1,734 results for Working or discussion paper

  • Tracking battery state-of-charge in a continuous use off-grid electricity system

    Apperley, Mark; Alahmari, Mohammed Mushabab (2013-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The growing importance of batteries in the delivery of primary energy, for example in electric vehicles and isolated off-grid electricity systems, has added weight to the demand for simple and reliable measures of a battery’s remaining stored energy at any time. Many approaches to estimating this battery state-of-charge exist, ranging from those based on a full appreciation of the chemistry and physics of the storage and delivery mechanisms used, and requiring extensive data on which to base an estimate, to the naïve and simple, based only, for example, on the terminal voltage of the battery. None, however, is perfect, and able to deliver a simple percentage-full figure, as in a fuel gauge. The shortcomings are due to a range of complicating factors, including the impact of rate of charge, rate of discharge, battery aging, and temperature, to name just some of these. This paper presents a simple yet effective method for tracking state-of-charge in an off-grid electricity system, where batteries are in continuous use, preventing static parameter measurements, and where charge/discharge cycles do not necessarily follow an orderly sequence or pattern. A reliable indication of state-of-charge is, however, highly desirable, but need be only of fuel gauge precision, say to the nearest 12-20%. The algorithm described utilises knowledge of the past, and constantly adapts parameters such as charge efficiency and total charge capacity based on this knowledge, and on the occurrence of specific identifiable events such as zero or full charge.

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  • Human evaluation of Kea, an automatic keyphrasing system.

    Jones, Steve; Paynter, Gordon W. (2001-02-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper describes an evaluation of the Kea automatic keyphrase extraction algorithm. Tools that automatically identify keyphrases are desirable because document keyphrases have numerous applications in digital library systems, but are costly and time consuming to manually assign. Keyphrase extraction algorithms are usually evaluated by comparison to author-specified keywords, but this methodology has several well-known shortcomings. The results presented in this paper are based on subjective evaluations of the quality and appropriateness of keyphrases by human assessors, and make a number of contributions. First, they validate previous evaluations of Kea that rely on author keywords. Second, they show Kea's performance is comparable to that of similar systems that have been evaluated by human assessors. Finally, they justify the use of author keyphrases as a performance metric by showing that authors generally choose good keywords.

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  • Political orientation of Government and Stock Market returns

    Bialkowski, J.; Gottschalk, K.; Wisniewski, T. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    Prior research documented that U.S. stock prices tend to grow faster during Democratic administrations than during Republican administrations. This letter examines whether stock returns in other countries also depend on the political orientation of the incumbents. An analysis of 24 stock markets and 173 different governments reveals that there are no statistically significant differences in returns between left-wing and right-wing executives. Consequently, international investment strategies based on the political orientation of countries’ leadership are likely to be futile.

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  • Testing for the Invariance of a Causal Model of Friendships at work: an investigation of job type and needs

    Morrison, R. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    The relationship between workplace friendships and organisational outcomes were investigated. Employees from diverse industries responded to an Internet-based survey (n=445). A previously supported model of workplace relationships (Morrison, 2004) was cross-validated, confirming linkages between friendships at work and organisational outcomes. The model was invariant across groups reporting differing needs for affiliation, autonomy or achievement, but non-invariant across groups reporting occupying relatively less or more interdependent jobs. Results suggest that the interdependence of individuals’ jobs affects the salience of work friendships more than subjective needs.

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  • An overview of mining in the Te Aroha mining district from the turn of the twentieth century until the start of the depression

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Apart from the mines owned by Edwin Henry Hardy, mining at Waiorongomai stagnated in the early twentieth century. During its first decade attention largely switched to the Tui district, with new treatment processes promising better results, but, as usual, raising capital was difficult and the government was asked to assist. A mining revival was constantly anticipated, especially by the local newspaper, and for the first time base metals were also investigated. Prospecting encompassed new areas, with the Mangakino Valley and the top of the mountain being investigated more thoroughly than previously. In 1913, the battery was destroyed in a fire but was replaced. During that decade and the subsequent one, mining faded away to almost nothing, and only the onset of the Depression caused any revival.

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  • Informal introduction to Starlog

    Cleary, John G. (1993-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This report provides an informal and gentle introduction to the logic programming language Starlog and is intended to eventually form the first chapter of a book on Starlog. Like Prolog (a widely known and common logic programming language), Starlog programs consist of sets of Horn clauses. Starlog differs from Prolog in the way it is executed and in the use of logical time to order execution. The style of programming that results tends to be different from Prolog and similar to programs for relational databases.

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  • Which future for the Hurunui? Combining choice analysis with stakeholder consultation

    Marsh, Dan; Philips, Yvonne (2012-12)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The future of the Hurunui River and its catchment has been hotly contested between those who seek to store and/or divert water from the river in order to increase agricultural production and those who would like to see the river undeveloped and the quality of natural resources in the river and catchment improved. The Canterbury Regional Council wished to develop an approach to manage catchment nutrient loads across the region in order to achieve the objectives of its Natural Resources Regional Plan (NRRP) for water quality and aquatic habitats. Our approach, combining stakeholder consultation with choice analysis, was developed and tested in the Hurunui catchment in 2010-2011. The policy objective of the choice experiment was to describe and quantify the preferences of Canterbury Region residents with respect to existing conditions (the status quo) and potential future land use and water quality scenarios for the catchment. It was envisaged that this quantitative information on preferences across the region would be used by policy makers at the same time as they considered the outcomes of the stakeholder deliberative process. At the conclusion of the consultation process there was ‘general acceptance’ of a future development strategy for the Hurunui catchment that would maintain water quality in the main river at 2005-2009 levels while improving the tributaries to 1990-1995 water quality. Results from the choice experiment are broadly supportive of this approach. Canterbury region residents would require substantial compensation (mean $244-$315 per household per year) before they would accept a decline in water quality in the main river or in the tributaries. Willingness to pay for improvements in the main river is lower with a mean of $25-$33 per house hold per year.

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  • Bibliography of research using the NZIER’s quarterly survey of business opinion

    Buckle, Robert A.; Silverstone, Brian (2011-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The New Zealand Institute of Economic Research (NZIER) has conducted and published a quarterly survey of business opinion continuously, and with largely unchanged questions, since June 1961. The Institute’s Quarterly Survey of Business Opinion (QSBO) is a business tendency survey based substantially on the Business Test of the IFO Munich. It covers the manufacturing, building, merchant and service sectors and architects. This bibliography lists and classifies some 80 research papers which used QSBO data and published between 1964 and 2011.

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  • An intertemporally-consistent and arbitrage-free version of the Nelson and Siegel class of yield curve models

    Krippner, Leo (2005-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This article derives a generic, intertemporally-consistent, and arbitrage-free version of the popular class of yield curve models originally introduced by Nelson and Siegel (1987). The derived model has a theoretical foundation (conferred via the Heath, Jarrow and Morton (1992) framework) that allows it to be used in applications that involve an implicit or explicit time-series context. As an example of the potentialapplication of the model, the intertemporal consistency is exploited to derive a theoretical time-series process that may be used to forecast the yield curve. The empirical application of the forecasting framework to United States data results in out-of-sample forecasts that outperform the random walk over a sample period of almost 50 years, for forecast horizons ranging from six months to three years.

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  • Accounting information systems as knowledge-objects: Some effects of objectualization

    Lowe, Alan (2000-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper will outline a research methodology informed by theorists who have contributed to actor network theory (ANT). Research informed from such a perspective recognises the constitutive role of accounting systems in the achievement of broader social goals. Latour, Knorr-Cetina and others argue that the bringing in of non-human actants, through the growth of technology and science, has added immeasurably to the complexity of modern society. The paper “sees” accounting and accounting systems as being constituted by technological “black boxes” and seeks to discuss two questions. One concerns the processes which surround the establishment of “facts”, ie. how “black-boxes” are created and accepted (even if temporarily) within society. The second concerns the role of existing “black boxes” within society and organisation. Accounting systems not only promote a particular view of the activities of an organisation or a subunit, but in their implementation and operation ‘mobilise’ other organisational members in a particular direction. The implications of such an interpretation are explored in the paper. Firstly through a discussion of some of the theoretic constructs that have been proposed to frame ANT research. Secondly an attempt is made to relate some of these ideas to aspects of the empirics in a qualitative case study. The case site is in the health sector and involves the implementations of a casemix accounting system. Evidence from the case research is used to exemplify aspects of the theoretical constructs.

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  • Representations in accounting: The metaphor effect

    Hooper, Keith; Low, Mary (2000-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The paper acknowledges the dominance of the numerate scientific “what is” approach to financial reporting and comments on the growing role of complementary narratives and photographs in annual reports. Narratives by their very metaphoric nature show up accounting to be more of an art than a science. The hallmark of any art is its “otherness”, that is, art does not claim to mirror and replicate reality but represents it, while remaining something “other” than factual. We demonstrate by reference to some recent company failures that the “what is” numerate methods of financial reporting are also representations: a series of notational metaphors masked by such devices as independent audit reports. Thus, while we applaud the inclusion of complementary narratives to financial reporting, we draw attention to the corresponding lack and limitations in the audit process over these portions of the report. As annual reports grow in narrative and photographic content, we consider metaphoric meaning of these lavishly illustrated additions to numerate reporting. We refer to specific company reports to explain the metaphoric effect. The paper begins by reviewing the “what is” role of the scientific method in accounting and proceeds to look critically at the use of numbers in accounting as notational metaphors. We then focus on the role of narrative comment and compare the representational nature of both approaches. Finally, by way of six case study examples, we discuss the metaphoric use of photographs in company reports.

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  • Predicting apple bruising relationships using machine learning

    Holmes, Geoffrey; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Dela Rue, B. T.; Bollen, A. F. (1998-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Many models have been used to describe the influence of internal or external factors on apple bruising. Few of these have addressed the application of derived relationships to the evaluation of commercial operations. From an industry perspective, a model must enable fruit to be rejected on the basis of a commercially significant bruise and must also accurately quantify the effects of various combinations of input features (such as cultivar, maturity, size, and so on) on bruise prediction. Input features must in turn have characteristics which are measurable commercially; for example, the measure of force should be impact energy rather than energy absorbed. Further, as the commercial criteria for acceptable damage levels change, the model should be versatile enough to regenerate new bruise thresholds from existing data. Machine learning is a burgeoning technology with a vast range of potential applications particularly in agriculture where large amounts of data can be readily collected [1]. The main advantage of using a machine learning method in an application is that the models built for prediction can be viewed and understood by the owner of the data who is in a position to determine the usefulness of the model, an essential component in a commercial environment.

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  • Does New Zealand have an innovation system for biotechnology?

    Marsh, Dan (2002-05)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    While there is a large and growing international literature on economic aspects of biotechnology innovation (e.g. work by Carlsson, McKelvey, Orsenigo, Zucker and Darby) these studies concentrate on the United States and Europe. The New Zealand biotechnology industry may be expected to develop along a different trajectory as a consequence of a markedly different set of initial and framework conditions. This paper presents the results of an ongoing study that aims to fill some of the gaps in our knowledge of innovation processes in New Zealand while using the international literature as a benchmark. The size and structure of modern biotech activity in New Zealand is described and compared to other OECD countries using biotech patent data and results from the New Zealand and Canadian biotechnology surveys. The paper then focuses on factors affecting innovation in biotechnology; framework conditions, government policy R&D funding and the role of networks and other linkages.

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  • Understanding what machine learning produces - Part II: Knowledge visualization techniques

    Cunningham, Sally Jo; Humphrey, Matthew C.; Witten, Ian H. (1996-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Researchers in machine learning use decision trees, production rules, and decision graphs for visualizing classification data. Part I of this paper surveyed these representations, paying particular attention to their comprehensibility for non-specialist users. Part II turns attention to knowledge visualization—the graphic form in which a structure is portrayed and its strong influence on comprehensibility. We analyze the questions that, in our experience, end users of machine learning tend to ask of the structures inferred from their empirical data. By mapping these questions onto visualization tasks, we have created new graphical representations that show the flow of examples through a decision structure. These knowledge visualization techniques are particularly appropriate in helping to answer the questions that users typically ask, and we describe their use in discovering new properties of a data set. In the case of decision trees, an automated software tool has been developed to construct the visualizations.

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  • Survival of the species vs survival of the individual

    Barbour, Robert H.; Hopper, Keith (1994-08)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper examines the relationships between human and computing entities. It develops the biological ethical imperative towards survival into a study of the forms inherent in human beings and implied in computer systems. The theory of paradoxes is used to show that a computer system cannot in general make a self-referential decision. Based upon this philosophical analysis it is argued that human and machine forms of survival are fundamentally different. Further research into the consequences of this fundamental difference is needed to ensure the diversity necessary for human survival.

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  • Ranking economics departments in terms of residual productivity: New Zealand economics departments, 2000‐2006

    Anderson, David L.; Tressler, John (2009-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper considers a new approach for ranking the research productivity of academic departments. Our approach provides rankings in terms of residual research output after controlling for the key characteristics of each department’s academic staff. More specifically, we estimate residual research output rankings for all of New Zealand’s economics departments based on their publication performance over the 2000 to 2006 period. We do so after taking into account the following characteristics of each department’s academic staff: gender, experience, seniority, academic credentials, and academic rank. The paper concludes with a comparison of rankings generated by the residual research approach with those generated by traditional approaches to research rankings.

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  • International trade agreements and international migration

    Poot, Jacques; Strutt, Anna (2009-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Despite large potential economic gains to the countries concerned, bilateral and multilateral negotiations regarding liberalization of migration have not had the high profile of trade negotiations and agreements. Migration and trade have been traditionally the prerogative of different ministries, yet there are many interdependencies between international trade, foreign investment and migration. The relevance of these interdependencies for trade negotiations has been remarkably ignored in the literature. In this paper we therefore focus on the two-way interaction between international migration and agreements designed to enhance cross-border trade or investment. Liberalization of international trade in services and the movement of people are likely to offer much more significant economic gains than liberalization of remaining barriers to goods trade. However, progress within multilateral frameworks is fraught with difficulty. Mode IV of GATS is restricted to temporary movement of service employees and has yielded little progress so far. Negotiations within more flexible unilateral and bilateral frameworks are likely to be more successful in liberalizing the movement of labour. We discuss several specific examples and conclude that trade negotiations are increasingly accommodating migration policies that favour temporary migration over permanent migration and that the migration regulatory framework is likely to be further linked to trade and investment over time.

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  • Investigating the relationships between the yield curve, output and inflation using an arbitrage-free version of the Nelson and Siegel class of yield curve models

    Krippner, Leo (2005-02)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This article provides a theoretical economic foundation for the popular Nelson and Siegel (1987) class of yield curve models (which has been absent up to now). This foundation also offers a new framework for investigating and interpreting the relationships between the yield curve, output and inflation that have already been well-established empirically in the literature. Specifically, the level of the yield curve as measured by the VAO model is predicted to have a cointegrating relationship with inflation, and the shape of the yield curve as measured by the VAO model is predicted to correspond to the profile (that is, timing and magnitude) of future changes in the output gap (that is, output growth less the growth in potential output). These relationships are confirmed in the empirical analysis on 50 years of United States data.

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  • Mapping poverty in rural China: How much does the environment matter?

    Olivia, Susan; Gibson, John; Rozelle, Scott; Huang, Jikun; Deng, Xiangzheng (2008-09)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    In this paper, we apply a recently developed small-area estimation technique to derive geographically detailed estimates of consumption-based poverty and inequality in rural Shaanxi, China. We also investigate whether using environmental variables derived mainly from satellite remote sensing improves upon traditional approaches that only use household survey and census data. According to our results, ignoring environmental variables in statistical analyses that predict small-area poverty rates leads to targeting errors. In other words, using environmental variables both helps more accurately identify poor areas (so they should be able to receive more transfers of poor area funds) and identify non-poor areas (which would allow policy makers to reduce poverty funds in these better off areas and redirect them to poor areas). Using area-based targeting may be an efficient way to reach the poor since many counties and townships in rural Shaanxi have low levels of inequality, even though, on average, there is more within-group than between-group inequality. Using information on locations that are, in fact, receiving poverty assistance, our analysis also produces evidence that official poverty policy in Shaanxi targets particular areas which in reality are no poorer than other areas that do not get targeted.

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  • How pro-poor is the selection of seasonal migrant workers from Tonga under New Zealand’s Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) Program?

    Gibson, John; McKenzie, David; Rohorua, Halahingano Tu'akolo Siufanga (2008-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Temporary migration programs for unskilled workers are increasingly being proposed as a way to both relieve labour shortages in developed countries and aid development in sending countries without entailing many of the costs associated with permanent migration. New Zealand’s new Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) program is designed with both these goals in mind, enabling unskilled workers from the Pacific Islands to work in horticulture and viticulture in New Zealand for a period of up to seven months. However, the development impact on a sending country will depend not only on how many workers participate, but also on who participates. This paper uses new survey data from Tonga to examine the process of selecting Tongans to work in the RSE, and to analyze how pro-poor the recruitment process has been to date. We find that the workers recruited come from largely agricultural backgrounds and have lower average incomes and schooling levels than Tongans not participating in the program. We also compare the characteristics of RSE workers to those of Tongans applying to permanently migrate to New Zealand through the Pacific Access Category, and find the RSE workers to be more rural and less educated. The RSE therefore does seem to have succeeded in creating new opportunities for relatively poor and unskilled Tongans to work in New Zealand.

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