64 results for Working or discussion paper, 2009

  • A software framework for application development using ZigBee protocol

    Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy; Bruce, Morgan; Purvis, Maryam A. (2009-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    The problem with the uptake of new technologies such as ZigBee is the lack of development environments that help in faster application software development. This paper describes a software framework for application development using ZigBee wireless protocol. The architecture is based on defining XML based design interfaces that represent the profiles of ZigBee nodes that are used in the application.

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  • An innovative approach to National Football League standings using optimal bonus points

    Winchester, Niven; Stefani, Raymond T. (2009-06-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Bonus points provide a simple way to improve the accuracy of league standings. We investigate the inclusion of bonuses in the National Football League (NFL) using a prediction model built on league points. Both touchdown-based and narrow-loss bonuses are shown to be significant. Our preferred system awards four points for a win, two for a tie, one point for scoring four or more touchdowns and one point for losing by seven or fewer points. Such a system would also make it easier for supporters to identify playoff contenders and place importance on otherwise meaningless end-of-game plays.

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  • Information, Institutions and Banking Sector Development in West Africa

    Demetriades, Panicos; Fielding, David (2009-01-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Using a new panel dataset for banks in eight West African countries, we explore the factors that exacerbate or alleviate excess liquidity, and the factors that promote or retard the rate of growth of banks’ assets. Loan default rates in the region are high, and variations in the rate impact on liquidity and asset growth. However, the size of this effect is very sensitive to bank age. Some types of improvement in the quality of governance reduce excess liquidity and promote asset growth. However, the impact of other types of improvement, particularly with regard to corruption, is ambiguous. We uncover evidence that provides an explanation for this ambiguity.

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  • A Model of Competition Between Multinational Firms

    Koska, Onur (2009-10-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This study focuses on the theory of how multinational firms choose their entry modes between alternative options (i.e., trade, green field investment, or acquisition). In a comprehensive model of strategic decision-making with more than one multinational firm, it delineates how a multinational firm's entry mode influences a rival multinational firm's market entry behavior and how exogenous factors (e.g., market size, firms' production cost, per-unit trade cost and fixed investment cost) affect the optimal entry modes. The main finding of the study is that competition among multinational firms substantially affects their optimal entry modes such that competition implies different entry modes compared to no competition.

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  • Ranking economics departments in terms of residual productivity: New Zealand economics departments, 2000‐2006

    Anderson, David L.; Tressler, John (2009-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper considers a new approach for ranking the research productivity of academic departments. Our approach provides rankings in terms of residual research output after controlling for the key characteristics of each department’s academic staff. More specifically, we estimate residual research output rankings for all of New Zealand’s economics departments based on their publication performance over the 2000 to 2006 period. We do so after taking into account the following characteristics of each department’s academic staff: gender, experience, seniority, academic credentials, and academic rank. The paper concludes with a comparison of rankings generated by the residual research approach with those generated by traditional approaches to research rankings.

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  • International trade agreements and international migration

    Poot, Jacques; Strutt, Anna (2009-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Despite large potential economic gains to the countries concerned, bilateral and multilateral negotiations regarding liberalization of migration have not had the high profile of trade negotiations and agreements. Migration and trade have been traditionally the prerogative of different ministries, yet there are many interdependencies between international trade, foreign investment and migration. The relevance of these interdependencies for trade negotiations has been remarkably ignored in the literature. In this paper we therefore focus on the two-way interaction between international migration and agreements designed to enhance cross-border trade or investment. Liberalization of international trade in services and the movement of people are likely to offer much more significant economic gains than liberalization of remaining barriers to goods trade. However, progress within multilateral frameworks is fraught with difficulty. Mode IV of GATS is restricted to temporary movement of service employees and has yielded little progress so far. Negotiations within more flexible unilateral and bilateral frameworks are likely to be more successful in liberalizing the movement of labour. We discuss several specific examples and conclude that trade negotiations are increasingly accommodating migration policies that favour temporary migration over permanent migration and that the migration regulatory framework is likely to be further linked to trade and investment over time.

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  • Software effort estimation: Harmonizing algorithms and domain knowledge in an integrated data mining approach

    Purvis, Martin; Deng, Jeremiah D.; Purvis, Maryam A. (2009-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Software development effort estimation is important for quality management in the software development industry, yet its automation still remains a challenging issue. Applying machine learning algorithms alone often can not achieve satisfactory results. In this paper, we present an integrated data mining framework that incorporates domain knowledge into a series of data analysis and modeling processes, including visualization, feature selection, and model validation. An empirical study on the software effort estimation problem using a benchmark dataset shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

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  • Marketing Faculty & Ph.D. Supervision: A House Divided

    Hamlin, Robert Philip (2009)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This article examines the issue of logical paradigms in Ph.D. supervision. It notes that Ph.D. supervision in Marketing is sharply divided into two main schools of thought as to how theory should be developed via the literature review within a Ph.D. thesis. This division is based around the use of the two leading paradigms of scientific discovery, Induction and Deduction. The article describes these two paradigms and then demonstrates how a supervisor who uses inductive logic will tend to allow the candidate to ‘discover’ their research hypothesis by examination of the literature. A supervisor who uses deductive logic will not allow a review to commence in earnest until a preliminary working proposition has been created. The practical mechanisms and significant implications of these two schools of Ph.D. supervision are fully explained and discussed.

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  • Tag based model for knowledge sharing in agent society

    Savarimuthu, Sharmila; Purvis, Martin; Purvis, Maryam A. (2009-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In this paper we discuss a tag-based model that facilitates knowledge sharing in the context of agents playing the knowledge sharing game. Sharing the knowledge incurs a cost for the sharing agent, and thus non-sharing is the preferred option for selfish agents. Through agent-based simulations we show that knowledge sharing is possible even in the presence of non-sharing agents in the population. We also show that the performance of an agent society can be better when some agents bear the cost of sharing instead of the whole group sharing the cost.

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  • Optimal Bonus Points in the Australian Football League

    Lenten, Liam J. A.; Winchester, Niven (2009-03-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Bonus point systems are a popular tournament design feature in some sports. We consider a bonus point system for the Australian Football League (AFL). In this paper, we utilise league points as a measure of team strength in a prediction model and choose the allocation of points to maximise prediction accuracy. For AFL data extending over seasons 1997-2008, we determine a bonus points system that does a better job at revealing strong teams than the current allocation of league points. We conclude that there is considerable scope for the introduction bonus points to improve tournament design in the AFL.

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  • Automatic sapstain detection in processed timber through image feature analysis

    Deng, Jeremiah D. (2009-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Sapstain is considered a defect that must be removed from processed wood. So far, research in automatic wood inspection systems has been mostly limited to dealing with knots. In this paper, we extract a number of colour and texture features from wood pictures. These features are then assessed using machine learning techniques via feature selection, visualization, and finally classification. Apart from average colour and colour opponents, texture features are also found to be useful in classifying sapstain. This implies a significant modification to the domain understanding that sapstain is mainly a discolourization effect. Preliminary results are presented, with satisfactory classification performance using only a few selected features. It is promising that a real world wood inspection system with the functionality of sapstain detection can be developed.

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  • Intellectual Capital Disclosures by Australian Companies

    Woodcock, James; Whiting, Rosalind H (2009-07)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This research expands on previous studies of voluntary intellectual capital disclosure (ICD) in Australian company annual reports. Using content analysis it examined the level of ICD in the annual reports of 70 Australian publicly listed firms and also investigated the influence of the company’s characteristics (industry type, ownership concentration, listing age, leverage and auditor type) on the level of ICD. Levels of ICD were low, with external capital being the most frequently disclosed category. Correlation and regression analysis demonstrated that companies that operate in high intellectual capital intensive industries, and companies with large (Big Four) auditing firms show higher levels of ICD. A company’s ownership concentration, leverage level, and listing age did not influence its level of ICD.

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  • Does trust extend beyond the village? Experimental trust and social distance in Cameroon

    Etang, Alvin; Fielding, David; Knowles, Stephen (2009-07-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    In this paper we use experimental data collected in rural Cameroon to quantify the effect of social distance on trust and altruism. Our measure of social distance is one that is relevant to everyday economic interactions: subjects in a Trust Game play with fellow villagers or with someone from a different village. We find that Senders in a Trust Game pass significantly more money to Recipients from their own village than to Recipients from a different village. To test for the possibility that Senders are motivated by unconditional kindness, they also play a Triple Dictator Game. We find that Senders pass significantly more money on average in the Trust Game than in the Triple Dictator Game, confirming that transfers in the Trust Game are partly motivated by Trust. However, there is also a social distance effect in the Triple Dictator Game, and around one third of the social distance effect in the Trust Game is due to greater unconditional kindness to fellow villagers. Results from a Risk Game suggest that Trust Game transfers are uncorrelated with attitudes to risk.

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  • Endogenous Labor Supply, Heterogenous Firms and International Business Cycles

    Farhat, Daniel (2009-09-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This paper examines employment dynamics and international business cycle transmission within a two-country dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model featuring an endogenously determined trade pattern. In contrast to existing literature, this model allows for the household's labor supply to be determined endogenously, producing fluctuations in employment as business cycles are transmitted from one country to another. The model is able to generate pro-cyclical domestic employment as well as positive correlations of employment and output across countries. In addition, previous studies have difficulty generating international correlations of consumption and investment. This model replicates these stylized facts by strengthening frictions in international asset markets. The structure of labor supply is shown to be vital for the transmission of business cycles through trade linkages.

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  • A collaborative Web-based issue based information system (IBIS) framework

    Ebadi, Toktam; Purvis, Martin; Purvis, Maryam A. (2009-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    This research focuses on the design and development of an IBIS-based tool called IBISMod, which facilitates a distributed and collaborative decision-making process. IBIS-based systems help analysts and designers in the process of formulating the requirements and design issues associated with complex problems that are difficult to specify. In particular, it captures the rationale behind group decision-making process. The group members are usually distributed over a network and may be working together concurrently. IBISMod is based on Rittel's Issue-Based Information System. This particular implementation is a web-based tool that makes it possible for the participants to work together on a specific problem while they may be physically present in different locations. In order to improve the interactivity, speed and usability of the framework, the AJAX approach has been adopted.

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  • The Long Term Effects of Legalizing Divorce on Children

    González, Libertad; Viitanen, Tarja (2009-01-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We estimate the effect of divorce legalization on the long-term well-being of children. Our identification strategy relies on exploiting the different timing of divorce legalization across European countries. Using European Community Household Panel data, we compare the adult outcomes of cohorts who were raised in an environment where divorce was banned with cohorts raised after divorce was legalized in the same country. We also have “control” countries where all cohorts were exposed (or not exposed) to divorce as children, thus leading to a difference-in-differences approach. We find that women who grew up under legal divorce have lower earnings and income as well as worse health as adults compared with women who grew up under illegal divorce. These effects are not found for men. We find no effects of divorce legalization on children’s family formation or dissolution patterns.

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  • 2009 Global Network Interconnectivity (GNI) Symposium

    Middlemiss, Melanie (2009-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Telecommunications technologies and Internet services are experiencing unprecedented growth. Technological advances together with the growing scale of deployments are driving rapid change in the telecommunications arena. All these factors contribute to the push towards convergence on the network core. Next generation networks, programmable networks, and the converged core opens up and provides new network architectures and new converged service opportunities. The Global Network Interconnectivity (GNI) Project was established at the University of Otago in 2006 to develop expertise, provide knowledge sharing and conduct activities supporting new ICT technologies that contribute to telecommunications, multimedia, and information systems convergence. The aim of the GNI Symposium was to bring together academic and industry leaders for one day to discuss current and future issues relating to convergence in the ICT and Telecommunications arena. This report provides a summary of the day’s presentations and discussion sessions.

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  • Monitoring social expectations in Second Life

    Cranefield, Stephen; Li, Guannan (2009-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    Online virtual worlds such as Second Life provide a rich medium for unstructured human interaction in a shared simulated 3D environment. However, many human interactions take place in a structured social context where participants play particular roles and are subject to expectations governing their behaviour, and current virtual worlds do not provide any support for this type of interaction. There is therefore an opportunity to adapt the tools developed in the MAS community for structured social interactions between software agents (inspired by human society) and adapt these for use with the computer-mediated human communication provided by virtual worlds. This paper describes the application of one such tool for use with Second Life. A model checker for online monitoring of social expectations defined in temporal logic has been integrated with Second Life, allowing users to be notified when their expectations of others have been fulfilled or violated. Avatar actions in the virtual world are detected by a script, encoded as propositions and sent to the model checker, along with the social expectation rules to be monitored. Notifications of expectation fulfilment and violation are returned to the script to be displayed to the user. This utility of this tool is reliant on the ability of the Linden scripting language (LSL) to detect events of significance in the application domain, and a discussion is presented on how a range of monitored structured social scenarios could be realised despite the limitations of LSL.

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  • What can management accounting practitioners and academics do to improve risk measurement and forewarn of impending financial crises?

    Kumarasinghe, Sriya; Willett, Roger (2009)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    We discuss some perceived shortcomings of management accounting in the light of the financial crisis of 2008. We describe current trends in management accounting thinking and Japanese perspectives on the discipline. Our main focus is on the lack of reliable measurement of financial risk and its consequences. The importance of collaborative multi-disciplinary research through partnerships between academics and practitioners is emphasised.

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  • Enhancing clustering in wireless sensor networks with energy heterogeneity

    Aderohunmu, Femi A; Deng, Jeremiah D; Purvis, Martin K (2009-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Otago

    While wireless sensor networks (WSN) are increasingly equipped to handle more complex functions, in-network processing still require the battery powered sensors to judiciously use their constrained energy so as to prolong the effective network life time.There are a few protocols using sensor clusters to coordinate the energy consumption in a WSN. To cope with energy heterogeneity among sensor nodes, a modified clustering algorithm is proposed with a three-tier sensor node setting. Simulation has been conducted to evaluate the new clustering algorithm and favorable results are obtained especially in heterogeneous energy settings.

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