1,735 results for Working or discussion paper

  • Do returns to schools go up during transition? The not so contrary case of Vietnam

    Doan, Tinh Thanh; Gibson, John (2009-10)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    A key stylized fact about transition economies is that the returns to schooling rise as economic reform progresses. Existing research suggests that Vietnam is an exception to this pattern, with a decrease in males’ return from 1992 to 1998, and little increase in the return to females’ education (Liu, 2006). This exception may be because of the gradual economic reform applied in Vietnam, whilst in Eastern European countries the “Big Bang” transformation was conducted. Therefore to see whether Vietnam is still a counter example, we re-examine the trend in the rate of return to schooling in Vietnam over the 1998-2004 period, where the reforms have had a longer time to have an effect.

    View record details
  • Formal collaboration amongst four tertiary education institutions to advance environmental sustainability.

    Merfield, Charles N.

    Working or discussion paper
    Lincoln University

    There is increasing awareness in the tertiary education sector in Australia and New Zealand that many of its activities are not environmentally sustainable and need to be changed. In most cases tertiary educational institutions (TEI) are working individually to address environmental sustainability (ES) while taking advantage of a range of information sources and networks, such as Australasian Campuses Towards Sustainability (ACTS) to help them achieve their ES aims. In the Canterbury region of New Zealand the four major TEIs have formed an official joint working group to address environmental sustainability on all their campuses. The Environmental Sustainability Working Group (ESWG) started in late 2003 as a grass roots network of staff and students who were interested in ES from the four institutions. The vision was to provide a forum for mutual support, sharing knowledge, information and experience, thereby resulting in faster implementation of ES initiatives at the member institutions. To give the group sufficient ‘authority’ to achieve its aims it was considered vital that the group be officially recognised by the institutions and have the support of senior management. This was achieved under the ‘umbrella’ organisation the Canterbury Tertiary Alliance (CTA) (www.cta.ac.nz). The CTA is a formal alliance between the University of Canterbury (UC), Lincoln University (LU), the Christchurch College of Education (CCE) and the Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology (CPIT) and was formed in 2001. The aim of the CTA is “to ensure that Christchurch's four major providers develop tertiary education choices in Canterbury in a complementary way. This ensures cooperation in best practice, cost efficiencies, collegiality and ultimately benefits our students” (www.cta.ac.nz/news/cta1.pdf , examples of other CTA activities are joint purchasing initiatives for information technologies and libraries and reciprocal library borrowing rights). Terms of reference for the Environmental Sustainability Working Group (Figure 1) were endorsed by the CTA executive in June 2004. The CTA executive consists of the Vice Chancellors, Principal and Chief Executive of the member institutions and other senior managers. With this authority the ESWG moved on to develop it first major project: waste minimisation.

    View record details
  • William Nicholls, Hera Te Whakaawa, and their children

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Two years after arriving in New Zealand in 1840, William Nicholls married Hera Te Whakaawa, who had an illustrious whakapapa. For the rest of his life he lived as a Pakeha Maori, trading and farming on land owned by his wife. Like other Pakeha, he was excited by the discoveries of gold, and was involved in a minor way with the Coromandel and Thames goldfields and at Te Aroha, near where he was living, where he and one of his sons did some prospecting. The penultimate Pakeha Maori to die in the Te Aroha district, he was a well-respected member of the community. Nicholls ensured that his children were well educated, and in most cases they did well in Pakeha society and made ‘good’ marriages: the daughters to Pakeha and the sons to Maori. The lives of three of his children are summarized; the others are dealt with in other papers.

    View record details
  • Maori and goldfields revenue

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    When gold was first discovered, the Crown accepted that it needed Maori consent to open their land for mining and had to assuage fears of losing their land. Accordingly, officials devised agreements to protect Maori interests and to provide a financial return. Because of what had occurred in other countries after goldfields opened, both Maori and the government agreed that these must be well controlled. Over time, the regulations increasingly favoured the mining industry rather than the original landowners, who were not informed about the true value of their land, auriferous or otherwise. Maori were confused about their financial entitlement because of changes made by the government to the fees payable to them. Some rangatira, most notably Wirope Hoterene Taipari of Ngati Maru, saw a chance to obtain unexpected (and unearned) wealth, as shown by his insistence on opening Thames to miners despite the opposition of most of his hapu. Later, other rangatira wanted to open Ohinemuri and other potential fields because of the money they were promised by impatient miners and by more patient officials. For a brief time, some Maori considered controlling the potential Ohinemuri goldfield themselves. The main incentive to opening land was the wealth received by landowners during the early days of the Thames goldfield, but as mining faded later so did goldfields revenue. Changes to mining regulations diminished the amount distributed to Maori in ways that some Pakeha considered unfair, and these provoked complaints from Maori. A continuing problem for officials was to ensure that revenue was allocated to the right owners. The system was complex, resulting in delays in paying money and in some Maori obtaining too much and others too little (or none at all), an outcome often resulting from rangatira distributing it as they chose rather than caused by government officials, who did their best to ensure fairness. Over time, the government unilaterally made changes to the system. For their part, miners complained about being required to pay for the right to mine, and encouraged the government to acquire the freehold of goldfield land because miners’ rights on Crown land were one-quarter the cost of those on Maori land. The revenue received by the landowners soon slipped through their fingers, sometimes in traditionally competitive gatherings such as tangi. It can be argued that Taipari, who very shrewdly adapted to the new economy (and experienced its perils, becoming bankrupt in 1870), used his income not just to give himself a luxurious lifestyle but also to boost the mana of his hapu. The government has been blamed for not insisting that revenue be protected for the use of future generations, a concept that occurred to only a few Pakeha at the time and to no Maori; far from considering the interests of their descendents, cultivating the land decreased while this revenue was received. But due to the nature of mining, by the twentieth century the landowners were lamenting the serious decline in their income from this source; despite having sold so much of their goldfield lands, some complained at not receiving any more revenue. Evaluating the outcome, the Waitangi Tribunal indulged in some counter-factual history by suggesting that the government should have encouraged rangatira to set up trusts to protect the income for future generations, but no rangatira had suggested this idea, nor did they ask that they should manage goldfields jointly with the Crown. After imagining that Maori in partnership with Pakeha capitalists could have developed the goldfields without the involvement of the Crown, the Tribunal had to accept that the outcome would have been the same: loss of money (because apart from anything else mining could not remain payable indefinitely) combined with the loss of much of their land.

    View record details
  • Alice Grey Nicholls, daughter of William, and her husband, Charles John Dearle

    Hart, Philip (2016)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Alice Grey Nicholls was the ‘half-caste’ daughter of a Pakeha Maori, William Nicholls. She would marry a Pakeha and have several children, losing her only son but bringing up a family of daughters, who all received a Pakeha education. Having a moko emphasized her Maori heritage, and she was on good terms with many Maori. Charles John Dearle, a Londoner, after some involvement in gold mining spent most of his life working for the government. At the request of Maori landowners, from 1883 until 1895 he allocated goldfields revenue amongst them, a challenging task. He was also involved in land purchases both on behalf of the government and for personal gain. They farmed her land at Mangaiti, near Te Aroha, Alice continuing to farm it profitably after his early death, assisted for a time by her daughters. She purchased more land, and to enable her to sell some portions of it she had it declared European land, an illustration of her astuteness in business; her family obtained a good financial position from her farming and land dealings. When she died, aged 81, her Pakeha friends fondly remembered her.

    View record details
  • Mining data streams using option trees (revised edition, 2004)

    Holmes, Geoffrey; Kirkby, Richard Brendon; Pfahringer, Bernhard (2004-01-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The data stream model for data mining places harsh restrictions on a learning algorithm. A model must be induced following the briefest interrogation of the data, must use only available memory and must update itself over time within these constraints. Additionally, the model must be able to be used for data mining at any point in time. This paper describes a data stream classi_cation algorithm using an ensemble of option trees. The ensemble of trees is induced by boosting and iteratively combined into a single interpretable model. The algorithm is evaluated using benchmark datasets for accuracy against state-of-the-art algorithms that make use of the entire dataset.

    View record details
  • Batch-Incremental Learning for Mining Data Streams

    Holmes, Geoffrey; Kirkby, Richard Brendon; Bainbridge, David (2004)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The data stream model for data mining places harsh restrictions on a learning algorithm. First, a model must be induced incrementally. Second, processing time for instances must keep up with their speed of arrival. Third, a model may only use a constant amount of memory, and must be ready for prediction at any point in time. We attempt to overcome these restrictions by presenting a data stream classification algorithm where the data is split into a stream of disjoint batches. Single batches of data can be processed one after the other by any standard non-incremental learning algorithm. Our approach uses ensembles of decision trees. These tree ensembles are iteratively merged into a single interpretable model of constant maximal size. Using benchmark datasets the algorithm is evaluated for accuracy against state-of-the-art algorithms that make use of the entire dataset.

    View record details
  • Learning from the past with experiment databases

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Holmes, Geoffrey (2008-06-24)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Thousands of Machine Learning research papers contain experimental comparisons that usually have been conducted with a single focus of interest, and detailed results are usually lost after publication. Once past experiments are collected in experiment databases they allow for additional and possibly much broader investigation. In this paper, we show how to use such a repository to answer various interesting research questions about learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies. Alongside performing elaborate comparisons and rankings of algorithms, we also investigate the effects of algorithm parameters and data properties, and study the learning curves and bias-variance profiles of algorithms to gain deeper insights into their behavior.

    View record details
  • A logic boosting approach to inducing multiclass alternating decision trees

    Holmes, Geoffrey; Pfahringer, Bernhard; Kirkby, Richard Brendon; Frank, Eibe; Hall, Mark A. (2002-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The alternating decision tree (ADTree) is a successful classification technique that combine decision trees with the predictive accuracy of boosting into a ser to interpretable classification rules. The original formulation of the tree induction algorithm restricted attention to binary classification problems. This paper empirically evaluates several methods for extending the algorithm to the multiclass case by splitting the problem into several two-class LogitBoost procedure to induce alternating decision trees directly. Experimental results confirm that this procedure is comparable with methods that are based on the original ADTree formulation in accuracy, while inducing much smaller trees.

    View record details
  • Random model trees: an effective and scalable regression method

    Pfahringer, Bernhard (2010-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    We present and investigate ensembles of randomized model trees as a novel regression method. Such ensembles combine the scalability of tree-based methods with predictive performance rivaling the state of the art in numeric prediction. An extensive empirical investigation shows that Random Model Trees produce predictive performance which is competitive with state-of-the-art methods like Gaussian Processes Regression or Additive Groves of Regression Trees. The training and optimization of Random Model Trees scales better than Gaussian Processes Regression to larger datasets, and enjoys a constant advantage over Additive Groves of the order of one to two orders of magnitude.

    View record details
  • Identifying hierarchical structure in sequences: a linear-time algorithm

    Nevill-Manning, Craig G.; Witten, Ian H. (1996-11)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper describes an algorithm that infers a hierarchical structure from a sequence of discrete symbols by replacing phrases which appear more than once by a grammatical rule that generates the phrase, and continuing this process recursively. The result is a hierarchical representation of the original sequence. The algorithm works by maintaining two constraints: every diagram in the grammar must be unique, and every rule must be used more than once. It breaks new ground by operating incrementally. Moreover, its simple structure permits a proof that it operates in space and time that is linear in the size of the input. Our implementation can process 10,000 symbols/second and has been applied to an extensive range of sequences encountered in practice.

    View record details
  • Stacked generalization: when does it work?

    Ting, Kai Ming; Witten, Ian H. (1997-01)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Stacked generalization is a general method of using a high-level model to combine lower-level models to achieve greater predictive accuracy. In this paper we resolve two crucial issues which have been considered to be a ‘black art’ in classification tasks ever since the introduction of stacked generalization in 1992 by Wolpert: the type of generalizer that is suitable to derive the higher-level model, and the kind of attributes that should be used as its input. We demonstrate the effectiveness of stacked generalization for combining three different types of learning algorithms, and also for combining models of the same type derived from a single learning algorithm in a multiple-data-batches scenario. We also compare the performance of stacked generalization with published results of arcing and bagging.

    View record details
  • Use of mobile apps for teaching and research

    Hinze, Annika; Vanderschantz, Nicholas; Timpany, Claire; Cunningham, Sally Jo; Saravani, Sarah-Jane; Wilkinson, Clive (2017)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Applications (apps) are software specifically designed for mobile de-vices. This paper reports on the results of an online survey about app use for teaching and research by students and academic staff at the University of Wai-kato. The questionnaire had 138 respondents. The results of the data analysis in-dicate that among respondents apps are primarily used for communication, data storage, and collaborative work. Nearly a third of respondents reported not using. any apps for academic purposes, with almost half that number citing a lack of knowledge about possible uses. In teaching practice, apps were reported to be used as a means to push information to students, e.g., for distributing reading materials and other teaching resources. In research, apps appeared to be used to self-organise, collaborate with other researchers, store information, and to stay current with research. This paper concludes with a list of implications.

    View record details
  • Do internet search engines support children's search query construction: a visual analysis

    Vanderschantz, Nicholas; Hinze, Annika (2017)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    From previous studies into children's internet search practice, we gained insight into the taught strategies, children's behaviour and common errors while searching. This paper analyses the visual structure of commonly-used internet search engines (ISE) to explore how their interface and interaction design may influence the search practices of children. Common features of ISEs are identified and the effects of typical children's query construction on the visual presentation of information are reported. We use our observations to provide guidelines for the design and development of ISEs for children.

    View record details
  • Reviewing the understanding of the effects of spacing on children’s eye movements for on-screen reading

    Vanderschantz, Nicholas (2008-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper endeavors to consolidate current knowledge and empirical research concerning the use of typography for children’s on-screen reading. This paper is not intended as a full literature review but attempts to raise awareness of the areas required for future investigation. This evaluation indicates a significant gap in the literature of children’s on-screen reading and proposes a need for further investigations in typographical spacing. These future studies need to objectively consider children’s eye movements and the effect of screen based text presentation on children’s comprehension.

    View record details