1,735 results for Working or discussion paper

  • History navigation in location-based mobile systems

    Müller, Knut; Hinze, Annika (2010-12-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview and comparison of concepts that have been proposed to guide users through interaction histories (e.g. for web browsers). The goal is to gain insights into history design that may be used for designing an interaction history for the location-based Tourist Information Provider (TIP) system [8]. The TIP system consists of several services that interact on a mobile device.

    View record details
  • A century of the evolution of the urban system in Brazil

    Matlaba, Valente José; Holmes, Mark J.; McCann, Philip; Poot, Jacques (2011-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In this paper, we study the hitherto unexplored evolution of the size distribution of 185 urban areas in Brazil between 1907 and 2008. We find that the power law parameter of the size distribution of the 100 largest urban areas increases from 0.63 in 1907 to 0.89 in 2008, which confirms an agglomeration process in which the size distribution has become more unequal. A panel fixed effects model pooling the same range of urban size distributions provides a power law parameter equal to 0.53, smaller than those from cross-sectional estimation. Clearly, Zipf’s Law is rejected. The lognormal distribution fits the city size distribution quite well until the 1940s, but since then applies to small and medium size cities only. These results are consistent with our understanding of historical-political and socio-economic processes that have shaped the development of Brazilian cities.

    View record details
  • Tag based models of English text

    Teahan, W.J.; Cleary, John G. (1997-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The problem of compressing English text is important both because of the ubiquity of English as a target for compression and because of the light that compression can shed on the structure of English. English text is examined in conjunction with additional information about the parts of speech of each word in the text (these are referred to as “tags”). It is shown that the tags plus the text can be compressed more than the text alone. Essentially the tags can be compressed for nothing or even a small net saving in size. A comparison is made of a number of different ways of integrating compression of tags and text using an escape mechanism similar to PPM. These are also compared with standard word based and character based compression programs. The result is that the tag character and word based schemes always outperform the character based schemes. Overall, the tag based schemes outperform the word based schemes. We conclude by conjecturing that tags chosen for compression rather than linguistic purposes would perform even better.

    View record details
  • Building a public digital library based on full-text retrieval

    Witten, Ian H.; Nevill-Manning, Craig G.; Cunningham, Sally Jo (1995-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Digital libraries are expensive to create and maintain, and generally restricted to a particular corporation or group of paying subscribers. While many indexes to the World Wide Web are freely available, the quality of what is indexed is extremely uneven. The digital analog of a public library a reliable, quality, community service has yet to appear. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a cost-effective collection of high-quality public-domain information, available free over the Internet. One obstacle to the creation of a digital library is the difficulty of providing formal cataloguing information. Without a title, author and subject database it seems hard to offer the searching facilities normally available in physical libraries. Full-text retrieval provides a way of approximating these services without a concomitant investment of resources. A second is the problem of finding a suitable corpus of material. Computer science research reports form the focus of our prototype implementation. These constitute a large body of high-quality public-domain documents. Given such a corpus, a third issue becomes the question of obtaining both plain text for indexing, and page images for readability. Typesetting formats such as PostScript provide some of the benefits of libraries scanned from paper documents such as paged-based indexing and viewing without the physical demands and error-prone nature of scanning and optical character recognition. However, until recently the difficulty of extracting text from PostScript seems to have encouraged indexing on plain-text abstracts or bibliographic information provided by authors. We have developed a new technique that overcomes the problem. This paper describes the architecture, the indexing, collection and maintenance processes, and the retrieval interface, to a prototype public digital library.

    View record details
  • Meta-analysis of empirical evidence on the labour market impacts of immigration

    Longhi, Simonetta; Nijkamp, Peter; Poot, Jacques (2008-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The increasing proportion of immigrants in the population of many countries has raised concerns about the ‘absorption capacity’ of the labour market, and fuelled extensive empirical research in countries that attract migrants. In previous papers we synthesized the conclusions of this empirical literature by means of meta-analyses of the impact of immigration on wages and employment of native-born workers. While we have shown that the labour market impacts in terms of wages and employment are rather small, the sample of studies available to generate comparable effect sizes was severely limited by the heterogeneity in study approaches. In the present paper, we take an encompassing approach and consider a broad range of labour market outcomes: wages, employment, unemployment and labour force participation. We compare 45 primary studies published between 1982 and 2007 for a total of 1,572 effect sizes. We trichotomise the various labour market outcomes as benefiting, harming or not affecting the native born, and use an ordered probit model to assess the relationship between this observed impact and key study characteristics such as type of country, methodology, period of investigation and type of migrant.

    View record details
  • Demographic change and regional competitiveness: The effects of immigration and ageing

    Poot, Jacques (2007-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The demographic profile of a region is usually seen as a slowly changing background phenomenon in the analysis of regional competitiveness and regional growth. However, regional demographic change can have a significant impact on regional competitiveness and such change is often more rapid and profound than at the national level. In turn, regional population size, growth, composition and distribution are endogenous to regional economic development. This paper focuses on the impact of population ageing and immigration on aspects of regional competitiveness such as innovation, entrepreneurship and productivity. Immigration and ageing trends have generated huge separate literatures but it is argued here that it is fruitful to consider these trends jointly. Theoretically, there are many channels through which immigration and population ageing can affect regional competitiveness. There is empirical evidence that population ageing reduces regional competitiveness, while immigration – particularly of entrepreneurs and highly skilled workers to metropolitan areas – enhances competitiveness. Much of the available literature is based on smallscale case studies and rigorous econometric research on the impact of demographic change at the regional level is still remarkably rare. Some directions for further research are suggested.

    View record details
  • Demographic change and transport needs in the Waikato region

    Baxendine, Sandra; Cochrane, William; Poot, Jacques (2005-09)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This report has been commissioned by Environment Waikato (EW) as part of its review of the Land Transport Strategy for the Waikato region. The report identifies key population characteristics that impact on transport needs of the EW region and the constituent Territorial Authority (TA) areas. In this context, vulnerable locations and populations are identified. Future trends for the EW region and sub-regions are assessed by means of low, medium and high population growth scenarios, and the implications of the projected changes in population size and composition for transport needs are identified. A general theme throughout this report is that in many respects demographic change in the Waikato region is not that different from that in New Zealand as a whole, but there are sharp differences between the constituent TA areas. The report covers changes in population size and structure, ethnic structure, the labour force, income, housing tenure and motor vehicle ownership, deprivation and projections of locally generated trips, the number of motor vehicles and travel to work flows. It is noted that a comprehensive assessment of transport need should embed demographic change into an integrated model of economic change in the region, combined with scenarios relating to external factors and policy changes.

    View record details
  • Classification and regression algorithms for WEKA implemented in Python

    Beckham, Christopher J. (2015-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    WEKA is a popular machine learning workbench written in Java that allows users to easily classify, process, and explore data. There are many ways WEKA can be used: through the WEKA Explorer, users can visualise data, train classifiers and examine performance metrics; in the WEKA Experimenter, datasets and algorithms can be compared in an automated fashion; or, it can simply be invoked on the command-line or used as an external library in a Java project.

    View record details
  • Proving the existence of solutions in logical arithmetic

    Cleary, John G. (1993-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Logical arithmetic is a logically correct technique for real arithmetic in Prolog which uses constraints over interval representations for its implementation. Four problems with the technique are considered: answers are conditional and uninformative; iterative computations may lead to unboundedly large constraint networks; it is difficult and ineffective to deal with negation; and computing extrema is often not effective. A solution to these problems is proposed in the form of "existential intervals" which record the existence of a solution to a set of constraints within an interval. It is shown how to operate on existential intervals and how they solve the four problems.

    View record details
  • Bi-level document image compression using layout information

    Inglis, Stuart J.; Witten, Ian H. (1996-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Most bi-level images stored on computers today comprise scanned text, and their number is escalating because of the drive to archive large volumes of paper-based material electronically. These documents are stored using generic bi-level image technology, based either on classical run-length coding, such as the CCITT Group 4 method, or on modern schemes such as JBIG that predict pixels from their local image context. However, image compression methods that are tailored specifically for images known to contain printed text can provide noticeably superior performance because they effectively enlarge the context to the character level, at least for those predictions for which such a context is relevant. To deal effectively with general documents that contain text and pictures, it is necessary to detect layout and structural information from the image, and employ different compression techniques for different parts of the image. Such techniques are called document image compression methods.

    View record details
  • Constructing integrated software development environments with dependency graphs

    Grundy, John C.; Hosking, John G. (1994-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Integrated software development environments need to support multiple textual and graphical views of software products under development. MViews, a new model for constructing such environments, provides abstractions for representing the abstract syntax of a program as graphs and for viewing and manipulating these graphs in concrete textual and graphical forms. Graphs are used to represent software system structures using components (graph nodes) and relationships (graph edges). These graph components are modified by graph operations to construct and modify a program. Views of these graph components are rendered and manipulated in either graphical or textual forms. Consistency management between updated graph components is supported by a novel update record mechanism. MViews graphs are dependency graphs: updates to graph components are broadcast to related components as update records. These dependent components, or the inter-connecting relationships, respond to these update records and update the dependent components appropriately. This mechanism is used to support inter-component consistency management, and in particular provides a novel way keeping textual and graphical views of software development consistent. This mechanism can also be used as the basis of a wide range of other software development environment facilities. MViews has been reused to implement a variety of integrated environments and examples of these environments are discussed.

    View record details
  • Applications for bibliometric research in the emerging digital library

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Vallabh, Mahendra (1995-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    A large amount of research literature has recently become available on the Internet through "digital libraries". This migration of information from paper to electronic media promises to have a huge impact on the way that research is performed, as documents become more widely, cheaply, and quickly distributed than is possible through traditional publishing. A secondary use for these document repositories and indexes is as a platform for bibliometric research. We examine the extent to which the new digital libraries support conventional bibliometric analysis, and discuss shortcomings in their current forms. Interestingly, these electronic text archives also provide opportunities for new types of studies: generally the full text of documents are available for analysis, giving a finer grain of insight than abstract-only online databases; these repositories often contain technical reports or pre-prints, the "gray literature" that has been previously unavailable for analysis; and document "usage" can be measured directly by recording user accesses, rather than studied indirectly through document references.

    View record details
  • A logic for specifying and reasoning about cooperative environments

    Reeves, Steve (1995-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In this paper we describe the current progress of an attempt to develop a logic which will allow us to specify required properties of systems which typically consist of a single interactive program being used, probably simultaneously, by several agents, usually people. The logic is a development of ideas from modal logic and their more recent developments to describe computation. Since modal logic (and its extensions) are still relatively new to most people we give introductions to these logics in this paper, assuming only a familiarity with classical first-order logic and some proof theory. We also give an account of some of the sorts of situations that we want to specify. Finally, we consider what work will be needed in the future, building on what we present here, in order to achieve our goal of providing a language in which to specify and reason about systems intended to support co-operative working.

    View record details
  • Maori identity within whanau: A review of literature.

    Moeke-Pickering, Taima Materangatira (1996-01-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The study of identities is an enormous and complex undertaking. Research on identity formation has revealed a clear link between family practices and identity development. In traditional Maori times, the whanau was the place where initial teaching and socialisation of things Maori took place. While there is no single exact measure of what constitutes Maori identity (Durie, 1994), that Maori identity is still being asserted today means that the shaping of Maori identity is still occurring. Rather than attempt to cover all aspects of how Maori shape their identities, I have chosen to focus on the shaping of Maori identity within whanau. Given that this paper is about both Maori identity and whanau identity it seemed logical to review and examine the literature surrounding these two notions. In this paper I also discuss the ecological threats and supports that influenced Maori and whanau identity. Then I review literature on whanau identity from traditional and contemporary works, and explore the concept of whanau identity as a management framework. The literature on whanau does not vary from what Maori authors have expressed regarding their conceptualisations of Maori identity. The tribal structures, descent and cultural practices provide integral pathways through which whanau and Maori identity can be developed and maintained. What is of significance, is that the formation of a secure whanau identity is likely to contribute toward an overall stable Maori identity. Creating an environment where a sense of secure wellbeing among members of a whanau is nurtured, leads to members constructing a whanau and Maori identity that is meaningful to them in their lives.

    View record details
  • Learning agents: from user study to implementation

    Maulsby, David; Witten, Ian H. (1996-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Learning agents acquire procedures by being taught rather than programmed. To teach effectively, users prefer communicating in richer and more flexible ways than traditional computer dialogs allow. This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a learning agent. In contrast to most Artificial Intelligence projects, the design centers on a user study, with a human-simulated agent to discover the interactions that people find natural. Our work shows that users instinctively communication via "hints," or partially-specified, ambiguous, instructions. Hints may be input verbally, or by pointing, or by selecting from menus. They may be unsolicited, or arise in response to a query from the agent. We develop a theory of instruction types for an agent to interpret them. The implementation demonstrates that computers can learn from examples and ambiguous hints. Finally, an evaluation reveals the extent to which our system meets the original design requirements.

    View record details
  • Generating accurate rule sets without global optimization

    Frank, Eibe; Witten, Ian H. (1998-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The two dominant schemes for rule-learning, C4.5 and RIPPER, both operate in two stages. First they induce an initial rule set and then they refine it using a rather complex optimization stage that discards (C4.5) or adjusts (RIPPER) individual rules to make them work better together. In contrast, this paper shows how good rule sets can be learned one rule at a time, without any need for global optimization. We present an algorithm for inferring rules by repeatedly generating partial decision trees, thus combining the two major paradigms for rule generation-creating rules from decision trees and the separate-and-conquer rule-learning technique. The algorithm is straightforward and elegant: despite this, experiments on standard datasets show that it produces rule sets that are as accurate as and of similar size to those generated by C4.5, and more accurate than RIPPER’s. Moreover, it operates efficiently, and because it avoids postprocessing, does not suffer the extremely slow performance on pathological example sets for which the C4.5 method has been criticized.

    View record details
  • Automating iterative tasks with programming by demonstration: a user evaluation

    Paynter, Gordon W.; Witten, Ian H. (1999-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Computer users often face iterative tasks that cannot be automated using the tools and aggregation techniques provided by their application program: they end up performing the iteration by hand, repeating user interface actions over and over again. We have implemented an agent, called Familiar, that can be taught to perform iterative tasks using programming by demonstration (PBD). Unlike other PBD systems, it is domain independent and works with unmodified, widely-used, applications in a popular operating system. In a formal evaluation, we found that users quickly learned to use the agent to automate iterative tasks. Generally, the participants preferred to use multiple selection where possible, but could and did use PBD in situations involving iteration over many commands, or when other techniques were unavailable.

    View record details
  • Description and spatial analysis of employment change in New Zealand regions 1986-2001

    Baxendine, Sandra; Cochrane, William; Poot, Jacques (2005-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Over the last two decades New Zealand has undergone fundamental economic restructuring, and phases of slow and rapid growth, which have resulted in some dramatic changes in the regional economies. This paper provides a detailed multiperiod shift-share analysis over three intercensal periods between 1986 and 2001 on changes in regional employment outcomes at two levels of spatial disaggregation: 29 Administrative Regions (ARs), based on Regional Council areas, and 58 Labour Market Areas (LMAs) that have economically meaningful (commuting determined) boundaries. The contributions to employment outcomes of national trends, sectoral composition within regions, structural change, and local conditions are identified. A four-category disaggregation of regional employment into sex, age, occupation and industry is also undertaken. The results show a dichotomy between metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, but also several distinct clusters among the latter. Regional competitive advantage is clearly linked with net inward migration. There is also evidence of significantly positive spatial autocorrelation in the competitive effect. Local indicators of spatial association help to identify regions that stand out in terms of being surrounded by similar regions, or by regions that are just the opposite, in terms of the competitive effect. Interestingly, regional population growth precedes the competitive component of employment growth rather than just being a symptom of it.

    View record details
  • Which households are most distant from health centers in rural China? Evidence from a GIS network analysis

    Gibson, John; Deng, Xiangzheng; Boe-Gibson, Geua; Rozelle, Scott; Huang, Jikun (2008-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In this paper we have two objectives - one empirical; one methodological. Although China’s leaders are beginning to pay attention to health care in rural China, there are still concerns about access to health services. To examine this issue, we use measures of travel distances to health services to examine the nature of coverage in Shaanxi Province, our case study. The mean distance by road to the nearest health center is still more than 6 kilometers. When we use thresholds for access of 5 and 10 kilometers we find that more than 40 (15) percent of the rural population lives outside of these 5 (10) kilometer service areas for health centers. The nature of the access differs by geographical region and demographic composition of the household. The methodological contribution of our paper originates from a key feature of our analysis in which we use Geographic Information System (GIS) network analysis methods to measure traveling distance along the road network. We compare these measures to straight-line distance measures. Road distances (produced by network analysis) produce measures (using means) that are nearly twice as great as straight-line distances. Moreover, the errors in the measures (that is, the difference between road distances and straight-line distances) are not random. Therefore, traditional econometric methods of ameliorating the effects of measurement errors, such as instrument variables regression, will not produce consistent results when used with straight-line distances.

    View record details
  • Coordinating collaborative work in an integrated information systems engineering environment

    Grundy, John C.; Venable, John R.; Mugridge, Warwick B. (1996-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The development of complex Information Systems requires the use of many Information Systems engineering tools. These diverse tools need to be integrated in order to be effectively used by multiple cooperating developers. In addition, the users of these environments require features that facilitate effective cooperation, such as support for collaboratively planning cooperative work, notification of changes to parts of a system under development (but only when necessary or desired), support for keeping aware of other developers' work contexts, and the ability to flexibly engineer or adapt development processes and methods. We describe an integrated Information Systems engineering environment which includes a work coordination tool supporting these requirements.

    View record details