126 results for 1950

  • The tin mines of the Pahang Consolidated Company Limited.

    Cowie, A. B. (1953)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    73 leaves :ill., facsims. ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 71-73. University of Otago department: Mineral Technology.

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  • Some new Gregarines

    Fitzgerald, Norman W (1952)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    VOLUME 1: Introduction – Techniques – Enterocystis zwetkowi n.sp. : Description; Development; Reproduction; Effect of parasite on the host; Discussion on the genus Enterocystis – Gregarina botulina n.sp. : Description; Development; Reproduction; Movement; Effect of parasite on the host; Staining reactions and microchemistry – Stenophora pinorum n.sp. : Description; Development; Reproduction – A Gregarine of uncertain systematic position – Ophryocystis marplesi n.sp. : Techniques; Historical and generic account; Attached phase; Lumen-dwelling phase – Summary – Acknowledgement – Literature Cited VOLUME 2: Plates

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  • Soap flotation of calcite with particular reference to the upgrading of Caversham Sandstone

    MacKenzie, James M.W. (1959)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    The Caversham sandstone forms a large deposit, several hundred feet thick extending over an area of the East coast of the Dunedin district. It is also found outcropping in the Lookout Point area. The high carbonate content of the deposit (40 - 65%) has caused attention to be focussed on the sandstone as a possible source of calcium carbonate. Some time prior to 1865 calcination was attempted in a sandstone quarry near the Kaikorai Valley while in 1865 specimens containing up to 68% carbonate were reported(20). The favourable location of the deposit in relation to the Milburn Lime and Cement Company's cement works at Burnside make it of economic interest to this Company as a potential raw material for cement manufacture. Before the sandstone could be used for this purpose considerable upgrading of the carbonate content would be necessary and modifications to its natural mineral content would be desirable. The two possible methods of doing this are: ( 1) to lightly grind the sandstone and size it to determine whether any of the constituents concentrate in particular size fractions (2) to float the carbonates with an anionic collector and modify the silicate, and perhaps the iron distribution, with a cationic collector. Froth flotation is widely used to produce cement raw materials of the correct chemical composition (2) and in all cases fatty acids or their derivatives are used as anionic collectors. This thesis attempts to explain the action of the more important fatty acids as collectors for calcite and to show how these reagents act as collectors for the carbonate minerals of the Caversham sandstone.

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  • The ports of Otago & Bluff : a geographic comparison and contrast

    Farrant, Alfred E (1952)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Geography seeks to describe places or areas as entities in themselves as well as in their relations to other places or areas. The complex interaction of Physical and Cultural features combining in varied ways to form dynamic functioning units can be more clearly understood and some clue can be gained as to the causes of differences by arriving at an areal differentiation. The essential geographic character of any place is made more distinctive when it is compared or contrasted with that of any other place. This study in economic geography seeks to describe and in part, account for the character of two ports in the South Island of New Zealand. It is believed that such a comparative account which compares and contrasts the differential character of the ports, thereby gives a fuller understanding of the separate character of each port and its tributary areas, than if the ports are studied separately. Important factors are emphasised when there are contrasts between places, while similarities between them frequently serve to show that they do not necessarily lead to, or are derived from, similar circumstances. Furthermore places do not in fact exist in isolation. They have reciprocal relations with other places and areas. This is undoubtably true of ports wherever they are situated, but especially where adjacent ports such as the Ports of Otago and Bluff serve a common area. There are no insurmountable physical barriers between the ports, and the effects of history, invention, politics, customs and economics are invoked to illustrate how complexes of all or some of these factors have interacted with the physical features of the landscape to give these ports their distinctive present day characters. The economy of New Zealand is directed towards the overseas marketing of a pastoral surplus. This study seeks to show how dependent upon the maintenance of a regular flow of trade are the rural and urban areas of the portion of New Zealand served by these ports. The motto of the Otago Harbour Board, “By Ships We Live”, succinctly describes this situation.

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  • Arteriosclerosis in the lower limbs: a pathological study of fifty cases with no ischaemia

    Rodda, Roland Arnold (1950)

    Post-doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: 4 v. : illus., diagrs.

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  • A history of the Canterbury Maoris (Ngaitahu) with special reference to the land question

    Evison, Harry Charles (1952)

    Masters thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: 110, xiv leaves ; 27 cm.

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  • Observations on Filariasis in Western Samoa

    Fitzgerald, Norman W (1955)

    Other thesis
    University of Otago

    Format: 23 leaves. Illustrated.

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  • The Historical and Psychological Significance of the Unorganized Games of New Zealand Primary School Children

    Sutton-Smith, Brian (1953)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In the Spring of 1948 while teaching at a primary school, I observed a small group of girls playing a game called "Tip the Finger". During the game one of the players chanted the following rhyme: "Draw a snake upon your back And this is the way it went North, South, East, West, Who tipped your finger?" I recognized immediately and with some surprise that this rhyme contained elements which were not invented by the children and were probably of some antiquity. I knew, for example, though only in a vague and unlearned manner, that the four pattern of the North, South, East and West and the Snake symbolism were recurrent motifs in mythology and folklore. I was aware also that there did not exits any specialized attempt to explain the part that games of this nature played in the lives of the players.

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  • A fractionation of acid-soluble non-exchangeable potassium in some New Zealand soils into available and non-available forms : a thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of New Zealand [Massey Agricultural College]

    Haylock, Owen Fillbridge (1956)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    One of the most ubiquitous of the mineral elements present in plants, potassium plays on important and essential rôle in their nutrition, being required in large amounts for healthy plant growth. Unlike nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium, potassium does not enter into premanent organic combinations in plants but appears to exist in solution as potassium ions in conjunction with soluble inorganic and organic anions. Consequently, specific rôles in the growth of plants are difficult to assign to potassium and only by inference from comparisons of normal and potassium deficient plants can functions he attributed to potassium. The following summary of the effects of potassium on the physiology of plants, abstracted from the review made by Lawton & Cock (1955), shows that potassium affects the following processes.

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  • A study of some effects of progesterone and pregnant mares' serum (PMS) on reproductive phenomena in the anoestrous Romney ewe : a thesis presented at Massey Agricultural College in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in the University of New Zealand

    Lamond, D. R. (1955)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    No abstract.

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  • The influence of plane of nutrition on the breeding behaviour of two-tooth ewes : a thesis submitted for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science

    Till, J. F. (1950)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    No abstract

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  • Physiological investigations on regeneration from bulb scale leaves of Lilium speciosum Thun. : thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of New Zealand

    Robb, Sheila M. (1954)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    During the past twenty years a vast amount of research work has been carried out on the culture of plant tissues or organs excised from parent bodies. Haberlandt's (53) theories in 1902 on the possibility of procuring growth in such isolated tissues were not put into practice until some twenty years later, when the work of Kotte (63,64) and Robbins (97,98) was partially successful and encouraged further research along these lines. Later work by white (123-125) on excised roots, and by Gautheret (43-46), Nobecourt (84-87), and white (126) on cambial tissue proved that excised plant material could be cultured on a suitable synthetic medium. From that time, an ever-increasing volume of research work has been done on the culture of plant tissue, and the technique has found application in the investigation of a variety of problems in plant physiology.

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  • The Struggle for Imperial Preferential Trade, 1887-1917, with Particular Reference to New Zealand

    Galloway, Ian Thomas (1952)

    Masters thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The years 1887-1917 were years of continuous efforts to reconcile seeming irreconcilables in the economic sphere of relations between Great Britain and those of her self-governing colonies who were rapidly attaining to nationhood: Canada, the Australian and South African colonies, and New Zealand. Simply stated the problem on the one side was how the Mother Country could satisfy the demands of these colonies for some preference to their exports, when to do so would involve her in a fiscal revolution. She stood firmly, with almost religious fervour by the tenets of free trade, and to advocate any radical change would be a policy of political suicide for any party which adopted it as its platform. At the time she was the leader of the world's commerce, a fact that she attributed to the very free trade policy which the colonies would overthrow. From the colonial point of view, the problem was to meet what appeared to them, a growing threat to their own exports by those foreign powers, mainly Germany and America, who through a policy of protection were keeping British products out of their own markets, and who through subsidies and differential rates were able to undersell the colonies on the Home market. These same foreign powers, in spite of colonial protective tariffs, were able to compete with the small local industries, and in many cases could undersell the the produce of the Mother Country in the colonies. The answer which the colonies seized eagerly upon and fought so long and strenuously for, was an imperial preferential trade. Immediately, however, they were faced with the fact that the portion of the Empire most concerned, namely Britain, refused to change her fiscal system for a policy which she considered unnecessary and inimical to her own interests.

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  • Degradative Studies in the Picrotoxinin Series

    Carman, Raymond Maurice (1958)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    PICROTOXIN is a bitter principle of the berries of the species Mensiperum coculus and Anamirata coculus, creepers which are indigenous to the East Indies. It was first isolated in 1812, and subsequent elementary analysis showed that it contained only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Because of its potent poisonous nature and its physiological action, together with its high oxygen content, picrotoxin has often been referred to as an “oxygen alkaloid”. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a powerful convulsant drug. It is used in medicine as an antidote to barbiturate poisoning, being still preferred for this purpose over many other drugs. It has also been used in cases of alcoholic intoxication, and as a fish poison.

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  • Efficiency in production of butter : being an investigation into certain factors affecting the economic aspects of technical efficiency of butter factories operating in New Zealand, with special reference to the1949/50 season : a thesis presented to the University of New Zealand in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    Vautier, Clyde Percival William (1956)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand's economy is dependent on dairying as a source of national income to a very marked degree, for more than one-third of the country's total export income is derived from this source. Of the total whole milk produced *at the pail* in the 1952-53 season, over 68 per cent was manufactured into creamery butter, yielding 200,000 tons. A revenue in excess of £52,000,000 was derived from this butter. A processing industry of this magnitude and importance merits close attention. Although much time and research have been devoted to technical manufacturing problems, very little analytical work has been conducted in New Zealand on the economic aspect of efficiency in dairy processing industry. Although data are available in the form of reports, compiled statistics and articles, they are descriptive in character, or mere compilations. As such they fail in the important task of analysis of the conditions they describe. It seems strange that in a country like New Zealand where the standard of scientific reasearch is so high and where the dairy industry contributes so much to the national economy, that so little is known of the economic aspects of the dairy industry. Apart from TASKER's two papers TASKER, J.P. (1938;: The Cost and Capitalization of North Auckland creameries during 1935-36. The Accountants' J. (August) - New Zealand Creamery Costs and Pay-outs for the 1937-38 Season. N.Z.Jnl. of Science and Technology, Vol. 26. Np.4 (Sec. A), PP. 204-213, 1944. the amount of analytical research is almost nil. The valuable information compiled by the New Zealand Dairy Board is largely descriptive and statistical and does not throw light upon the problems as investigated by research workers in this field overseas. See Appendix A: "Related Studies".

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  • Energy metabolism, ranging behaviour and haematological studies with Romney Marsh and Cheviot sheep : a thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of New Zealand

    Cresswell, Eric (1958)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Youatt (1776-1847 a) in commenting on British breeds of sheep, writes:- "In all the different districts of the Kingdom we find various breeds of sheep beautifully adapted to the locality which they occupy. No one knows their origin; they are indigenous to the soil, climate and pasturage, the locality on which they graze; they seem to have been formed for it and by it." Some present day students of animal husbandry are now examining the characteristics of these various breeds in the light of the particular environment in which each originated. Their object is to discover what characteristics can fairly be ascribed to particular sets of conditions, or in other words, what possible functional adaptations to environment can be revealed by study of this unique collection of soil stable breeds. Interest in the background of the development of these breeds and its possible influence on them is not however limited to the United Kingdom as British breeds of livestock have been taken to all the corners of the world in the wake of the migratory movements of the British people. For example, in New Zealand, at the time of writing, attention is being focused on the Romney-Cheviot crossbred ewe which is competing against the Romney Marsh for certain hill country and this has prompted consideration of the parent stocks (Plates 1 and 2) from the standpoint of their original habitats. This project was undertaken to augment what has already been done in New Zealand on this subject.

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  • A study of changes in the thickness and chemical composition of the skin of sheep during growth and after shearing : being a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M. Agr. Sc., Massey Agricultural College, University of New Zealand

    Wodzicka, Maria Manika (1954)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study reports on the development of a stochastic dynamic model to simulate a pastoral sheep enterprise. The event driven model was constructed using the iconic simulation package, ExtendTM. Events corresponded to the shifting of animals from one paddock to another. Each paddock was represented as a single entity with inherent attributes such as grazing area, sward characteristics and pasture production potential. The rotation sequence for grazing was determined by always allocating the flock of ewes, flock replacements or lambs to the paddock with the greatest pasture mass. Herbage mass was divided into three fractions: leaf, stem and dead. Pasture growth and senescence rates for individual paddocks were calculated from pasture leaf mass. A Micherlich-type function was used to relate leaf mass to total pasture growth. Senescence was assumed to increase linearly with herbage mass. Deterministic or stochastic pasture growth rate data can be generated by the model. Pasture responses to nitrogen were estimated dynamically and moderated for the farm by entering a user-defined response for a standard 50 kg/ha nitrogen application. Animal performance was calculated using average attributes for ewes, ewe hoggets and rams, but lambs were simulated individually. Lamb performance is affected by its date of birth and sex, and this information was generated by a sub-model for mixed-age ewe and ewe hogget reproduction. The potential herbage intake of the sheep was defined by their rumen fill and physiological energy demand, and herbage availability which was defined by pre-grazing green herbage mass and green herbage allowance for rotational grazing and leaf mass for continuous grazing. The grazing time spent in each paddock was derived from a linear interpolation of user-defined herbage allowances for each month of the year. The proportion of leaf, stem and dead material in the diet was calculated according to the proportion of these fractions in the sward and herbage availability. If animals were supplemented they consumed all of the material offered. This caused pasture substitution by decreasing the physiological energy demand and utilising rumen space otherwise taken up by grazed pasture. The partitioning of nutrients by animals was estimated from the ratio between energy intake and energy demand in an animal growth sub-model. This was driven by the DNA, protein and fat content of individual lambs and the average for animals in other sheep classes. Lambs were drafted for sale and graded according to user-defined threshold drafting weights. Carcass weight and fatness (GR) were generated from the live weight and sex of individuals lambs. A genetic optimisation algorithm was developed to optimise the systems control variables incorporated in the model. These were pasture allowance, supplement fed, nitrogen applied and lamb drafting weight. The model was evaluated against three New Zealand "farmlet" grazing experiments. This validation suggested re-parameterisation of the physiological intake limit is needed and that the British equation used to relate intake to leaf mass availability is overly sensible to the pasture conditions found in New Zealand. The model was also used to test the effects of pasture measurement errors on the profitability of a grazing system. Significant differences in profitability occurred when a CV of 40% in measurement of pasture mass was assumed (Gross margin = $NZ 495 /ha vs. $NZ 542 /ha and $NZ 570 /ha for 20 and 0% CV in measurement estimations and normal variability in pasture accumulation rates and Gross margin = $NZ 587 /ha, $NZ 576/ha and $NZ 519/ha, respectively for 40,20 and 0% CV in measurement estimates and no pasture accumulation rate variability). It was concluded that low gains in system performance can be expected by improving the accuracy of measuring pre-grazing herbage mass beyond the level (13-16% CV) provided by the correct use of current measurement techniques.

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  • Herd recording in New Zealand : being a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of M. Agr. Sc., Massey Agricultural College, University of New Zealand

    Edey, T N (1952)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Recent developments have made herd recording in New Zealand the responsibility of a single organisation, the New Zealand Dairy Board, and since August 1st, 1951, there has been virtually only one system of recording. However, since 1904, when the Department of Agriculture introduced systematic testing in the Weraroa herd, many organisations and numerous systems of recording have contributed to the development of the herd recording movement. The time is opportune, therefore, for a study of this work in New Zealand, embracing the history of production recording, a review of the associated investigational work, and an assessment of the past role and probable future place of herd recording in the improvement of dairy cow production. To supplement data from published material much information has been obtained from private files and personal interviews. In this respect, grateful acknowledgement is due particularly to Professor W. Riddet for access to his private files relating to herd recording, and for helpful discussion. Thanks are due to the Director and staff of the Herd Recording Department of the New Zealand Dairy Board for their assistance: to Mr. H. G. Philpott, late of the Dairy Division, Department of Agriculture; to Mr. C. M. Hume; to my supervisor, Dr. A. Stewart for helpful guidance and criticism; and to many others for their ready co-operation. This work was completed during the tenure of a Victorian Government Scholarship.

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  • The influence of importations on the New Zealand pedigree Jersey breed and the level of inbreeding, 1895-1950 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science of the University of New Zealand

    Jhala, Girish Manilal (1952)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Of the 1,845,000 dairy cows in milk in New Zealand in January 1950, 85% were either purebred or grade Jersey cattle (A & P Statistics 1950). With the exception of the Island of Jersey no other country has such a predominance of this breed and it is of interest to both the animal husbandman and the geneticist, to trace not only the growth of the breed in this country but also the changes in its structure during the last half century. There is at present no authoritative information available relating to the breeding methods employed by New Zealand dairy farmers and the lack of comprehensive records of performance in the Jersey breed as a whole makes it unlikely that the selection policies of the last fifty years will ever be adequately presented. The dependence of the more popular breeders on the importations during the present century is, however, generally recognised but no attempt has yet been made to measure the influence of these much popularised animals on the breed as a whole. If imported animals differ in their genotype from New Zealand-bred animals, then a general preference for the former or their descendents should gradually change the average genotype of the breed. That such a preference exists is suggested by Fahimuddin (1952). He found that the Jersey breed was divided into strata and that the herds using imported sires were in the upper and the most important strata. There is no way of calculating whether imported and New Zealand-bred animals do differ genetically, but estimates of the proportion of the genes in the breed as a whole for which imported animals are ultimately responsible are of interest for several reasons.

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  • Studies on carotenoid metabolism : being a thesis submitted to the University of New Zealand in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    Worker, N. A. (1957)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Studies on various aspects of carotenoid metabolism have been carried out in the Biochemistry Department now for a number of years. A considerable fillip was given this work in 1954 with the return of Dr. W.A. McGillivray from study leave overseas spent at the National Institute for Research in Dairying at Shinfield, Working in collaboration with Dr. S.K. Kon and Dr. S.Y. Thompson, two senior British workers in the field; and again in 1955 with the reciprocal visit of the latter worker to this laboratory for a period of some nine months. The work reported in this thesis was carried out in the department between April 1955 and June 1957 during which time two separate investigations on different aspects of carotenoid metabolism were undertaken. The first of these was concerned with a study of the utilization of parenterelly administered carotenoids, Particularly in small animals, and the other with experiments on factors affecting the carotenoid and vitamin A contents of milk fat, in particular, on factors affecting the summer decline in the carotenoid and vitamin A contents of New Zealand milk fat. In order to facilitate the presentation of the results of these investigations, the work is reported in two separate sections.

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