229 results for 1960, Doctoral

  • Aspects of the biology of some New Zealand echinoderms : feeding, growth and reproduction in the asteroids, Patiriella regularis (Verrill, 1867) and Coscinasterias calamaria (Gray, 1840).

    Crump, Robin (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    192 leaves :illus. ; 30 cm. Bibliography: p.138-147. The author's "The flight response in Struthiolaria papulosa giges Sowerby", reprinted from the New Zealand journal of marine and freshwater research, v.2, no.3, Sept., 1968, in pocket. University of Otago department: Zoology

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  • The structure of the bacterophage alpha DNA molecule : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Sutton, William David (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Selective precipitation with polyethylene glycol is an efficient method for concentrating and purifying bacteriophage α and other phages. The phage α DNA molecule has a molecular weight of 33 million. When prepared by phenol extraction of crude phage suspensions, it contains many single-strand breaks. When prepared by phenol extraction of purified phage, it contains approximately one randomly-located single-strand break per molecule. The number of single-strand breaks can be further reduced by changing the conditions of the phenol extraction. The complementary single strands of α DNA can be separated by MAK chromatography followed by self-annealing and hydroxylapatite chromatography, but this procedure results in extensive breakage of the strands. An alternative procedure has been developed using CsCl gradient centrifuging in the presence of polyguanylic acid (polyG) to give an efficient separation of the intact strands in 100 µg. quantities. Both the L strand and the H strand of α DNA form complexes with polyG, although to different extents. The PolyG binding sites in the L strand appear to be confined to a small segment having a similar buoyant density to the H strand. Sequences of consecutive pyrimidine nucleotides of all lengths up to 13 have been detected in diphenylamine-formic acid digests of α DNA. There is a slight general tendency towards clustering of the pyrimidine nucleotides, sequences of lengths 1-4 being present at below random frequencies, and longer sequences being present at above random frequencies. These same general features are found in diphenylamine digests of the separated H and L strands. The distribution of pyrimidine nucleotide sequence lengths in a DNA does not appear to follow a rhythmic code of the type found in RNA phages. Preliminary analyses have been made of the longest pyrimidine nucleotide sequences in α DNA, and of the distribution of various sequences between the two strands. The dialysis of pyrimidine deoxyoligonucleotides was investigated, and found to be strongly influenced by cytosine content. This may reflect an unusual conformation of cytosine-rich oligonucleotides at low ionic strength. Gel filtration was found to provide a satisfactory method for the preliminary fractionation of diphenylamine digests on the basis of chain length.

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  • The French Contribution to the Exploration of the Pacific in the Eighteenth Century

    Dunmore, John (1961)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    THIS THESIS is an attempt to examine and correlate the voyages of the French in the Pacific Ocean during the latter part of the eighteenth century. So far, no study of this kind has been attempted, most recent research work in France and Australia being directed towards problems of colonisation and administration. Existing modern works on eighteenth-century French voyages are very sparse, usually limited to broad accounts of individual voyages or to biographies, with little recourse to unpublished sources. Even studies of importance, such as the Swedish historian Dahlgren's work on trading voyages, remain little known: it is still customary, for instance, to refer to Bougainville as the first French captain to complete a circumnavigation, whereas in fact he was the eleventh.

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  • Set in Perception

    Gribben, John Alasdair (1964)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    When a person is set, he is said to be prepared for narrowed range of possible events. Instead of being equally prepared for all possible contingencies, he expects only a few. The general notion has been variously expressed as selective attention, specific expectancies or hypotheses, relative sensitisation, abstraction, perceptual bias, and in many other ways. Set, as a result of such preparation, is said to lead to greater efficiency of perception, and to greater efficiency of any later behaviour dependent upon the perception.

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  • Spelling-Analysis and Ralph Crane: a Preparatory Study of His Life, Spelling, and Scribal Habits

    Howard-Hill, Trevor Howard (1960)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Ralph Crane first came to learned attention in recent years when Sir Walter Greg in 1925 suggested that the transcripts of Fletcher and Massinger's 'Sir John van Olden Barnavelt' and Middleton's 'The Witch' were the same handwriting. Shortly afterwards, Profession F. P. Wilson published an article showing that both these plays were the work of the scribe Ralph Crane, who professed to have had some employment with the King's Company, and who was also the scribe of Fletcher's 'Demetrius and Enanthe', the Lansdown and Malone MSS. of Middleton's 'A Game at Chesse', and several poetical manuscripts. Professor Wilson recounted the sketchy details of Crane's life and examined some featuers of his transcript dwelling, naturally enough, mainly on the features of the dramatic MSS. Much of his work need not be repeated here, especially that on the textual features of the dramatic MSS. and the discussion of the copy from which they might be derived. On certain general points there are necessary reservations to be made in the light of more recent scholarship; fuller discussion of several questionable conclusions will be made in the final chapter.

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  • Structural Studies of Some Sulphur Bonding Ligands

    Burns, Gary Robert (1966)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    This thesis is a study of the structures and energetics of the metal complexes of dithizone, C6H5.N:N.C(S).NH.NH.C6H5, and thiocarbohydrazide, H2N.HN.C(S).NH.NH2. Dithizone was first prepared and studied by E. Fisher as part of his classic work on phenylhydrazine. It is a weak acid capable of forming intensely coloured metal complexes with at least twenty three elements and, since the work of Walter and H. Fischer, has been used extensively for trace metal analysis, particularly in solvent extraction procedures. The applications of dithizone in analytical chemistry have been covered in numerous review articles and have also been the subject of a book.

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  • An Investigation of Some Reactions of N-Chlorocompounds

    Millar, Keith Raymond (1963)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    A vast volume of literature exists on this subject, the major portion being concerned with nucleophilic aliphatic substitution reactions covered by the general equation:- Y + Alk - X --> Alk - Y + X (SN) where the new bond is formed by co-ordination, and the old one broken by heterolysis, as indicated by the dotted line. There is necessarily and electron transfer from the substituting species Y to the centre of substitution in Alk, and from this centre to the expelled group X; hence Y becomes formally one electronic unit more positive and X one unit more negative.

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  • Studies on Echinoderms of the Southern Pacific Ocean

    Pawson, David Leo (1963)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The collection comprises ten genera (of which one is new) and ten species. Neopsolidium n.g., type species Psolidium convergens (Herouard) has dorsal deposits in the form of small perforated plates up to 0.4 mm in diameter, and cups. The holothurian fauna of southern Chile is generalised, containing few restricted species, and sharing many elements with distant subantarctic islands and with Antaretics.

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  • Mental Disorder, Learning and Psychotherapy

    Adcock, Ngaire V (1964)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the development of therapeutic concepts directly derived from learning theory. The aim of this thesis is to examine concepts of mental disorder and psychotherapy in relation to learning principles. This involves, after some preliminary definitions, a survey of theory and practice in regard to mental disorder and therapy from early times to the present day, in order to get some indication of the broad trends of development and some account of the major theories now competing for recognition. Some discussion of relevant learning theories and principles follows, but no attempt is made to give any comprehensive coverage of the entire field, which in itself, would be an ambitious task for a thesis.

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  • Studies in Middle and Late Tertiary Foraminifera From New Zealand

    Vella, Paul (1963)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Many Uvigerinidae are important zone fossils in deep-water massive sandstones and mudstones of upper Oligocene and Miocene age in Raukumara Peninsula. Twenty-nine species and six subspecies are described, of which nineteen species and three subspecies are new. Subspecific classification is revised, five new genera and four new subgenera being established, partly on morphology and partly on lineage sequences. Time ranges are given in terms of eleven local zones which are correlated approximately with New Zealand stages and with European stages.

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  • The problem of freedom in the later works of the German writer C.M. Wieland (1733-1813), seen in a historical and ideological perspective with special regard to his socio-political views : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Ph. D. in German at Massey University of Manawatu

    Ratz, Alfred Egon (1966)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Die Frage nach der Freiheit des Menschen ist wohl ebenso alt wie die Frage des Menschen nach seiner Bestimmung. Ihre Beantwortung hat letztlich immer von dem Standpunkt derjenigen abgehangen, denen sie gestellt wurde, oder die sie sich selber stellten und hat darum auch stets zwischen den beiden Extremen eines ausgeprägten Freiheitsidealismus einerseits und eines konsequenten Determinismus andererseits geschwankt. Allerdings ist den konsequenten Deterministen die Verneinung der Freiheit wohl immer leichter gefallen, als eine Bejahung den Freiheits-idealisten je fallen Konnte. Denn während es sich nicht verleugnen lässt, dass der Mensch als Teil der köorperlichen Welt auch deren Gesetzen unterstehen müsse, ist ein Beweis seiner Freiheit stets von der Annahme einer "Seele", eines "Geiates", oder auch einer "Vernunft" abhängig, welche den Gesetzen der körperlichen Welt nicht allein nicht unterstehen dürfen, sondern in ihrer Existenz wader mit Sicherheit erkannt noch "bewiesen" werden können. Selbst also wenn man, wie es ja heute der Fall ist, an keine Allgemeingültigkeit des Kauasalitätsgesetzes mehr glaubt, lässt sich doch für eine jede besondere Wirkung eine entsprechende Ursache denken, auch wenn diese Ursacha nicht immer rückwirkend "bewiesen" werden kann. In dem Augenblick hingegen, wo eine Freiheit "bewiesen" werden soil, kann dies entweder nur auf rein begrifflich-logischem Wege geschehen, oder man muss bereit sein, wie Kant etwa, die Freiheit auf den Bereich einer bloss intelligiblen Welt zu beschränken, dabei aber auch von vornherein auf ihren Beweis zu verzichten.

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  • The Geology of Eketahuna (N.Z.M.S.1. N.153)

    Neef, Gerrit (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    An interesting rhythmic sequence consisting of massive mudstone and groups of graded beds each about 10 ft thick is exposed near Alfredton, in the southern part of the North Island. During Opoitian time, rotation along a north-east-trending hinge line west of Alfredton caused one side of a fault block to be relatively uplifted and the other depressed, at intervals of several tens of thousands of years, while sedimentation from south-west-flowing turbidity currents was in progress. The sandy fraction of post-faulting turbidity currents were channelled along the depressed side just to the east of the submarine fault scarp, while on the middle and upper slopes of the tilted block mud was deposited from the turbidity-current clouds. As sedimentation proceeded, graded beds on-lapped eastwards up the slope of the tilted block and across the area where muds had been deposited. Later tilting of the block initiated a new rhythm.

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  • Conjugations of Carbaryl in Insects

    Heenan, Michael Perry (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The conjugation of carbaryl and its initial breakdown products in insects has been examined. Houseflies, blowflies and grass grubs were dosed with [3 H] carbaryl and the water-soluble metabolites examined by a combination of paper chromatographic and ionophoretic techniques. These revealed the presence of 1-naphthyl dihydrogen phosphate, 1-naphtyl hydrogen sulphate and 1-naphthyl Beta-D-glucoside in the extracts, as well as at least seven other unidentified substances, probably including the phosphate, sulphate and glucoside conjugates of oxidation products of carbaryl. The conjugation of 1-naphthol, one of the primary metabolites of carbaryl, was examined in greater detail in flies and grass grubs. Isotope dilution and paper chromatographic analyses of extracts of insects dosed with [14 C]1-naphthol revealed the presence of the phosphomonoester, sulphate, and glucoside conjugate of 1-naphthol, but phosphodiester and glucosiduronic acid conjugates could not be detected. A new metabolite of 1-naphthol was present in extracts of dosed flies. This new metabolite, and also the corresponding p-nitrophenol metabolite, was isolated form extracts of flies fed with the parent phenols and characterised as a new conjugate, the Beta-D-glucoside 6-(dihydrogen phosphate). Some of the properties of this new conjugate were determined. 1-Naphthyl Beta-D-glucoside 6-phosphate probably accounted for one of the unidentified carbaryl conjugates.

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  • The Politics of Education: a Study of Attitudes Pressures and Relations in the New Zealand Education System

    Ingle, Stephen J. (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    Political science is a discipline which purports to study power as a process, a distinct but inseparable part of the social process. It is the general aim of this study to shed light on the inner workings and operating norms of a democratic system. More specifically, the study hopes to offer an empirical examination of the pressures, attitudes, and relationships which constitute one sector of democratic government in New Zealand, the administration of public education. The philosophic starting point for the study is in part pluralistic, in that education 'politics' is seen to be a 'system' of components which can be described and examined and which is itself a component of a more embracing 'system' called New Zealand politics. Briefly stated, it is believed that by studying one sector of governmental activity - that is, one 'system' - in some detail, one may arrive at conclusions which could be applied to wider settings. An alternative method of approach would have been to look at a particular facet of the governmental process - pressure group activity for example - over a wider area. Both methods have drawbacks, but for a complete picture to emerge eventually, both types of study will be needed.

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  • Population Studies on the Southern Black-Backed Gull

    Fordham, Robin Alexander (1966)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    An account is given of ecological studies on the Southern Black-backed Gull Larus dominicanus Licht in which attention is directed to the structure and balance of the Wellington population. This population is large; in the 1963-64 season more than 5,600 pairs were breeding in the study area, and the peak non-breeding season population in 1964 exceeded 12,000 birds. Its growth has been closely associated with the increase of the human population, and the present distribution and dispersal of gulls is strongly influenced by the distribution of " artificial" feeding sites such as refuse tips and meatworks. The population is composed of breeding colonies, night roosting flocks and daily communal flocks which are inter-related by the social activities and dispersal of the birds. Thus the population is more or less integrated, rather than simply comprising discrete geographic units. Seasonal fluctuations in size and age composition of communal flocks are discussed. Breeding success varies between colonies. It is affected by mammalian predation in some, and by drowning in others, while the largest colonies are comparatively safe for breeding birds. The rapid growth of the whole population in the last five to 10 years appears to have some influence on nesting density, clutch size, spread of laying and overall breeding success. In recent years production of young has been twice that required to maintain the population which has grown at the rate of not less than 7.2% annually. Mortality of banded gulls inside and outside the colony is described and the influence of several factors on chick mortality examined. The principal factor limiting the population appears to be the food supply in relation to the number of birds. When numbers increase and the food supply diminishes, major regulation of the population is apparently achieved in the colony by predation (but not cannibalism) of young by adults. Dispersal of banded gulls from the Wellington colonies is very restricted.

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  • An Analysis of the Temperature Profiles of Some Antarctic Lakes

    Shirtcliffe, T. G. L. (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The temperature profiles of certain lakes in Taylor Valley, Victoria Land, Antarctica, are shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that these lakes were formerly cold brine pools; that their levels were raised by the addition of fresh water; and that they have since been heated principally by the absorption of sunlight. The temperature profile of a lake in Wright Valley, Victoria Land, is shown to be consistent with the hypothesis that this lake was formerly warm and stable, as are those Taylor Valley lakes which were analysed; that the addition of a further large quantity of fresh water caused instability and limited convection; and that the heat source is again absorbed sunlight. The study of this lake requires an understanding of convection in the presence of a gradient of solute concentration. A survey of existing knowledge of this type of convection shows that it is inadequate for the task. Experiments which provide the necessary information are described.

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  • Secondary Schools in the New Zealand Social Order, 1840-1903

    McLaren, Ian Andrew (1965)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The New Zealand pioneer, like the North American frontiersman, has become to many New Zealanders a romanticized symbol rather than a real person struggling to adapt to a strange and often frightening environment. 'As ye sow so shall ye reap' was for the pioneer farmer an injunction to be taken literally. After exhausting his resources in buying his small-holding the pioneer farmer 'would start on foot and alone...with a heavy swag of tools etc, on his back, to which, on passing the last older settler, would be added the additional burden of a kit of seed potatoes and some rations. With these he would camp down on his future lowly home and would work hard, for long hours on very scanty fare...to hurry in a patch of potatoes, and to make a pig-proof fence round it. He would then beat a retreat to the more settled districts, where he would seek employment until his little crop of potatoes was grown when he would return with a heavier load of rations...and this time he would be able to put in a larger crop and to build a whare, so that the next season he might have the joy of conveying his family to the scene of their future expectations. But it was hand work, and there were many privations to undergo for the first few years....'

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  • The Adsorption of Phosphate on Mica Surfaces

    Hoare, Raymond Alan (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The surface chemistry of the 001 face of cleaved mica sheets was studied with a view to understanding some of the fundamental processes underlying the phenomenon of fixation of phosphate by soils. Radiochemical techniques were developed to make quantitative studies of the adsorption, an important part of these being practical procedures for obtaining sufficient cleanliness and freedeom from airborne contamination. Lack of uniformity of adsorption, as shown by autoradiography, was taken to indicate contamination, and techniques were developed to avid this. Other techniques enabled the continuous monitoring of the sample during adsorption or desorption kinetic experiments. It was shown that adsorption of phosphate on the untreated mica sheets was low, but the adsorption was greatly enhanced if the mica had been treated with aqueous solutions of certain cations such as gallium, aluminium and iron. Form the measurement of the amount of phosphate adsorbed, as a function of the conditions of aluminium treatment, it was concluded that the phosphate could be absorbed by at least three different processes, all of which could be of importance in phosphate fixation by soils. As well as these processes, which occurred on clean, flat, mica surfaces, there were others, involving the edges of mica and sheets, and unknown, but probably organic, films on both mica and air-water surfaces. These could all be of comparable importance in soils. The kinetic measurements of phosphate adsorption and desorption on aluminium-treated mica indicated that many hours were required for attainment of equilibrium, and were quantitatively consistent with the hypothesis that in some cases the adsorption and desorption kinetics were controlled by diffusion of phosphate into particles of some material, possibly a hydrous oxide, adsorbed on the mica. The existence of such particles was supported by the fact that up to one phosphate molecule per two square Angstrom units of mica surface was adsorbed, (and this did not appear to be a value at which the surface was saturated.) Kinetic measurements of 67 Ga sorption processes were consistent with diffusion of gallium through a thin water film, with a diffusion coefficient several orders of magnitude lower than that of single ions in free solution. This may indicate that the gallium was adsorbing as particles, in agreement with the requirements of the phosphate experiments.

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  • A Magnetic Survey of the Southwest Pacific Ocean

    Ross, David Irwin (1966)

    Doctoral thesis
    Victoria University of Wellington

    The design and construction of a free precession proton magnetometer which give a reading of the field directly in gamma is described. This instrument has been used to obtain magnetic profiles across the Southwest Pacific Ocean during the 1963-65 summer Antarctic supply cruises of H.M.N.Z.S. Endeavour. The magnetic and bathymetric profiler obtained on these cruises have been analysed to determine the nature and structure of the oceanic crust in this region. The region is divided into four divisions. (l) The New Zealand Plateau, with an almost continental crustal thickness. (2) The Southwest Pacific Basin, at a depth of 3,000 fathoms. (3) The Pacific-Antarctic Ridge, pert of the world encircling mind-ocean ridge system. (4) The Ross Sea, an epicontinental sea across the Antarctic continental shelf. Subtraction of the regional field form the magnetic results has enabled a regional field map of the area to be drawn. Comparison with earlier results indicates a westward drift of the earth's field of approximately 0.25 degrees /yr. Some discussion of regional anomalies (~ 100 miles period) has been given. Because of the excellent correlation of magnetic anomalies from track to track across the basin it has been possible to draw an anomaly contour map of this part. This map illustrates the predominantly east-west trend of features over the basin. To the north the features parallel the edge of the New Zealand Plateau. To the south the features swing more towards the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge. A major discontinuity is indicated along a direction 9 degrees E of S meeting the Plateau just southwest of Antipodes Islands. If this discontinuity is extrapolated south to the ridge it meets it at approximately 180 degrees E, where the ridge turns N-E towards Easter Island. Across the ridge the magnetic pattern shows three distinct regions. Over the northern flanks large anomalies are evident but the correlation of anomalies from track to track is very poor. Further south, across the upper flanks, the magnetic records are very much subdued. The extent of this region varies appreciably from track to track. Over the axis of the ridge large, steep-sided anomalies are obtained. These correlate well over part of the region studied. The southern flanks of the ridge are hidden by the Balleny Plateau which seems to form a link between Antarctica and the ridge in this region. The bathymetry records obtained indicate a step-type formation over the ridge. A narrow median valley appears to exist along the axis of the ridge. Some preliminary experimentation has been carried out with continual seismic profiling techniques over the region. The equipment that has been developed and the preliminary results obtained with it are discussed.

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  • The action of ammonia on carbohydrates and related carbonyl compounds : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University of Manawatu, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Grimmett, Murray Ross (1965)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Content removed due to copyright restrictions: Grimmett, M., & Richards, E. (1964). The reaction of DL-glyceraldehyde with ammonia. Australian Journal Of Chemistry, 17(12), 1379. Grimmett, M., & Richards, E. (1965). Separation of imidazoles by thin-layer chromatography. Journal Of Chromatography, 18(3), 605-608.

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