71 results for 1950, Masters

  • Some new Gregarines

    Fitzgerald, Norman W (1952)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    VOLUME 1: Introduction – Techniques – Enterocystis zwetkowi n.sp. : Description; Development; Reproduction; Effect of parasite on the host; Discussion on the genus Enterocystis – Gregarina botulina n.sp. : Description; Development; Reproduction; Movement; Effect of parasite on the host; Staining reactions and microchemistry – Stenophora pinorum n.sp. : Description; Development; Reproduction – A Gregarine of uncertain systematic position – Ophryocystis marplesi n.sp. : Techniques; Historical and generic account; Attached phase; Lumen-dwelling phase – Summary – Acknowledgement – Literature Cited VOLUME 2: Plates

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  • Soap flotation of calcite with particular reference to the upgrading of Caversham Sandstone

    MacKenzie, James M.W. (1959)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The Caversham sandstone forms a large deposit, several hundred feet thick extending over an area of the East coast of the Dunedin district. It is also found outcropping in the Lookout Point area. The high carbonate content of the deposit (40 - 65%) has caused attention to be focussed on the sandstone as a possible source of calcium carbonate. Some time prior to 1865 calcination was attempted in a sandstone quarry near the Kaikorai Valley while in 1865 specimens containing up to 68% carbonate were reported(20). The favourable location of the deposit in relation to the Milburn Lime and Cement Company's cement works at Burnside make it of economic interest to this Company as a potential raw material for cement manufacture. Before the sandstone could be used for this purpose considerable upgrading of the carbonate content would be necessary and modifications to its natural mineral content would be desirable. The two possible methods of doing this are: ( 1) to lightly grind the sandstone and size it to determine whether any of the constituents concentrate in particular size fractions (2) to float the carbonates with an anionic collector and modify the silicate, and perhaps the iron distribution, with a cationic collector. Froth flotation is widely used to produce cement raw materials of the correct chemical composition (2) and in all cases fatty acids or their derivatives are used as anionic collectors. This thesis attempts to explain the action of the more important fatty acids as collectors for calcite and to show how these reagents act as collectors for the carbonate minerals of the Caversham sandstone.

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  • The ports of Otago & Bluff : a geographic comparison and contrast

    Farrant, Alfred E (1952)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Geography seeks to describe places or areas as entities in themselves as well as in their relations to other places or areas. The complex interaction of Physical and Cultural features combining in varied ways to form dynamic functioning units can be more clearly understood and some clue can be gained as to the causes of differences by arriving at an areal differentiation. The essential geographic character of any place is made more distinctive when it is compared or contrasted with that of any other place. This study in economic geography seeks to describe and in part, account for the character of two ports in the South Island of New Zealand. It is believed that such a comparative account which compares and contrasts the differential character of the ports, thereby gives a fuller understanding of the separate character of each port and its tributary areas, than if the ports are studied separately. Important factors are emphasised when there are contrasts between places, while similarities between them frequently serve to show that they do not necessarily lead to, or are derived from, similar circumstances. Furthermore places do not in fact exist in isolation. They have reciprocal relations with other places and areas. This is undoubtably true of ports wherever they are situated, but especially where adjacent ports such as the Ports of Otago and Bluff serve a common area. There are no insurmountable physical barriers between the ports, and the effects of history, invention, politics, customs and economics are invoked to illustrate how complexes of all or some of these factors have interacted with the physical features of the landscape to give these ports their distinctive present day characters. The economy of New Zealand is directed towards the overseas marketing of a pastoral surplus. This study seeks to show how dependent upon the maintenance of a regular flow of trade are the rural and urban areas of the portion of New Zealand served by these ports. The motto of the Otago Harbour Board, “By Ships We Live”, succinctly describes this situation.

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  • A history of the Canterbury Maoris (Ngaitahu) with special reference to the land question

    Evison, Harry Charles (1952)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: 110, xiv leaves ; 27 cm.

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  • A study of some effects of progesterone and pregnant mares' serum (PMS) on reproductive phenomena in the anoestrous Romney ewe : a thesis presented at Massey Agricultural College in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in the University of New Zealand

    Lamond, D. R. (1955)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    No abstract.

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  • The influence of plane of nutrition on the breeding behaviour of two-tooth ewes : a thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science

    Till, J. F. (1950)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    No abstract

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  • The Struggle for Imperial Preferential Trade, 1887-1917, with Particular Reference to New Zealand

    Galloway, Ian Thomas (1952)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The years 1887-1917 were years of continuous efforts to reconcile seeming irreconcilables in the economic sphere of relations between Great Britain and those of her self-governing colonies who were rapidly attaining to nationhood: Canada, the Australian and South African colonies, and New Zealand. Simply stated the problem on the one side was how the Mother Country could satisfy the demands of these colonies for some preference to their exports, when to do so would involve her in a fiscal revolution. She stood firmly, with almost religious fervour by the tenets of free trade, and to advocate any radical change would be a policy of political suicide for any party which adopted it as its platform. At the time she was the leader of the world's commerce, a fact that she attributed to the very free trade policy which the colonies would overthrow. From the colonial point of view, the problem was to meet what appeared to them, a growing threat to their own exports by those foreign powers, mainly Germany and America, who through a policy of protection were keeping British products out of their own markets, and who through subsidies and differential rates were able to undersell the colonies on the Home market. These same foreign powers, in spite of colonial protective tariffs, were able to compete with the small local industries, and in many cases could undersell the the produce of the Mother Country in the colonies. The answer which the colonies seized eagerly upon and fought so long and strenuously for, was an imperial preferential trade. Immediately, however, they were faced with the fact that the portion of the Empire most concerned, namely Britain, refused to change her fiscal system for a policy which she considered unnecessary and inimical to her own interests.

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  • A study of changes in the thickness and chemical composition of the skin of sheep during growth and after shearing : being a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M. Agr. Sc., Massey Agricultural College, University of New Zealand

    Wodzicka, Maria Manika (1954)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study reports on the development of a stochastic dynamic model to simulate a pastoral sheep enterprise. The event driven model was constructed using the iconic simulation package, ExtendTM. Events corresponded to the shifting of animals from one paddock to another. Each paddock was represented as a single entity with inherent attributes such as grazing area, sward characteristics and pasture production potential. The rotation sequence for grazing was determined by always allocating the flock of ewes, flock replacements or lambs to the paddock with the greatest pasture mass. Herbage mass was divided into three fractions: leaf, stem and dead. Pasture growth and senescence rates for individual paddocks were calculated from pasture leaf mass. A Micherlich-type function was used to relate leaf mass to total pasture growth. Senescence was assumed to increase linearly with herbage mass. Deterministic or stochastic pasture growth rate data can be generated by the model. Pasture responses to nitrogen were estimated dynamically and moderated for the farm by entering a user-defined response for a standard 50 kg/ha nitrogen application. Animal performance was calculated using average attributes for ewes, ewe hoggets and rams, but lambs were simulated individually. Lamb performance is affected by its date of birth and sex, and this information was generated by a sub-model for mixed-age ewe and ewe hogget reproduction. The potential herbage intake of the sheep was defined by their rumen fill and physiological energy demand, and herbage availability which was defined by pre-grazing green herbage mass and green herbage allowance for rotational grazing and leaf mass for continuous grazing. The grazing time spent in each paddock was derived from a linear interpolation of user-defined herbage allowances for each month of the year. The proportion of leaf, stem and dead material in the diet was calculated according to the proportion of these fractions in the sward and herbage availability. If animals were supplemented they consumed all of the material offered. This caused pasture substitution by decreasing the physiological energy demand and utilising rumen space otherwise taken up by grazed pasture. The partitioning of nutrients by animals was estimated from the ratio between energy intake and energy demand in an animal growth sub-model. This was driven by the DNA, protein and fat content of individual lambs and the average for animals in other sheep classes. Lambs were drafted for sale and graded according to user-defined threshold drafting weights. Carcass weight and fatness (GR) were generated from the live weight and sex of individuals lambs. A genetic optimisation algorithm was developed to optimise the systems control variables incorporated in the model. These were pasture allowance, supplement fed, nitrogen applied and lamb drafting weight. The model was evaluated against three New Zealand "farmlet" grazing experiments. This validation suggested re-parameterisation of the physiological intake limit is needed and that the British equation used to relate intake to leaf mass availability is overly sensible to the pasture conditions found in New Zealand. The model was also used to test the effects of pasture measurement errors on the profitability of a grazing system. Significant differences in profitability occurred when a CV of 40% in measurement of pasture mass was assumed (Gross margin = $NZ 495 /ha vs. $NZ 542 /ha and $NZ 570 /ha for 20 and 0% CV in measurement estimations and normal variability in pasture accumulation rates and Gross margin = $NZ 587 /ha, $NZ 576/ha and $NZ 519/ha, respectively for 40,20 and 0% CV in measurement estimates and no pasture accumulation rate variability). It was concluded that low gains in system performance can be expected by improving the accuracy of measuring pre-grazing herbage mass beyond the level (13-16% CV) provided by the correct use of current measurement techniques.

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  • Herd recording in New Zealand : being a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of M. Agr. Sc., Massey Agricultural College, University of New Zealand

    Edey, T N (1952)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Recent developments have made herd recording in New Zealand the responsibility of a single organisation, the New Zealand Dairy Board, and since August 1st, 1951, there has been virtually only one system of recording. However, since 1904, when the Department of Agriculture introduced systematic testing in the Weraroa herd, many organisations and numerous systems of recording have contributed to the development of the herd recording movement. The time is opportune, therefore, for a study of this work in New Zealand, embracing the history of production recording, a review of the associated investigational work, and an assessment of the past role and probable future place of herd recording in the improvement of dairy cow production. To supplement data from published material much information has been obtained from private files and personal interviews. In this respect, grateful acknowledgement is due particularly to Professor W. Riddet for access to his private files relating to herd recording, and for helpful discussion. Thanks are due to the Director and staff of the Herd Recording Department of the New Zealand Dairy Board for their assistance: to Mr. H. G. Philpott, late of the Dairy Division, Department of Agriculture; to Mr. C. M. Hume; to my supervisor, Dr. A. Stewart for helpful guidance and criticism; and to many others for their ready co-operation. This work was completed during the tenure of a Victorian Government Scholarship.

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  • The influence of importations on the New Zealand pedigree Jersey breed and the level of inbreeding, 1895-1950 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science of the University of New Zealand

    Jhala, Girish Manilal (1952)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Of the 1,845,000 dairy cows in milk in New Zealand in January 1950, 85% were either purebred or grade Jersey cattle (A & P Statistics 1950). With the exception of the Island of Jersey no other country has such a predominance of this breed and it is of interest to both the animal husbandman and the geneticist, to trace not only the growth of the breed in this country but also the changes in its structure during the last half century. There is at present no authoritative information available relating to the breeding methods employed by New Zealand dairy farmers and the lack of comprehensive records of performance in the Jersey breed as a whole makes it unlikely that the selection policies of the last fifty years will ever be adequately presented. The dependence of the more popular breeders on the importations during the present century is, however, generally recognised but no attempt has yet been made to measure the influence of these much popularised animals on the breed as a whole. If imported animals differ in their genotype from New Zealand-bred animals, then a general preference for the former or their descendents should gradually change the average genotype of the breed. That such a preference exists is suggested by Fahimuddin (1952). He found that the Jersey breed was divided into strata and that the herds using imported sires were in the upper and the most important strata. There is no way of calculating whether imported and New Zealand-bred animals do differ genetically, but estimates of the proportion of the genes in the breed as a whole for which imported animals are ultimately responsible are of interest for several reasons.

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  • A study of the linear growth of Cooperia curticei in lambs : thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of M. Agr. Sc.

    Sommerville, Raymond Ian (1950)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The trend in agricultural parasitology in the past two decades has been to emphasise the importance of studies on the cycles of nematode parasitism in farm animals. However, singularly little work has been directed towards and elucidation of those factors in the environment of the host and free living larval parasites which are important in the acquisition of parasitic infestations. The object of this investigation is to study the growth of a common nematode parasite of sheep in an attempt to determine the 'age' of a population. The term 'age', as used here, denotes the time from infestation to the death of the worm. [From introduction.]

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  • Genetic changes in a New Zealand pedigree Jersey herd : being a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of M. Agri. Sc., Massey Agricultural College, University of New Zealand

    Ecka, S T (1952)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The majority of sires used in New Zealand herds are obtained from pedigree breeders and in consequence, the genetic merit of the national herd depends largely upon the quality of the pedigree section of the cattle breeding industry. The continued use of pedigree sires by many commercial farms has probably resulted in a narrowing of the genetic margin between registered and non-registered dairy cattle. Upon this genetic margin the present elite status of pedigree cattle depends and if it were possible to demonstrate that this margin was negligible then the present rigid distinction between pedigree and non-pedigree stock would not be justified. This would have far reaching implications the most important of which would be that there would be little justification in restricting sires used in the industry to those bred in pedigree herds. On the other hand if it were possible to demonstrate that pedigree herds were improving genetically and preserving a genetic margin over commercial herds then the present policy of attempting to effect national herd improvement through the pedigree section of the industry would be vindicated.

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  • The pelleting of clovers and fertiliser : the effects of the localized placement of fertiliser at seeding (pelleting) on germination, morphology and herbage yield of Trifolium species : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science to the University of New Zealand [Massey Agricultural College]

    Smith, C. A (1951)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The pelleting of clover seed and fertiliser may be valuable as a method of introducing the essential clovers into the unploughable hill country. The hill land of New Zealand is agriculturally important because of the large area involved, the animals and animal products produced and its value as a souce of direct and indirect employment. The hill country indirectly influences the valuable lowlands. There are two aspects: firstly, the supply of store stock for fattening and breeding (which results in a continuous transfer of minerals as animal skeletons); and secondly the importance of the hill catchment areas in the prevention of flood discharges, and the silting of rivrs, flats and resevoirs lower down.

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  • The pensioner settlements: a thesis presented for the degree of Master of Arts in History

    Gillespie, G. G. (1954)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is the history of an experiment in colonisation which was also an experiment in colonial defence - the settlement of the Royal New Zealand Fencibles in a series of villages just south of the city of Auckland, then the seat of government of this country. It does not attempt to cover any clearly delineated period, for it is the history of the fencible corps from the tine it was envisaged until the time when the pensioners had become absorbed into colonial society; and although the inception can be dated accurately enough - at 1846 - the process of absorption cannot be said to have ended at any given time. Nor does the writer claim for it any particular line of approach or point of view. It is simply a study of the settlements over a decade or so at the end of which certain conclusions emerge on the importance of the scheme and the degree of its success.

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  • A farm management study of four farms supplying town milk in the Palmerston North Milk District : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in the University of New Zealand

    Mayfield, J. M. (1957)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    No abstract supplied. First 2 paragraphs taken from introduction.

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  • An assessment of the physiological reactions of sows to their environment in Manawatu, New Zealand : being a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Agricultural Science

    Naidu, Rama K. (1959)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    No abstract

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  • An investigation into the body temperature, respiration rate, pulse rate and skin temperature of dairy cows under New Zealand conditions, and a review of existing knowledge on animal climatology with particular reference to cattle : thesis submitted in part fulfilment of the degree M. Agric. Sci.

    Patchell, Murray Rex (1951)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Domestication of animals had only to begin before it became evident to man that some shelter from heat, cold and other environmental extremes was desirable for the animals as well as himself. Down through the ages end particularly in the present century refinement of methods, materials and degree of shelter have been added. There has not been a refinement corresponding in knowledge of the environmental influence in the range between obviously harmful extremes. Narrow margins for farm profit, increasing attention to production efficiency, increasing cost of shelter, war and post-war demands for high production, have exerted increasing pressure to correct this situation. The delay in attempting to get more accurate information on objectives in environmental control has been due to the immensity of the undertaking. Consider the range of environmental variables involved. The environment to be considered includes an almost.infinite variety of combinations of temperature, radiation, humidity, air control, air movement, light, sound space, surfaces, forms, pressure, presence of other animals. and time phases. The range of possible temperatures is vast. Man and animals. occupy a relatively narrow zone. True, they are exposed to the heat of the tropics and the cold of the arctic regions but animals really live, not in the air, but inside their own skins. The active cells of the body are all beneath the skin, the most important of them a long way below the surface. In the process of evolution mammals have arrived at a certain optimal temperature for the body cells and the organism strives to preserve this temperature as closely as possible. The problem is to define the limits of this zone, to describe the mechanism by which the optimal temperature is maintained, and to give an idea of the results when temperature control fails.

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  • Cannon bones : some dimensions, heritabilities and relationships to carcass quality in Romney wether lambs : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M. Agr. Sc.

    Hughes, Alan Herbert (1957)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In the past and to a certain extent at the present time sheep breeders have paid considerable attention to the dimensions of the cannon bones of their animals in the belief that this bone serves as a good indicator of the quality of the conformation and constitution of their animals. Scientific workers interested in meat and carcass quality have also attached considerable importance to the cannon bone as an index of carcass composition and hence of carcass quality. The origin of the sheep breeders beliefs is no doubt due to years of farmer observation supported to some extent by the findings of the scientific workers, who of necessity, using relatively small numbers of animals, have established relationships between the dimensions of the cannon bone and other characters of' economic importance. The existence at Massey Agricultural College of complete records, concerning cannon bone dimensions and carcass quality, collected from a relatively large number of animals, prompted this present study which was intended to yield more accurate results than those previously reported. At the same time this study was designed to yield estimates of the heritability of cannon bone dimensions and their relationship to carcass quality thus providing a basis on which breeders might decide whether or not they could continue to place the present amount of emphasis on the cannon bone in their selection practices .

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  • A study of kemp variation in the fleeces of Cheviot ewes : a thesis presented at Massey Agricultural College in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Agricultural Science in the University of New Zealand

    Orwin, D F G (1959)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Cheviot and its crosses are becoming increasingly important as a hill country sheep in New Zealand. The popularity of the breed is based primarily on its fertility, mothering ability and hardiness. However, its wool, which is regarded as a by-product of minor importance under the English farming system, is of greater economic value to the New Zealand farmer. The fleece of the Cheviot has been criticised by people connected with the wool trade for certain faults. Naturally, such faults lower the value of the fleece. Thus, if the return per sheep is to be maximised the fleece type would need to be improved provided that such fleece improvement does not result in lowered production in other products. Of the faults pinpointed, kempiness is one which from previous experience with Romneys, offers hope of being eliminated without undue difficulty. Observations of the Cheviot flock run at Massey Agricultural College indicated that there was great variability in kempiness at different times of the year and between sheep. Such variability in itself, suggests that kempiness may be eliminated or reduced to negligible amounts by selection of kemp-free sheep.

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  • The role of clover as a factor affecting the summer decline in the vitamin A potency of New Zealand butterfat : being a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science of the University of New Zealand, Massey Agricultural College, March 1955

    Worker, Neil Adrian (1955)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Prior to 1913 it was generally assumed that all fats had similar nutritive values and that their only function in the diet was to supply energy. In that year, however, McCollum and Davis (1) of Wisconsin, found in agreement with the earlier observations of Hopkins (2), that rats failed to grow on purified diets in which olive oil, almond oil and lard provided the sole source of fat, whereas normal growth resulted in the presence of milk fat, egg-yolk fat, or cod-liver oil. Almost simultaneously Osborne and Mendel (3), working independently at Yale, observed the growth response or rats on a purified diet of "protein-free milk", protein, and starch was greatly enhanced when fat was supplied as butter-fat (or as whole milk powder) but not as lard. In a subsequent communication (4), Osborne and Mendel confirmed these results and called attention to the prevalence of an inflammation of the eyes of their rats restricted to the lard diet, a condition which they noted to be speedily alleviated by the introduction of butterfat into the diet. Shortly afterwards a similar eye condition, to which they gave the name xerophthalmia, was described by McCollum and Simmonds (5) and likewise shown to be relieved by a supplement of butter or cod-liver oil.

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