends or foes: Stereotyping and affective reactions to in-group versus out-group members.

    Yabar, Y.; Philippot, P. (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    Open Polytechnic

    In three experiments, the relation between affective reactions to a social group and stereotyping in facial expression decoding (i.e., attribution of stereotypic emotions) was examined. Experiment 1 addressed the relation between stereotyping and overt negative reactions to out-group members (i.e., prejudice). Experiment 2 focused on the relation between stereotyping and overt versus covert negative reactions to out-group members. Experiment 3 explored the relation between stereotyping and overt positive reactions to ingroup members (i.e., liking). As predicted, Experiment 1 showed that people with a low level of prejudice applied negative stereotypes less frequently and less readily when decoding out-group facial expressions than did people with a high level of prejudice. Experiment 2 showed that people with a low level of prejudice applied negative stereotypes when decoding in-group facial expressions, whereas people with a high level of prejudice displayed no difference in stereotypic attribution of emotion to in-group and outgroup expressers. Finally, Experiment 3 indicated that participants, reporting significant in-group liking scores, applied negative stereotypes when decoding out-group facial expressions. Participants reporting low in-group liking scores applied negative stereotypes more frequently to in-group members than to out-group members. Differences in the relation between the attribution of emotions and the affective reactions observed in Experiment 1 as compared to Experiments 2 and 3 are explained in terms of variations in the sample composition.

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  • Effect of gender, family structure and firm affiliation, on career promotion in auditing

    Whiting, Rosalind H; Van Vugt, Olivia (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Not to be quoted without the permission of the corresponding author

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  • More (or less) on necessarily welfare-enhancing free trade Areas

    Richardson, Martin; Winchester, Niven (2006-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This note considers the extension of the Kemp-Wan theorem on necessarily welfareimproving customs unions to free trade areas. It suggests that the value of this extension is undermined by its very rationale – the greater popularity of free trade areas over customs unions for ‘political’ reasons.

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  • Super Salmon: The Industrialisation of Fish Farming and the Drive Towards GM Technologies in Salmon Production

    Campbell, Hugh; McLeod, Carmen; Grice, Janet; Herleth, Teresa (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This discussion paper argues that there are many complex issues that need to be considered in relation to the intensive farming of salmon in general, and GM salmon, in particular. This paper highlights that animal biotechnology has thus far been dominated by experiments to produce pharmaceutical products, and therefore the production of GM salmon for food presents a radical departure from other animal biotechnologies.

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  • What causes changes in opinion about the Israeli-Palestinian peace process?

    Fielding, David; Penny, Madeline (2006-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In this paper we present a statistical analysis of the factors that drive monthly variations in the aggregate level of support among Israeli Jews for the Oslo Peace Process. Attitudes depend on both the state of the Israeli economy and the intensity of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict since the onset of the Intifada. Moreover, different dimensions of the conflict have very different effects on Jewish public opinion. In particular, there is substantial heterogeneity in the response of attitudes to conflict events on either side of the Green Line.

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  • Newspapers and advertising: The effects of ad-valorem taxation under duopoly.

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Schjelderup, Guttorm; Stähler, Frank (2006-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Newspapers are two-sided platforms that sell their product both to readers and advertisers. Media firms in general, and newspapers in particular, are considered important providers of information, culture and language in most countries. Newspapers are therefore given preferential tax treatment. We show that lower ad valorem taxes lead newspapers to become more differentiated. Thereby the competitive pressure falls, possibly resulting in higher newspaper prices and reduced quality investments.

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  • Positive and negative selection in a multilayer artificial immune system

    Middlemiss, Melanie (2006-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The immune system is a complex and distributed system. It provides a multilayered form of defence, capable of identifying and responding to harmful pathogens that it does not recognise as “self”. The framework proposed in this paper incorporates a number of immunological concepts and principles, including the multilayered defence and the cooperation between cells in the adaptive immune system. An alternative model of positive selection is also presented. It is suggested that the framework discussed here could lead to reduced false positive responses in anomaly detection tasks, such as intrusion detection, as well being extended to a population of computational immune systems that are able to maintain population diversity of recognition and response.

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  • Accounting and enabling greater accountability: The suppressed role of the accounting intellect

    Liyanarachchi, Gregory A. (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Draft: Please do not quote

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  • Ubiquitous interactive art displays: are they wanted, are they intuitive?

    Burrows, Gary (2006-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The purpose of this study was to create a ubiquitous proximity activated interactive digital display system providing adjusted artworks as content for evaluating viewer reactions and opinions to determine if similar interactive ubiquitous systems are a beneficial, enjoyable and even an appropriate way to display art. Multimedia used in galleries predominately provides content following set patterns and disregards the viewer. Interactive displays using viewer location usually require the viewer’s conscious participation through carrying some form of hardware or using expensive sensing equipment. We created an inexpensive, simple system that reacts to the user in a ubiquitous manner, allowing the evaluation of the usability and suitability of such systems in the context of viewing art. Results from testing show that interactive displays are generally enjoyed and wanted for displaying art, however even simple ubiquitous displays can cause user difficulty due to the transparency of their interaction.

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  • Consumers, security and electronic health records

    Chhanabhai, Prajesh Narendra; Holt, Alec; Hunter, Inga (2006-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Health care has entered the electronic domain. This domain has improved data collection and storage abilities while allowing almost instantaneous access and results to data queries. Furthermore it allows direct communication between healthcare providers and health consumers. The development of privacy, confidentiality and security principles are necessary to protect consumers’ interests against inappropriate access. The electronic health systems vendors have dominated the transition of media, claiming it will improve the quality and coherence of the care process. However, numerous studies show that the health consumer is the important stakeholder in this process, and their views are suggesting that the electronic medium is the way forward, but not just yet. With the international push towards Electronic Health Records (EHRs) by the Health and Human Services (United States of America), National Health Service (United Kingdom), Health Canada (Canada) and more recently the Ministry of Health (New Zealand), this paper presents the consumers’ role with a focus on their perceptions on the security of EHRs. A description of a study, looking at the New Zealand health consumer, is given.

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  • A bounds test approach to the study of level relationships in a panel of high-performing Asian economies (HPAES)

    Ozanne, Arlene L G (2006-12-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study analyses long-run level relationships between total factor productivity (TFP) and a set of variables (the degree of openness of an economy, the different roles of government, and human capital) that are hypothesised as the major factors that drive TFP in the High-Performing Asian Economies (HPAEs). We apply Pesaran, Shin and Smith’s (2001) bounds test approach to the analysis of level relationships between TFP and its hypothesised determinants using panel data for five HPAEs (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea and Thailand) and find evidence of a long-run relationship between TFP and our hypothesised determinants, irrespective of whether the regressors are I(0) or I(1).

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  • Agent based web service composition in the context of a supply-chain based workflow

    Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy; Purvis, Martin; Purvis, Maryam A. (2006-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    With the advent of Web Services, more and more business organizations make their services available on the Internet through Web Services and also use other services that are available on the corporate Intranet. From the viewpoint of workflow systems, these freely available Web Services and the proprietary intranet-based services should be integrated into individual businesses for their day-to-day workflows. Businesses that use Web Services not only provide the services to their customers but can also use Web Services to customize their internal processing, such as online order placement for raw materials. In this paper we describe the architecture of our agent-based workflow system that can be used for Web Service composition. In the context of an example from the apparel manufacturing industry, we demonstrate how Web Services can be composed and used.

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  • The EVM’s universe and the Universe

    Nowostawski, Mariusz (2006-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The notion that all (or in weaker sense, some) natural phenomena can be modelled as a computable process, some kind of algorithm is recently gaining scientific recognition, and more research is dedicated to the rigorous explorations of the mapping between natural phenomena and the formalised computational systems. There is some debate and controversy as to how much of the natural can be expressed in the models of the artificial, although due to formalised nature of mathematics and physics itself, it is generally accepted that computation is viable way to model physical reality. Contemporary developments in computer science and in physics not only do no refute computationalism – they provide more data and evidence in support of the basic theses. In this article we discuss some of the aspects of contemporary computationalist efforts based on the traditional notions of Turning Machine computation. Then we present an extended notion of computation, that goes beyond the traditional Turing limit. We propose a new interactive computation model called Evolvable Virtual Machines (EVMs). The EVM model uses the notion of many independently asynchronously executing processes, that communicate between each other and with the outside environment. We present some of the pitfalls of traditional computationalism, and compare it to our new, extended computationalist model, based on the notion of massively concurrent interactive computation (hypercomputation). We argue, that hypercomputationalism based on the collection of asynchronously concurrently communicating computational machines is a more compact and more appropriate way of representing natural phenomena (or the Universe in general). It is theoretically sound, and does not violate any of the current state-of-the-art physical theories. We discuss the details of our computational architecture, and present some of the implications of the hypercomputationalism on contemporary physical, life sciences, and computer science.

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  • Establishing dynamic trust in virtual organization by means of MAS

    Foukia, Noria; Mallet, Pierre-Etienne (2006-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper presents an implementation of the first stage of a Virtual Organization (VO) life cycle, which is the VO’s creation. This implementation is based on previous work by one of the authors describing a framework which facilitates the establishment of VO agreements. In accordance with the framework, the implementation makes the VO’s creation fully automated, thereby reducing its duration considerably. This is beneficial for the VO, which should only exist for the limited period needed to satisfy its goal. The VO is implemented as a Multi-Agent System (MAS), where autonomous agents negotiate the agreement leading the the VO’s establishment. The Opal FIPA-compliant MAS platform was used to implement the VO agents. Different scenarios and evaluations provide a clear demonstration of the implementation, showing how agents dynamically negotiate the establishment of the agreement and how opportunistic agents’ behavior affect the trust level during the negotiation process.

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  • Feature analysis and classification of classical musical instruments: an empirical study

    Simmermacher, Christian; Deng, Da; Cranefield, Stephen (2006-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We present an empirical study on classical music instrument classification. A methodology with feature extraction and evaluation is proposed and assessed with a number of experiments, whose final stage is to detect instruments in solo passages. In feature selection it is found that similar but different rankings for individual tone classification and solo passage instrument recognition are reported. Based on the feature selection results, excerpts from concerto and sonata files are processed, so as to detect and distinguish four ma jor instruments in solo passages: trumpet, flute, violin, and piano. Nineteen features selected from the Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and the MPEG-7 audio descriptors achieve a recognition rate of around 94% by the best classifier assessed by cross validation.

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  • Do accountants want full disclosures in corporate financial statements?

    Liyanarachchi, Gregory A. (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In August 2002, in the aftermath of the corporate failures in the US (e.g., Enron and WorldCom) the New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants (NZICA formerly ICANZ) released a discussion document on ‘corporate transparency’, thereby signaling the importance of full disclosure to the accounting community (ICANZ, 2002). Full disclosure means the disclosure of all potentially material information even when there are no legal or accounting requirements to do so. This is necessary to achieve greater transparency of corporate financial statements. Simply meeting the minimum disclosure requirements of standards may be legally sufficient but may not achieve NZICA’s preferred goal of greater corporate transparency. Though it is the corporate management that has control over the level of transparency in corporate financial statements, accounting practitioners are called to express their opinion on these statements, and hence, they too have a major influence on the matter. A move towards achieving greater corporate transparency therefore raises an important question. Do accountants want to see greater disclosures in corporate financial statements?

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  • Searching for the smoking gun: Did trade hurt unskilled workers?

    Winchester, Niven (2006-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We contribute to the trade-wage literature by conducting the first economy-wide analysis of the association between trade and wages in New Zealand. We find that increased imports since 1980 caused only a marginal increase in New Zealand wage inequality and, overall, increased trade (imports and exports) reduced wage inequality in this nation. As New Zealand imports of unskilled labour-intensive products relative to GDP are larger than those for other developed nations, we interpret these results as convincing evidence that trade is not responsible for rising wage inequality in developed nations.

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  • Understanding Quality in Qualitative Research in IS: A Practitioners Road Map

    Cua, Francis; Theivananthampillai, Paul (2006)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Qualitative Research has gained dominance again in research in information systems and technology. Understanding some of the terminology has often posed a hurdle for the practitioner. This paper draws out some of the key assumptions that qualitative research is based upon and distils some the subtle facets of qualitative research to build that bridge between practice and academia

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