38 results for 1950, Doctoral

  • The Historical and Psychological Significance of the Unorganized Games of New Zealand Primary School Children

    Sutton-Smith, Brian (1953)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In the Spring of 1948 while teaching at a primary school, I observed a small group of girls playing a game called "Tip the Finger". During the game one of the players chanted the following rhyme: "Draw a snake upon your back And this is the way it went North, South, East, West, Who tipped your finger?" I recognized immediately and with some surprise that this rhyme contained elements which were not invented by the children and were probably of some antiquity. I knew, for example, though only in a vague and unlearned manner, that the four pattern of the North, South, East and West and the Snake symbolism were recurrent motifs in mythology and folklore. I was aware also that there did not exits any specialized attempt to explain the part that games of this nature played in the lives of the players.

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  • A fractionation of acid-soluble non-exchangeable potassium in some New Zealand soils into available and non-available forms : a thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of New Zealand [Massey Agricultural College]

    Haylock, Owen Fillbridge (1956)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    One of the most ubiquitous of the mineral elements present in plants, potassium plays on important and essential rôle in their nutrition, being required in large amounts for healthy plant growth. Unlike nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, potassium does not enter into premanent organic combinations in plants but appears to exist in solution as potassium ions in conjunction with soluble inorganic and organic anions. Consequently, specific rôles in the growth of plants are difficult to assign to potassium and only by inference from comparisons of normal and potassium deficient plants can functions he attributed to potassium. The following summary of the effects of potassium on the physiology of plants, abstracted from the review made by Lawton & Cock (1955), shows that potassium affects the following processes.

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  • Physiological investigations on regeneration from bulb scale leaves of Lilium speciosum Thun. : thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of New Zealand

    Robb, Sheila M. (1954)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    During the past twenty years a vast amount of research work has been carried out on the culture of plant tissues or organs excised from parent bodies. Haberlandt's (53) theories in 1902 on the possibility of procuring growth in such isolated tissues were not put into practice until some twenty years later, when the work of Kotte (63,64) and Robbins (97,98) was partially successful and encouraged further research along these lines. Later work by white (123-125) on excised roots, and by Gautheret (43-46), Nobecourt (84-87), and white (126) on cambial tissue proved that excised plant material could be cultured on a suitable synthetic medium. From that time, an ever-increasing volume of research work has been done on the culture of plant tissue, and the technique has found application in the investigation of a variety of problems in plant physiology.

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  • Degradative Studies in the Picrotoxinin Series

    Carman, Raymond Maurice (1958)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    PICROTOXIN is a bitter principle of the berries of the species Mensiperum coculus and Anamirata coculus, creepers which are indigenous to the East Indies. It was first isolated in 1812, and subsequent elementary analysis showed that it contained only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Because of its potent poisonous nature and its physiological action, together with its high oxygen content, picrotoxin has often been referred to as an “oxygen alkaloid”. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a powerful convulsant drug. It is used in medicine as an antidote to barbiturate poisoning, being still preferred for this purpose over many other drugs. It has also been used in cases of alcoholic intoxication, and as a fish poison.

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  • Efficiency in production of butter : being an investigation into certain factors affecting the economic aspects of technical efficiency of butter factories operating in New Zealand, with special reference to the1949/50 season : a thesis presented to the University of New Zealand in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    Vautier, Clyde Percival William (1956)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand's economy is dependent on dairying as a source of national income to a very marked degree, for more than one-third of the country's total export income is derived from this source. Of the total whole milk produced *at the pail* in the 1952-53 season, over 68 per cent was manufactured into creamery butter, yielding 200,000 tons. A revenue in excess of £52,000,000 was derived from this butter. A processing industry of this magnitude and importance merits close attention. Although much time and research have been devoted to technical manufacturing problems, very little analytical work has been conducted in New Zealand on the economic aspect of efficiency in dairy processing industry. Although data are available in the form of reports, compiled statistics and articles, they are descriptive in character, or mere compilations. As such they fail in the important task of analysis of the conditions they describe. It seems strange that in a country like New Zealand where the standard of scientific reasearch is so high and where the dairy industry contributes so much to the national economy, that so little is known of the economic aspects of the dairy industry. Apart from TASKER's two papers TASKER, J.P. (1938;: The Cost and Capitalization of North Auckland creameries during 1935-36. The Accountants' J. (August) - New Zealand Creamery Costs and Pay-outs for the 1937-38 Season. N.Z.Jnl. of Science and Technology, Vol. 26. Np.4 (Sec. A), PP. 204-213, 1944. the amount of analytical research is almost nil. The valuable information compiled by the New Zealand Dairy Board is largely descriptive and statistical and does not throw light upon the problems as investigated by research workers in this field overseas. See Appendix A: "Related Studies".

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  • Energy metabolism, ranging behaviour and haematological studies with Romney Marsh and Cheviot sheep : a thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of New Zealand

    Cresswell, Eric (1958)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Youatt (1776-1847 a) in commenting on British breeds of sheep, writes:- "In all the different districts of the Kingdom we find various breeds of sheep beautifully adapted to the locality which they occupy. No one knows their origin; they are indigenous to the soil, climate and pasturage, the locality on which they graze; they seem to have been formed for it and by it." Some present day students of animal husbandry are now examining the characteristics of these various breeds in the light of the particular environment in which each originated. Their object is to discover what characteristics can fairly be ascribed to particular sets of conditions, or in other words, what possible functional adaptations to environment can be revealed by study of this unique collection of soil stable breeds. Interest in the background of the development of these breeds and its possible influence on them is not however limited to the United Kingdom as British breeds of livestock have been taken to all the corners of the world in the wake of the migratory movements of the British people. For example, in New Zealand, at the time of writing, attention is being focused on the Romney-Cheviot crossbred ewe which is competing against the Romney Marsh for certain hill country and this has prompted consideration of the parent stocks (Plates 1 and 2) from the standpoint of their original habitats. This project was undertaken to augment what has already been done in New Zealand on this subject.

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  • Studies on carotenoid metabolism : being a thesis submitted to the University of New Zealand in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    Worker, N. A. (1957)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Studies on various aspects of carotenoid metabolism have been carried out in the Biochemistry Department now for a number of years. A considerable fillip was given this work in 1954 with the return of Dr. W.A. McGillivray from study leave overseas spent at the National Institute for Research in Dairying at Shinfield, Working in collaboration with Dr. S.K. Kon and Dr. S.Y. Thompson, two senior British workers in the field; and again in 1955 with the reciprocal visit of the latter worker to this laboratory for a period of some nine months. The work reported in this thesis was carried out in the department between April 1955 and June 1957 during which time two separate investigations on different aspects of carotenoid metabolism were undertaken. The first of these was concerned with a study of the utilization of parenterelly administered carotenoids, Particularly in small animals, and the other with experiments on factors affecting the carotenoid and vitamin A contents of milk fat, in particular, on factors affecting the summer decline in the carotenoid and vitamin A contents of New Zealand milk fat. In order to facilitate the presentation of the results of these investigations, the work is reported in two separate sections.

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  • Studies on the Biology of Soil Ciliates

    Stout, John David (1952)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The soil ciliate fauna consists of at least three major groups: (a) Species found wholly or chiefly in granular soils and litters and which may also be found in moss or sphagnum. These species are often larger than other soil species and structurally more specialized. (b) Species also commonly fond in sewage, faeces or polluted water. These are chiefly small holotrichous ciliates which feed on bacteria. They tolerate a wide range of pH, salinity, temperature, oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions. They generally have a well developed cyst physiology. (c) Species of common fresh water genera which differ from the fresh water species chiefly in size. They are generally small holotrichous ciliates fairly widespread in soil although they have not yet been recorded from other habitats. Parasitic species such as Balantidium and anaerobic species such as Trimyema occur very rarely. Suctorians occur occasionally. In the laboratory most species grow best in a medium nearest their natural environment, viz. soil or peat extract. This is particularly true of the first and third groups. The second group grows well in enriched media which are not tolerated by the other species. In a laboratory culture most species are found associated with the bottom detritus but one species, Blepharisma steini, common in litters and occasionally pigmented, avoids the bottom of the culture and is found only at the surface. Soil ciliates are not affected by pH changes over a wide range. In a soil laboratory culture there is less variation than in ordinary laboratory infusions, pH and Eh are fairly stable, and after the first week the bacterial flora consists principally of Pseudomonas. The ciliate fauna is present for about six weeks, the first species appearing within a few days, the majority being present after the first week, and finally the carnivorous species Dileptus alone being present after twenty weeks. The rhizopod fauna does not appear until after the majority of ciliate species have disappeared. The effect of a heavy inoculation of bacteria into a mixed culture of protozoa causes the death of certain species, such as Euplotes aediculatus and the rapid growth of other species such as Paramecium caudstum, Cyclidum glaucoma and Vorticella microstoma which encyst or die when the bacteria are wholly consumed. Other species such as Vorticella striata neither die nor divide rapidly. Continued heavy inoculations of bacteria cause Veritcella microstoma to form unstable cysts due it is suggested to the accumulation of bacterial metabolites and the strongly reducing conditions. These cysts excyst when aerated. They are larger than the normal resting cyst which is formed on the exhaustion of food. Only a few species such as Colpoda steinii, Colpoda inflata and Colpoda cucullus survive anoxia for any length of time at room temperatures. These facultative anaerobes continue to feed and move although they cannot divide or excyst. Rarely they form unstable cysts. Other ciliates which also survive for some time are Stentor roeseli and Vorticella microstoma both normally sessile forms. The former becomes detached and swims freely in the medium with the aid of its peristomal cilia. Vorticella also becomes detached and forms a telotroch or swarmer which does not settle unless oxygen is present. The telotroch will survive in the absence of oxygen a little over two days. It cannot feed and it is suggested that the limited survival of these two ciliates is due partly to the exhaustion of their food reserves. Other species such as Stylonychia mytilus a common fresh water species and Halteria graudinella are extremely sensitive to anoxia. Colpoda steinii, Colpoda inflata and Paramecium caudatum are very resistant to high carbon dioxide tensions and C. steinii will continue to move though not feed or divide at very high carbon dioxide tensions. Halteria grandinella is moderately resistant but Coleps hirtus and Stylonychia mytilus are extremely sensitive. Vorticella microstoma in response to high carbon dioxide tensions forms a telotroch which survives a comparatively long time. The trophic ciliate is much more sensitive. Stentor also becomes detached in high carbon dioxide tensions. Colpoda steinii will grow in salinities up to 3% NaCl but division is progressively inhibited and unstable cysts are formed. Excystment takes place only if the environment is hypotonic to the ciliate. Growth of Colpoda steinii is most rapid at about 27 [degrees] c. At high and low temperatures division is inhibited and unstable cysts are formed. This unstable cyst is similar to the reproductive cyst but unlike that cyst remains inactive until the inhibiting factor, e.g. temperature or salinity, is removed. The factors which inhibit division also inhibit excystment and for this reason it is presumed that a common morphogenetic mechanism, identified with the 'activity' system found in other organisms, underlies them both. An interpretation of the physiology of Colpoda upon this assumption is used to explain the common effect of diverse environmental factors. Encystment and excystment are considered two distinct processes, contrary to the suggestion of Bridgeman (1948) who considered them complementary. Excystment of Vorticella microstoma may be stimulated by very low oxygen tensions but is normally dependent upon the presence of bacteria. Activation of the encysted Vorticella leads to two processes: the differentiation of the telotroch and the escape of the ciliate from the cyst membrane. Following imbibition of water the ciliate bursts through the cyst pore the aboral end foremost. The posterior ciliary wreath is normally differentiated after the ciliate escapes from the cyst membrane and assumes the elongated body form of the telotroch. Sometimes the ciliate fails to escape and a fully differentiated telotroch is formed within the cyst membrane. Following excystment the telotroch becomes free swimming and finally settles. It swims with the aboral end and the posterior ciliary wreath directed anteriorly. Telotrochs are normally formed during excystment or by division but anoxia or high carbon dioxide tensions will also cause the trophic ciliate to form a telotroch. It does not encyst under these conditions contrary to prevailing opinion (Brand, 1923). A consideration of the bionomics of ciliates shows that their ecology is determined in their behaviour, life history and physiology. Soil species, such as Colpoda, are distinguished by their small size, their tolerance of a wide range of soil conditions and the efficiency of their cyst physiology. Fresh water species are excluded from soil either because they are not tolerant of such environmental conditions as high carbon dioxide tensions, e.g. Coleps hirtus, or because they have a poorly developed cyst physiology, e.g. Paramecium.

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  • A study of ecological interaction between introduced and indigenous plant species in the Manawatu district, North Island, New Zealand : a thesis presented at Massey Agricultural College for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of New Zealand

    Carnahan, John Andrew (1957)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The object of the present work has been to investigate, for one district of New Zealand, the sociological relations between the indigenous plant species and those introduced to the country by man. The result of the invasion of New Zealand by people of European origin, and by the plants and animals that they introduced, has been well described by Clark (1949: V) as "a revolutionary change in the character of a region, which occurred in a period of less than two centuries". From the botanical point of view, Cockayne (1928: 361) has said of the present situation: "There are two distinct areas, the one dominated by primitive New Zealand conditions and the other by such as approximate to those of Europe, while between these extremes is a gradual range of intermediates". Allan (1940: 7) has pointed out that: "A new flora and a new vegetation have come into being alongside of, intermingled with, or in place of the indigenous flora and vegetation". Cockayne's "two distinct areas" have been studied in some detail by New Zealand botanists. A great deal has been written about the indigenous communities on the one hand, and about the artificial (economic) communities of introduced plants on ths other. However, much less attention seems to have been paid to the consequences of the contact between the two floras and the two vegetations.

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  • A study of the pleiotropic effects of the dominant gene N in the New Zealand Romney sheep : being a thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of New Zealand, Massey Agricultural College

    Cockrem, Francis Richard Milner (1956)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    In dealing with problems of inheritance in domestic animals the emphasis tends to be placed on those factors which are of economic importance. Such factors are likely to be the result of many interacting and related causes, both genetic and environmental. This has resulted in the use of an approach based on the concepts of multifactorial and population genetics of Fisher, Wright and other workers. Using these concepts, the existence of certain genetic and phenotypic correlations can be shown and the results of certain selection policies predicted. However it is of considerable interest to know the mechanisms whereby these correlations arise. One such mechanism is pleiotropy, and it is proposed in this thesis to show how N-type Romney sheep (Dry and Fraser 1947) can, by a study of the pleiotropy of the gene N, be used to investigate the chain of events leading to various genetic and environmental correlations amongst fleece and body characters of the sheep. The first part of the thesis is concerned with preliminary investigations of the growth of the N-type sheep, which were initiated as part of a study of the carcass quality of lambs from these sheep. It was as a result of this study that the potentialities for the second year's work were realised. The second part is concerned with realising these potentialities in a study of the relationship of the body growth of the lamb and the development of the fleece.

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  • The geography of manufacturing of Auckland : a study in economic geography

    Linge, G. J. R. (1959)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The contemporary New Zealand town: A study in urban geography

    Pownall, L. L. (1955)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • Maupassant the man, as revealed in his works

    Whale, Patricia F. D. (1950)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The effect of angularity on the shearing strength of sands

    Gentry, S. C. (1956)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An attempt has been made in this thesis to analyse the factors which affect the shearing strength of dry sand, as given by Coulomb’s Equation S = p tan φ. Experiments have been carried out using sands of varying angularities and comparing results with those for glass beads. Uniform and ungraded samples were also considered.

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  • Some effects of desiccation of clays in relation to their compression

    Kidson, C. B. (1956)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Laboratory tests of compression, shrinkage under air drying conditions and measurements of negative pore water pressures were made on some clays in the natural and remoulded states, with a view to gaining information on the effects of desiccation on the compression characteristics of fine grained soils and the relationship between negative pore water and effective pressures.

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  • Cylindrical aerial radiation and propagation.

    Cummins, J. D. (1955)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • A microcalorimetric study of the influence of lead ions on the heat of dilution of potassium halides, and the derived thermodynamics of ion association in solutions of the lead halides.

    Austin, J. M. (1956)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Recently the association constants for the formation of the complex ions PbCl+, PbBr+, PbI+ have been determined by measurements of the ultraviolet absorption spectra of the corresponding lead halide solutions. In determining these association constants no assumptions are made about the nature of the complex ion except that a chemical potential may be assigned to it and that the law of Mass Action is applicable to the equilibrium Fb++ + X- [] PbX+ where X- = Cl=, Br-, or I-. According to the Bjerrum theory of ion association it is considered that complex ions are formed by electrostatic forces between pairs of ions separated by any distance between that of the minimum distance of closest approach å of a pair of ions and the Bjerrum minimum distance q. When the association constants for the above reaction were used in conjunction with Bjerrum theory to calculate values of the minimum distance of closest approach å they were found to give results much smaller than the sum of the ionic radii of the lead and halide ions. It has been usual to explain such an observation by suggesting that the bonding in the complex is predominatly covalent. From a review of the theory of electrolyte solutions with reference to ion association, however, it is concluded that such an assumption is not valid because of the rather arbitrary value of the Bjerrum minimum distance q. In order to find more evidence for the formation of complex ions in solution and to try and elucidate the nature of such ions, a microcalorimeter has been used to investigate the influence of lead ions on the heat of dilution of potassium halide solutions. If the complex ion PbX+ exists in lead halide solutions then the complex should be formed when a solution of lead perchlorate is mixed with a potassium halide solution. From the properties of lead perchlorate, potassium halide and perchloric acid solutions one would expect that any difference between the heat of dilution of a potassium halide solution in lead perchlorate and perchloric acid solutions should be due to the formation of complex ions, provided the ionic strength of the undiluted and final solutions are the same in each case. A twin differential microcalorimetric system has been designed and built to measure the heat effects associated with the above dilutions. Because of the small heat effects usually associated with the dilution of an electrolyte, temperature changes were measured by an eighty junction copper-constantan thermal and a Paschen galvanometer circuit sensitive to 2x10-6°C or 10-3 cal. The calorimeters were housed in an air-bath which was immersed in a thermostat electronically regulated to maintain the temperature constant to within 0.001°C. Measurements of the heat of solution of potassium chloride crystals were made to check the apparatus and calorimetric technique.

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  • The absorption spectra of lead halides in water-methanol mixtures and the dissociation constants of intermediate ions.

    Panckhurst, M. H. (1953)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Garrels and Gucker have discussed the deviation of the behaviour of lead chloride solutions from that of a strong electrolyte in terms of both of the Gronwall-La Mer-Sandved extension of the Dbye-Huckel theory and of incomplete dissociation. They conclude that the postulate of incomplete dissociation leads to the more satisfactory treatment of the data but reveal that the various methods of determining the degree of dissociation of the intermediate ion PbCl+ are not in agreement. We here report an extensive investigation of the absorption spectra of lead halides in a range of water methanol mixtures form which we derive dissociation constants for the species Pbcl+, PbBr+, PbI+ in water and mixed solvent at 18°C. We will review the methods which have been used and will later discuss their validity in some detail. Having established the presence of intermediate ions in solution w will discuss the nature of these ions, particularly as regards their bond type and stability in solution. We will also discuss the nature of the absorption process and will attempt a correlation of observed absorption spectra in the crystalline and liquid phases, in terms of a proposed mechanism for the absorption process, and of a proposed absorption spectrum criterion for the nature of complex ions in solution.

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  • A geiger counter concave grating spectrometer for measuring intensities of X-rays of wavelengths between 20 and 400A

    Rogers, J. L. (1952)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    It was decided to attempt the construction of a spectrometer which would make possible the precise measurement of intensities of x-rays in the wavelength range 20-400A. A Geiger counter was chosen as the detector and it was decided to use a concave grating so that a resolving power comparable to that of modern photographic spectrographs could be obtained. The spectrometer was constructed and adjusted and an estimation was made of the effect on the focus of errors in the adjustment. A Geiger counter was constructed and was fitted with a thin celluloid window to permit the entry of the soft X-radiation. When it was found that the plateau position the counter drifted seriously, an electronic method was designed to overcome this drift. Several tests were made on the performance of the spectrometer. After a further adjustment the error in focus was found to be negligible. It was shown that the counting rate, when corrected by a calibration obtained with two radium needles, was accurately proportional to the intensity of X-radiation received. An attempt was made to measure the broadening, by the instrument, of an X-ray line – only partial success was obtained. And finally, the width of the two principle lines of the tungsten emission doublet NIV,V – NVI,VII were measured and a previously unreported component of this spectrum was found. There is some evidence that this line is a satellite of the NIV – NVI transition

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  • The heats of solution of rare gases in water

    Alexander, D. M. (1954)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The intercorrelation of data obtained from the measurement of quantities connected with the solution of gases in liquids has led to a number of empirical laws (e.g. Henry’s Law, Just’s Law) which in turn have led to attempts at theoretical justification. Attention has of course been devoted to the theoretical justification for deviation from these laws. The measurable quantities have been: (a) Solubility under various conditions (b) Molal volumes of gases in liquids These appear to have been the only quantities used. The limited scope of the data has the effect of placing great strain on the accuracy. Much of the data is discordant. Reviews of interrelationships of these quantities and the relation of the quantities to the properties of the pure components of the mixture have been published.

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