1,723 results for Working or discussion paper

  • Neighbourly and unneighbourly behaviour in the Te Aroha district

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    As is to be expected, many examples could be found of neighbourly and unneighbourly behaviour. Because of the nature of their work, miners and indeed settlers generally had to help each other, and ‘fair play’ was a desired ideal. Residents mingled at weddings, funerals, farewells, and patriotic socials. When people were in need, assistance was given and money was raised by special events, and when fires broke out, everyone did their best to save both life and property. Despite such neighbourly acts, there were plenty of examples of quarrelsome residents and rude behaviour. In small settlements, prying and gossiping were endemic. Disliked residents were mocked, some practical jokes were malicious, and some libels were spread. In particular, local government politics provoked much bitterness over minor matters, and rivalry between Te Aroha and Waiorongomai could be friendly in sport but unfriendly on some issues. A detailed example of one prominent resident, Charles Ahier, is provided to illustrate how a pillar of the community was vilified and how he vilified his critics. Newspapers sometimes provided biased reporting, fanning the flames of petty disputes. But overall, squabbles were outweighed by positive interactions.

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  • The Auckland smelting company

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Mining in the Tui portion of the Te Aroha field was revived in 1948 by Benjamin John Dunsheath, a small businessman who had owned several private companies, none of them very successful, in a career marked by dubious business ethics. To develop the Tui mines he was assisted by others, only some of whom had mining skills. After defeating opposition from those concerned about possible pollution, prospecting, mostly for base metals, proceeded with reportedly encouraging results. In contrast to the success he anticipated from both mines and his planned smelting works, mining officials were much more cautious. To develop the ground, Dunsheath formed the Auckland Smelting Company, an under-capitalized company whose directors and shareholders lacked mining experience. Consequently, he obtained advice from outside experts and sought assistance, especially financial, from a mostly reluctant Mines Department, which considered the area worth prospecting but did not share his optimism. Most of the development was focused on driving a new level (no. 5) to strike the reefs, but because of inadequate preliminary surface and underground testing arguments arose about its correct direction, which would lead to the departure of their skilled mine manager, Bert McAra, especially after he was asked to provide misleading samples ‘for propaganda purposes’. Because by 1953 the results were disappointing and the reef had not been struck because the crosscut was being driven in the wrong direction, further government subsidies were refused, and in mid-year all work ceased after the company, despite several increases in its capital, ran out of money. Overseas capital was sought but was not interested. This company was an illustration of how not to mine an area lacking easily accessible high quality ore. With inadequate capital and inadequate prior prospecting, it struggled to develop its ground, and to attract investors and government assistance Dunsheath relied on providing incomplete and sometimes false information, causing ructions amongst the directors and disapproval from officials. Its collapse was inevitable from the start.

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  • Te Aroha township during the first rush: 1880-1881

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The most exciting time for a mining township was during the first rush. At Te Aroha, canvas settlements appeared close to the hot pools and between the mountain and the river, and because of the high hopes for a payable field all the features of a permanent settlement soon appeared. Shops of all varieties were erected, the original hotel soon had competition, church sites were chosen, government offices appeared, and because so many of the settlers were family men a start was made to provide schooling and health care. Sport, horse racing, and other entertainments became part of social life, with the hot pools a particular focus for ‘rest and recreation’. Within a few months, more substantial buildings were erected (very necessary because of the high wind common to the district), better roads to and within the settlement were constructed, and a better punt across the river provided. As the prospects of the goldfield faded in 1881, so did the township, but the discovery of gold at Waiorongomai meant that it would quickly revive and indeed flourish.

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  • Social relations and class divisions in the Te Aroha district

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Although the nature of mining encouraged mateship amongst miners, this ideal was weakened as companies increasingly dominated mining districts. As miners liked to work for themselves to obtain the highest possible financial return and the more proficient ones became managers, should they be regarded as working class or as middle class? But although there were class distinctions, blatant divisions and delusions of grandeur were discouraged, and mining fields displayed at worst a superficial egalitarianism and at best genuine social unity on at least some occasions and issues. Te Aroha, unlike Waiorongomai, was not a typical mining township because of the residents’ close involvement with farmers and tourists, mingling with the latter in the hot pools and when they visited the goldfield. Examples are given of tourists being actively involved in the social life of Te Aroha. Class divisions increased as mining faded, as illustrated by the clothing and jewellery sported by the ‘upper ten’ of Te Aroha compared with their poorer neighbours, a contrast also apparent at the more lower-class settlement of Waiorongomai. But despite sartorial distinctions, all sections of Pakeha society mingled at dances, concerts, entertainments, church, and sport; some Maori participated also, especially in rugby, but remained basically separated from the new society that had taken over their district. Although some younger residents may have admired the antics of ‘new chums’ and remittance men playing at being miners and generally enlivening social life, those who understood that a new field required serious miners disapproved of those who treated mining as a game. Some highly respectable people were on friendly terms with other residents, and some workers with pretensions liked to describe themselves as ‘gentlemen’, but such snobs were liable to be deflated by those who did not regard them as their betters. As was usual, the less respectable people at the bottom of the social scale were looked down upon. There was general resistance to a ‘clique’ of elite members of the community attempting to control the latter and, in particular, the mines for their own benefit. In elections for local bodies, some men stood explicitly as representatives of working men. But all involved in the industry, whether miners, managers, owners, or investors, were united in trying to uphold its interests.

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  • Religion in the Te Aroha district

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The Christians of the district were split into a variety of denominations, though only a few had strong followings. Opinions varied about the religious zeal of miners, and although the first services to be held after the initial rush to the new goldfield were well attended, this may at least in part have been out of curiosity. The Protestant denominations were notable for ecumenical activities, notably in the temperance movement, running societies for the young, and evangelical crusades. They encouraged religious education, and the only Sunday School, run by the Wesleyans, was attended by children from other denominations. Special meetings and entertainments held by Protestants to attract converts and to strengthen the faith of believers were regularly held and attended by many, even some Catholics. In general, relations between Protestants and Catholics were warm, and there were some ‘mixed marriages’. Details are given of the development of the Anglican, Presbyterian, Methodist, and Catholic churches, covering the erection and expansion of church buildings, their clergy, the expansion of their congregations, and special activities, both social and religious – the former because of the constant need to raise funds. It is impossible to prove the extent and depth of belief, but the moral behaviour of some residents meant that continual efforts were seen as necessary to get them to change their ways.

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  • Black Americans and Te Aroha mining

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Although no black Americans lived in the Te Aroha district, several, including some miners, lived in Hauraki and indeed elsewhere in New Zealand. In general, blacks were stereotyped as figures of fun (as were the Irish often), but those who were known personally were treated differently. Visiting black American singers were admired for their skills, and some settled in the colony, notably Robert Bradford Williams, who became mayor of the borough of Onslow in Wellington. This paper focuses on three very different men peripherally involved in mining in the Te Aroha district. About the first, Alexander Jackson, a carter, little is known apart from his marital problems. The second, William La Grenade Mitchell, was an Auckland accountant and land agent and was well respected, being a prominent Mason. He quickly lost this respect when forced to flee to Australia, whereupon his complicated financial and marital circumstances became public knowledge. About the third man, Edward Ralph Martin (who claimed an exotic ethnic background), a great deal is known because of his incessant efforts to raise money, including from the government, for his enthusiastic but incompetent prospecting. Calling himself a ‘professor’ of music, in his efforts to make money he was involved in several frauds, although there may have been an element of self-delusion about the prospecting skills claimed. His private life was also complicated. One feature of this sample was that all three married white women, two of them also having white mistresses at a time when such liaisons, regular or irregular, were most certainly not socially acceptable.

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  • Crime in the Te Aroha district, mostly in the nineteenth century

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The Te Aroha district was claimed to be relatively crime-free. Certainly there was only one murder, in 1881, and most offences were minor. Theft was the most common one, some thefts being very petty, such as stealing washing or fruit. But there were also examples of breaking and entering, stealing mining property, and opportunist thefts committed after fires. Money was obtained on false pretenses, and vandalism of property by adults was of regular concern. There was some arson, and vagrancy was prosecuted now and again. Obscene language and disorderly behaviour resulting in violence (usually because of over-indulgence in drink) and domestic violence occasionally came before the courts. Public disorder in the streets of Waiorongomai was widely reported. Police and bailiffs were sometimes resisted when doing their duty. There were some suicides; attempted suicide was dealt with sympathetically. Some sexual offences came to light, as did a wide variety of other, lesser, crimes. But despite most offences being minor, the district was never free of crime.

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  • Thomas Quoi: a Chinese restauranteur who invested in Te Aroha mining

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    After arriving in New Zealand, Thomas Quoi held a variety of jobs, from 1879 onwards being an Auckland restaurant owner and caterer. He was also an interpreter, especially in court cases, and in the twentieth century ran a bathhouse. Despite suffering abuse for being Chinese, he was notable for assisting charities to aid all races. Praised for being Anglicized – a ‘regular white man’ – he was a spokesman for the Chinese community, of which he was a leading member. Quoi’s involvement in Te Aroha mining was limited to providing capital. Like so many investors, he traded in shares and hoped to sell his mining properties to overseas capitalists. In 1890 he went bankrupt, in part because of losing money through his mining investments. Quoi’s personal life became notorious. Accused of sexual immorality and of being a cruel husband to his first wife, an Irishwoman, court cases revealed lurid details of their behaviour. Her infidelity meant he obtained a divorce and was soon married again, to an Englishwoman, with a happier outcome. Socially, and especially through his gambling until his last years he was a prominent member of the community.

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  • James Gerrish: Te Aroha’s first bellman

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    James Gerrish moved to Thames when the goldfield opened and then settled in Te Aroha during its gold rush. Like so many others, he took up a variety of occupations, none very profitable, for he left his widow and family in poverty. His most notable occupation, and the one for which he was famous, was as the local bellman. Blessed with a loud voice, he cried out the news of the day, along with advertisements for goods and services and public meetings. He was also noted for some disreputable behaviour, notably excessive drinking. Undoubtedly a ‘character’, he was recalled fondly long after his death.

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  • Thomas Mcindoe: a Te Aroha saddler who

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Starting out as a saddler at Te Aroha in 1891, Thomas McIndoe also became an agent, especially a successful land agent, acquiring some land holdings for himself. After leaving Te Aroha in 1911 he was a businessman in Auckland for the rest of his life. During the mining boom of the 1890s, he invested in many local mines, probably without making much if any money from his share dealings. McIndoe participated in almost every aspect of Te Aroha life, including the Anglican Church, a variety of sports, the Volunteers, the freemasons, and (especially) musical events. Involved in just about every local organization and local government body, he was the first president of the Chamber of Commerce and, briefly, on the borough council. Politically, he was a prominent supporter of the Liberal Party. In addition, he was notable for his charitable acts and for one heroic rescue. His personality was generally amiable, but he had a prickly side as well. He was a notable example of a ‘pillar of the local community’.

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  • William Buchanan Maxwell: a veteran who became ‘Te Aroha’s pet adornment’

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Famous in Te Aroha as a veteran soldier, Maxwell had fought in the Crimea, China, and India before fighting against Maori in New Zealand. Proud of his four wounds, he would lead a detachment of volunteers marching off to war in 1915. In his personal life, despite his involvement in the New Zealand land wars he would marry a Maori. After the fighting ceased, he had a variety of low-skilled jobs in Rotorua, Tauranga, and Ohinemuri before settling in Te Aroha, where he was a fireman. At Te Aroha he did a little prospecting, but did not really deserve the title ‘miner’. His jovial personality made him one of Te Aroha’s most popular residents.

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  • William Dibsell: one of the first settlers in the Te Aroha district

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    A baker, William Dibsell arrived in New Zealand in 1862, settling in Thames in 1868. Later he moved to the Waihou district to run a hotel and store at Te Kawana, near the future Te Aroha, transferring to the latter settlement in 1884 because his business had become isolated from the developing township. A baker and grocer, as at Thames he acquired small interests in Te Aroha’s mines, which would not have provided any profit unless he sold them speedily. He was so successful financially that he could become a moneylender, a rapacious one in the case of one man who became indebted to him. Concentrating on making money, he had only a limited involvement in the community.

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  • Joseph Campbell and his thermo-hyperphoric process

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Joseph Campbell was both an Anglican clergyman and a scientist, with a preference for the latter. Actively involved in educating the masses in scientific matters, and particularly those, like miners, with particular problems to overcome, he was a rather shameless self-publicist, insisting that he could solve most things. Sometimes he was correct, and his practical advice was valued, especially in the last phase of his life. After Alfred Andrew Lockwood developed a method of treating refractory Te Aroha ore, Campbell modified it, naming it the thermo-hyperphoric process. After inspecting Hauraki mines in 1896, he later settled at Te Aroha to test his process on a large scale. Great success was promised, with claims being made that he could save most of the assay value of the ore in a process superior to any other. Other miners along with geologists were critical of his claims and of his understanding of the geology, but he ignored them. The Montezuma Company was formed in London to fund the development of mines mostly between Tui and Te Aroha, and to erect his plant. Despite his promises, his plant failed, to great local disappointment. In addition to trialing ore treatment, Campbell also experimented in other areas. After leaving Te Aroha and focusing for a time on being a clergyman, he settled in North Queensland, remaining there until his death trying to solve a variety of problems facing primary producers, sometimes with success. To the end of his life he claimed to be an expert in a myriad of fields, and ignored all his critics.

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  • George Stewart O’Halloran: a pioneer publican and storekeeper at Te Aroha

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Born in Ireland, O’Halloran and his brothers went to Australia in 1860 before moving to New Zealand a few years later. After fighting against Maori for some years, as a member of the Armed Constabulary he made roads in Maori districts before settling in Thames and investing in mining and taking up a variety of often short-term occupations. He would struggle financially for all his life, both he and his wife becoming bankrupts. In 1875, he settled in Ohinemuri, where he was a director and legal manager for some mining companies as well as being a commission agent and, as well, becoming active in the community. His solution to the Maori ‘problem’ was for the government to acquire their land. At the end of 1878 he moved to the Te Aroha district as a publican and storekeeper, first at the Te Kawana landing on the western side of the river and then settling at the site of the future Te Aroha in early 1880, where he became the licensee of the Hot Springs Hotel. He was a strong advocate for the development of the district, seeking council and government assistance and personally helping to provide and improve roads, punts, and the baths at the hot springs, sometimes leading to conflict with local rangatira. After assisting prospecting, indirectly, he was involved in Te Aroha’s first rush, which greatly increased his bar trade, and invested in local mines. In addition to being a publican, he was a storekeeper and had other occupations as well; for a time his wife ran a boarding house. Most of these occupations were short-term and financially unprofitable. During all his years at Te Aroha he and his wife were actively involved in the community. After leaving Te Aroha, he held a variety of jobs in Australia and then back in New Zealand, but his financial struggles may have been one reason for how he ended his life.

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  • Harry and Charles: Henry Ernest Whitaker and Charles Stanislaus Stafford at Te Aroha

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Harry Whitaker was a member of a prominent political family, and Charles Stanislaus Stafford came from an Anglo-Irish landowning family. They both invested in mines in the Te Aroha district, Whitaker being particularly active in promoting the interests of the mining industry. But he was also seen as manipulating the share market to benefit himself and as assisting Josiah Clifton Firth’s ‘clique’ to control the field, meaning that for many residents some of his actions were deeply unpopular. Both men acquired and traded in land both within and outside the settlements, and developed their Wairakau estate, all profitably. Whitaker also established the Te Aroha News, and in a variety of ways was a leading member of the community. As a member of the county council he tried to help the district, but once again was seen as working too closely with Firth for their mutual benefit. Stafford also tried to assist local development. Both men were prominent socially, notably in horse races and various sports. Whitaker in particular was renowned for his lively personality, personal charm, and elegant attire, but unusually did not marry nor, apparently, flirt with the opposite sex, which may or may not be significant. Whitaker left Te Aroha for Auckland and, later, Africa before returning to Auckland in 1918 for one last involvement with mining. After farming at Whakatane, Stafford became prominent in Kalgoorlie during the mining boom of the 1890s before retiring to London and making a late marriage. Unlike Whitaker, he ended his life a prosperous man.

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  • Thomas William Carr: a Te Aroha storekeeper and speculator

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Thomas William Carr arrived in New Zealand in January 1881 accompanied by his large family and, reportedly, with extensive business experience and a large amount of capital. After first settling at Gisborne he moved to Te Aroha in mid-1882, acquiring land in the township and nearby and establishing stores at Te Aroha, Waiorongomai, Quartzville, and Shaftesbury. He was involved in a variety of commercial activities, and invested in local mining. He was also prominent in the community in general, including in the Anglican church. In early 1883, it all fell apart. After being adjudged bankrupt, He was shown to have been careless and indeed reckless in running his businesses; and instead of having large amounts of capital at his disposal, he had started with no capital at all, prompting suggestions of fraudulent dealings. After others acquired his properties and businesses, he fled New Zealand to try his luck in Australia. Others involved with him also went bankrupt, for his bankruptcy was by no means unusual.

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  • James Mills: a carpenter who became Te Aroha’s first mayor

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    After being active in Liberal politics in England, James Mills, a carpenter, settled in Te Aroha in 1882. Although he constructed many houses, work was erratic and he never became wealthy. Investing in Waiorongomai mining, he was outspoken in criticizing the management of the tramway and the policies of the Battery Company, accusing them of ruining the field through their high charges. He also criticized the county council for providing insufficient aid for mining, and sought financial assistance from the government. He assisted to form prospecting parties, and was especially involved in mining during the boom of the 1890s, with the usual unrealistic expectations. In 1899, as these expectations had not been attained, he ceased investing in mining. For over 20 years Mills worked hard to benefit the district in every possible way, joining many committees, in particular the domain board, the county council, the town board, and the borough council. Having strong opinions, strongly expressed, his involvement resulted in many rows and strong criticism from those he opposed. He was not beyond misrepresenting those he quarrelled with, especially when he was trying, eventually unsuccessfully, to include Waiorongomai in a proposed borough. After becoming the first mayor of Te Aroha by the smallest of margins, he achieved much for the town. In national politics, as a strong supporter of the Liberal Party he attempted to overcome local apathy about politics and squabbled with those holding different opinions. His quarrelsome personality may have been, at least in part, caused by ill health. In his old age he was respected for his achievements, if not loved for his personality.

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  • Bernard Montague: a contractor and farmer in the Te Aroha district

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Born in Ireland, Bernard Montague arrived in New Zealand in 1874 and for some years worked as a contractor, especially on drainage projects. After being a publican and storekeeper for a year, he settled in Waiorongomai in 1882 and invested in the local mines. This involvement led to his supporting criticisms of inadequate council assistance for mining, how the tramway operated, and the Battery Company’s charges. He also speculated in sections in Waiorongomai village, and briefly attempted to be a publican there. For some years he was a contractor in the district, mostly on road construction and repairs, and sometimes was criticized for the quality of his work. Acquiring a farm at nearby Gordon, he gradually developed it, like other new farmers being rather too slow to do so and also rather slow to pay the rent. In time he acquired more farmland, and by the early twentieth century was dairying on what had become a valuable estate. After struggling for years, even becoming bankrupt, by the new century he was financially secure. Montague was a prominent leader of the Gordon settlement, prominent not only for promoting its needs but also for his many conflicts with other residents. In a notably abrasive fashion he criticized absentee owners and those who did not develop their land. Deposed as chairman of the association, he later held other leadership roles, but never ceased to fight with others. At Te Aroha he joined a variety of committees to assist the progress of the community, and expressed himself forcefully (how else?) during the controversy over forming a borough. Residents became used to his quarrelsome nature and some were even amused by it, as in the case of ‘Barney’s Cow’, for he was one of the local ‘personalities’.

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  • Pollution and Norpac: a chronology to 1980; the legacy of the last mining done at Tui

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper does not focus on the mining undertaken at Tui from the 1960s until Norpac ceased operating, but instead concentrates on its environmental impact. To clarify the struggles to prevent and then to rectify the pollution, the story is outlined chronologically. It is a story about a company seeking to avoid additional costs by evading, if possible, some of the environmental constraints that were imposed, and, once it abandoned the field, leaving the clean up to others. Not till the twenty-first century was the problem finally solved.

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  • Education in the Te Aroha district in the nineteenth century

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Establishing a school at Te Aroha was delayed while the Education Board waited to see whether the settlement would become permanent. In the interim, temporary arrangements were made. Although some praised the building finally erected, others noted such defects as being cold in winter, and residents met some of the costs of necessary improvements. Details are given of all the teachers, of the development of the school, of the number of pupils, and of the quality of the teaching. At Waiorongomai there was same sequence of erecting and improving the school, and details are given of all the teachers and their teaching. In both communities, residents had to raise money through holding entertainments to fund necessary improvements. Examples of the curriculum are given, along with school inspectors’ reports on the effectiveness of the teaching. Patriotism was emphasized, and corporal punishment was a normal method of control. Irregular attendance handicapped many children’s success, and some parents clearly did not care about sending their children to school regularly. To vary the school year, there were occasional events such as Arbor Day, and a ‘treat’ was held at the end of every year. Providing religious education provoked controversy; and some attempts were made to provide much needed adult education. To conclude, the life of a particularly popular teacher, James William Rennick, is given in as much detail as is available. (Note that ‘most of the early records’ of the Te Aroha school ‘were destroyed by fire’, making a complete history of its early years impossible.)

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