1,734 results for Working or discussion paper

  • In search of Professional Identity: a descriptive study of New Zealand “Professional” bodies’ codes of ethics

    Oliver, G.; McGhee, P. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    “Professional” representative bodies are increasingly turning to codes of ethics in order to define acceptable standards of behaviour. This study addresses a gap in academic literature by focusing on the codes of New Zealand professional bodies. The term profession has a number of different conceptualisations, which are explored along with the role of codes within the professions. Definitions of codes of ethics are reviewed. Codes from four New Zealand bodies are content analysed according to Cressey and Moore’s (1983) three-point typology: Policy area, Authority and Compliance. A number of differences are noted between the four codes, including area of focus, length, detail, sanctions and the overall utility of the codes in guiding behaviour. Implications for the bodies are discussed, most notably that some of the codes appear not to meet adequate professional standards for guiding ethical behaviour.

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  • Measuring intangible value in business to business buyer-seller relationships: an intellectual capital perspective

    Baxter, RA; Sheelagh, M. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    The value in a firm's relationships needs to be developed and managed carefully and marketing managers need to be able to quantify this value in order to manage it and in order to argue for their share of the firm’s resources to develop it. This paper describes a study that aims to test a hypothesised model of the intangible part of the value that is manifested in buyer-seller relationships and a set of scales to measure it. The focus of the research, which synthesises a framework from the intellectual capital literature, is on business to business situations and on the value of the relationship to the seller, rather than to the buyer. In the study described, data from a survey of relevant managers were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling techniques to test the hypotheses.

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  • Exploring entrepreneurship in the Public Sector: examining the application of Strategic Entrepreneurship to SOEs

    Luke, B.; Verreynne, M. L. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    The purpose of this research is to elaborate on a model of entrepreneurship within the public sector. Case studies involving state-owned enterprises (SOEs) trace three examples of entrepreneurial ventures. A theme of strategic use of entrepreneurial action within these organisations emerges. We argue that these examples are representative of both a field of enquiry and a specific concept which has been termed “strategic entrepreneurship”. On the strength of the findings from this study we are able to draw two important conclusions. First, empirical support is found for the notion of “strategic entrepreneurship”, which is defined and explained in this paper. Second, incidences of strategic entrepreneurship are demonstrated in the SOEs, which extend the range of entrepreneurial types usually described in the public sector.

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  • Do insiders crowd out analysts?

    Gilbert, A; Tourani-Rad, A; Wisniewski, T (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    Both insiders and analysts are involved in the collection and dissemination of information to the market, roles which impact heavily on price efficiency and resource allocation. The differences between the two groups, however, result in a competitive relationship with analysts at a disadvantage as they face greater costs associated with information gathering. As a result they may choose not to participate in a onesided competition. We employ transaction data to examine the impact of firm-year aggregate insider trading intensity on the level of analyst following. We find a negative relationship between insider trading intensity and analyst coverage. This result was driven by large blockholders suggesting that analysts are attracted to higher levels of information asymmetry from which they profit.

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  • Accruals and Cash Flows Anomalies: evidence from the New Zealand Stock Market

    Koerniadi, H; Tourani-Rad, A (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper investigates the presence of accruals and cash flows anomalies in the New Zealand stock market for the period of 1987 to 2003. There is insignificant evidence of accruals anomaly. We find, however, that the poor performance of the highest accruals firms contributes most to the positive hedge return. As earnings are positively associated with accruals, it seems that investors are misled by the high accruals in high earnings firms. Further test results based on discretionary accruals support this hypothesis. We also find strong evidence of cash flows anomaly during the sample period.

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  • A regional model of endogenous growth with creative destruction

    Bond-Smith, Steven Craig (2012-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    We consider a two region growth model with vertical innovations where technical externalities in R&D lead to a technology leading region being the most attractive location for innovative firms. Innovations are produced in the form of quality improvements building on available knowledge and firms choose a technologically advanced location to maximise the productivity of R&D and maintain their niche monopoly. The partial nature of spillovers causes an additional force for agglomeration: the clustering effect. Agglomerated locations have the benefit of local inter-varietal knowledge spillovers for growth while peripheral locations depend on trade and regional knowledge spillovers.

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  • ‘Economics with training wheels’: Using blogs in teaching and assessing introductory economics

    Cameron, Michael Patrick (2011-03)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Blogs provide a dynamic interactive medium for online discussion, consistent with communal constructivist pedagogy. This paper explores the use of blogs in the teaching and assessment of a small (40-60 students) introductory economics paper. The role of blogs as a teaching, learning and assessment tool are discussed. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected across four semesters, students’ participation in the blog assessment is found to be associated with student ability, gender, and whether they are distance learners. Importantly, students with past economics experience do not appear to crowd out novice economics students. Student performance in tests and examinations does not appear to be associated with blog participation after controlling for student ability. However, students generally report overall positive experiences with the blog assessment.

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  • Meridian Energy and Project Aqua: a study in stakeholder identification and salience

    Wells, Philippa Katherine (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    In 2004 Meridian Energy, a New Zealand State Owned Enterprise, announced its decision to cancel Project Aqua, a power generation scheme that would have involved the construction of six dams on the lower Waitaki river, in the South Island of New Zealand. The decision is interesting in terms of its implications for stakeholders who, as a consequence of transformation in the public sector, have arguably few formal avenues to pursue in challenging the decisions of managers of these enterprises. This paper applies a stakeholder identification/salience framework in exploring the position of, and strategies utilised by, those seeking identification and response from managers. A focus to this exploration is provided though reference to an important theme, that of the symbolic importance of the river – as location and as resource. The conclusion reached as a result of this exploration is that both those seeking recognition as stakeholders and decision-makers within organizations should be cognizant of the implications of socio-legal context on strategy and policy.

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  • The impact of Regulatory Change on Insider Trading Profitability: some early evidence from New Zealand

    Gilbert, A; Tourani-Rad, A; Wisniewski, T (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper adds to the scant literature on the tightening of regulations and its impact on the profitability of insider trades by examining the effects of the recent enactment of the Securities Market Amendment Act 2002 in New Zealand. We investigate the abnormal returns around the date of insider transactions both before and after the introduction of this Act. We find that the number of insider transactions decreased just prior to the introduction of the Act; further we observe a marked reduction in profitability of directors. However, the difference between the pre and post-change returns lacks statistical significance.

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  • Stock market volatility around national elections

    Bialkowski, J.; Gottschalk, K.; Wisniewski, T. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper investigates a sample of 27 OECD countries to test whether national elections induce higher stock market volatility. It is found that the country-specific component of index return variance can easily double during the week around an Election Day, which shows that investors are surprised by the election outcome. Several factors, such as a narrow margin of victory, lack of compulsory voting laws, change in the political orientation of the government, or the failure to form a coalition with a majority of seats in parliament significantly contribute to the magnitude of the election shock. Our findings have important implications for the optimal strategies of risk-averse stock market investors and participants of the option markets.

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  • Insider trading, regulation and the components of the Bid-Ask Spread

    Frijns, B; Gilbert, A; Tourani-Rad, A (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    Insiders pose a risk to providers of liquidity, who require compensation for this and consequentially widen spreads. In this paper we investigate the relationship between insider trading regulation and the cost of trading by decomposing the components of the spread before and after the enactment of strict new laws. We find a significant decrease in information asymmetry, which is mainly observed in illiquid and high prechange information asymmetry companies. Results are robust to model specification. We also see a decrease in the contribution of information asymmetry to price volatility. Overall, our results may have implications for markets with similar characteristics.

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  • The supply of Accounting graduates in New Zealand

    Wells, Paul K (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    Declining enrolments in accounting programmes in the United States of America and United Kingdom have been well documented for over a decade and it is suggested that accounting as a career choice is becoming less attractive to domestic students. An Australian study supported this conclusion but further noted that the trend is being masked by an increasing level of enrolments in these programmes by international students. Collectively these studies highlight the vulnerability of accounting programmes to fluctuation in the recruitment and enrolment of international students and further, a potential decline in the number of domestic graduates seeking employment in the accounting profession. This study reports the collection and analysis of data from 8 of the 14 approved tertiary education institutions that provide a recognised academic programme to meet the CA requirements of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand (ICANZ). Its objectives are to identify graduation trends for the period 1997-2002 and to consider the impact of international student enrolment on these trends. The findings suggest that there have been significant fluctuations in the number of accounting graduates since 1997, with domestic graduate numbers rising between 1999 and 2001 and then declining in 2002. During this time the total number of business graduates has remained constant. The decline in graduate numbers coincides with the introduction of the four-year programme of study. As a consequence the findings reported here have implications for the tertiary education institutions, ICANZ and employers.

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  • The relevance of the ‘h’ and ‘g’ index to economics in the context of a nation-wide research evaluation scheme: The New Zealand case

    Anderson, David L.; Tressler, John (2012-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance of the citation-based ‘h’ and ‘g’ indexes as a means for measuring research output in economics. This study is unique in that it is the first to utilize the ‘h’ and ‘g’ indexes in the context of a time limited evaluation period and to provide comprehensive coverage of all academic economists in all university-based economics departments within a nation state. For illustration purposes we have selected New Zealand’s Performance Based Research Fund (PBRF) as our evaluation scheme. In order to provide a frame of reference for ‘h’ and ‘g’ index output measures, we have also estimated research output using a number of journal-based weighting schemes. In general, our findings suggest that ‘h’ and ‘g’ index scores are strongly associated with low-powered journal ranking schemes and weakly associated with high powered journal weighting schemes. More specifically, we found the ‘h’ and ‘g’ indexes to suffer from a lack of differentiation: for example, 52 percent of all participants received a score of zero under both measures, and 92 and 89 percent received scores of two or less under ‘h’ and ‘g’, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest that ‘h’ and ‘g’ indexes should not be incorporated into a PBRF-like framework.

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  • Evaluating research - Peer review team assessment and journal-based bibliographic measures: New Zealand PBRF research output scores in 2006

    Anderson, David L.; Smart, Warren; Tressler, John (2012-04)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper concerns the relationship between the assessment of the research of individual academics by peer or expert review teams with a variety of bibliometric schemes based on journal quality weights. Specifically, for a common group of economists from New Zealand departments of economics the relationship between Performance-Based Research Fund (PBRF) Research Output measures for those submitting new research portfolios in 2006 are compared with evaluations of journal based research over the 2000-2005 assessment period. This comparison identifies the journal weighting schemes that appear most similar to PBRF peer evaluations. The paper provides an indication of the ‘power or aggressiveness’ of PBRF evaluations in terms of the weighting given to quality. The implied views of PBRF peer review teams are also useful in assessing common assumptions made in evaluating journal based research.

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  • Household credit to the poor and its impact on child schooling in peri-urban areas, Vietnam

    Doan, Tinh Thanh; Gibson, John; Holmes, Mark J. (2011-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    This paper uses a novelty dataset of poor households in peri-urban areas in Vietnam to estimate impacts of small loans on child schooling. The Probit and Negative Binomial model estimates roughly indicate no strong evidence of the effect, especially of informal credit. Formal credit is likely to have positive impacts on child schooling, but its effect is not strong enough to be conclusive. The paper suggests that to obtain the target of sustainable poverty reduction, easing access to formal credit sources as well as exempting tuition and other school fees are necessary to keep poor children at schools longer.

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  • New perspectives on the Supply-Chain and Consumer-Driven innovation

    Mowatt, S. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper considers the interrelationship between innovation and the control of the supply-chain in consumer-driven industries. In particular the paper employs the concepts of Control and Innovation Networks as an analytical framework to examine the coordination of the supply-chain and inter-organisational collaboration. In-depth empirical evidence is provided by two cases industries: the UK supermarket and the UK consumer magazine publishing sector. By separating the process of supply-chain integration and coordination from the control of supply-chain, motives for collaboration and conflict were explored. A detailed analysis is given of the innovation process in both sectors, and new patterns of inter-organisational cooperation are identified. Network Hubs were shown to be able to use their control of the critical information of consumer demand to drive innovation and extract value-adding activities. In both cases examined the Innovation Hub was able to greatly extend the industry supplier base through the incorporation of external actors into the value system. This has widened the industry participation, but acted to change patterns of innovation within sectors. Consumer-driven Innovation Networks dependent on access to consumers through retail channels were found to be potentially vulnerable to retailer Control Networks.

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  • Monetary Policy Transparency and Pass-Through of retail interest rates

    Liu, MH; Margaritis, D; Tourani-Rad, A (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper examines the degree of pass-through and adjustment speed of retail interest rates in response to changes in benchmark wholesale rates in New Zealand during the period 1994 to 2004. We consider the effect of policy transparency and financial structure in the transmission mechanism. New Zealand is the first OECD country to adopt a formal inflation targeting regime with specific accountability and transparency provisions. Policy transparency was further enhanced by a shift from quantity (settlement cash) to price (interest rate) operating targets in 1999. We find complete long-term pass-through for some but not all retail rates. Our results also show that the introduction of the Official Cash Rate (OCR) increased the pass-through of floating and deposit rates but not fixed mortgage rates. Overall, our results confirm that monetary policy rate has more influence on short-term interest rates and that increased transparency has lowered instrument volatility and enhanced the efficacy of policy.

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  • Innovation networks and the development of consumer-driven ICT-based Management Systems

    Mowatt, S.; Cox, H. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper examines the use of consumer-driven innovation networks within the UK food retailing industry using qualitative interview-based research analysed within an economic framework. This perspective revealed that by exploiting information gathered directly from their customers at point-of-sale and data mining, supermarkets are able to identify consumer preferences and co-ordinate new product development via innovation networks. This has been made possible through their information control of the supply-chain established through the use of transparent inventory management systems. As a result, supermarkets e-business systems have established new competitive processes in the UK food processing and retailing industry and are an example of consumer-driven innovation networks. The informant-based qualitative approach also revealed that trust-based transacting relationships operated differently to those previously described in the literature.

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  • Paying attention to the Construct Of Salience In Identity-related Literature and Beyond

    Anderson, H.; Matheny, J. (2011-02-21)

    Working or discussion paper
    Auckland University of Technology

    This paper reviews the salience construct, proposing a definition of salience as a phenomenon of connection between a stimulus and a person. Our framing of the salience construct includes its elements, temporality, and several ontological perspectives of salience. In answer to calls for clarity in the use of concepts in the identity-related literature, this framing is applied to Identity Theory and Social Identity Theory. We find each theory unclear in its use of salience, the naming of the elements of salience and the ontological perspective of salience. The importance of gaining clarity in defining and using salience is the contribution to answering questions inherent to identity theories, namely ‘Is an identity triggered by an object of salience, or does the active identity determine which objects of salience gain attention?’ Research propositions based on the proposed definition of salience and the results of the analysis are offered. The implications a precise definition of salience has for identity-related literature and micro-organisational theories, such as leadership and motivation, are briefly outlined.

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  • Australia's Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme (PSWPS): Development impacts in the first two years

    Gibson, John; McKenzie, David (2011-06)

    Working or discussion paper
    University of Waikato

    Australia launched the Pacific Seasonal Worker Pilot Scheme in August 2008. This program was designed to alleviate labor shortages for the Australian horticultural industry by providing opportunities for workers from Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, and Vanuatu to undertake seasonal work. This paper presents an analysis of the development impacts of this program in the first two years, and compares them to those from New Zealand’s seasonal worker program in the same countries. The overall development impact of the scheme to date is small, since only 215 individuals participated in the program in the first two years. We examine the selection of these workers, finding they tend to come from poorer areas of Tonga, but within these locations, appear to be of average income levels, and indeed are similar in many respects to the workers going to New Zealand. We estimate the gain per participating household to be approximately A$2,600, which is a 39 percent increase in per-capita annual income in participating Tongan households. The aggregate impact to date is small, but the experience of New Zealand’s program shows that seasonal worker programs can potentially have large aggregate effects. Finally, we provide some evidence on worker’s opinions about the program.

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