228 results for 1960, Doctoral

  • Some aspects of the biology of Anthoxanthum odoratum L.

    Lambrechtsen, N. C. (1968)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Several aspects of the biology of Anthoxanthum odoratum have been studied in this thesis. The results are based on evidence obtained from the literature and on findings from experiments carried out by the candidate. This thesis has been arranged to give a balanced picture of the biology of sweet vernal grass without over-emphasis on the experiments carried out as it was felt that this would disjoint the lay-out. The main experiments are contained in Chapters 2, 5, 6 and 7. Since A. odoratum is a very polymorphic grass, plants have been collected from five localities in New Zealand (Kaikohe, Te Awa, Lincoln, Gore, and Porter's Pass) to reduce bias in the experimental results. Although this grass has been in New Zealand for about one hundred years only, physiological and morphological differences were found to occur among the plants from these localities. These findings may reduce the significance of the results obtained with A. odoratum as an indicator plant for nutrient availability in different soils. Therefore, it has been recommended in Chapter 6 to use only those A. odoratum plants with known-fertility response pattern for nutrient availability studies. In Chapter 10, the importance of this ecotypic differentiation, its evolutionary significance and its use for plant breeders has been discussed. Only incipient ecotypy could be recognized and no new taxa have been described.

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  • The elements of hybrid electrical system diagnosis.

    Jelinek, Howard J. (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The subject of this thesis is the formulation of diagnostic techniques for detecting and isolating faults in hybrid electrical systems. The techniques are developed using model-variation studies. Diagnostic techniques are valuable because they permit the engineer to a priori assess the performance of a system containing a malfunction. Furthermore, by knowing a priori how a fault will affect output signals, the engineer can design programmed equipment which will automatically monitor the system signals and detect the occurrence of a malfunction. My primary overall objective in this investigation has been to formalize the approach used to develop diagnostic information for hybrid electrical systems. The approach is formulated in Chapter 1. The need for efficient diagnostic analysis methods has grown as systems have become more complex. The heuristic methods for system testing which have been applied in the past are no longer satisfactory. Diagnostic analysis covers the areas of test information generation and test procedure specification. These are complementary. Unless test information can be computed prior to the occurrence of actual system faults, there is no way of knowing for certain that the test procedures specified are effective. Applications of diagnostic analysis are to test equipment specification and diagnostic data development. The latter application is essential to all diagnostic studies and is particularly useful for compiling fault dictionaries or maintenance charts which list the likely faults, given a set of symptoms. The approach formulated in Chapter 1 is explicated in Chapters 2, 3, and 4. Techniques are developed which are useful for deriving fault detection and isolation information and for specifying efficient tests. Methods for applying diagnostic models to analogue, combinationa1 and sequential network diagnosis are developed in these chapters. During the draft stages of this thesis, each chapter was written to "stand alone". Unfortunately repetition has not been completely eliminated from this draft and some unnecessary overlap occurs in various places. In addition, the presentation is largely informal in the sense that it is devoid of mathematica1 development. Because premature mathematical formalism can sometimes obscure the simplicity of the ideas, I have used words where symbols might well have abbreviated the discussion. Owing to the original drafting method and the style of presentation, the number of pages is rather more than might be expected or desired. To the reader, I recommend that Chapter 0 be read quickly. Chapter 1 is long but the ideas are definitive and much of the material forms the background for subsequent chapters. In Chapter 2, the first part may be skimmed. It contains some of the material in Chapter 1 masticated for the analogue network digestive system. The first thirty pages can be scanned. In Chapter 3, Sections 3.2 and 3.6 - 3.7 are largely original. Chapter 4 is short and can be read rather more quickly than the previous chapters.

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  • Pacing and human performance

    Emery, Tuan Grainger (1962)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Most adjustment to the environment are to serially apprehended action signals that are psychologically inter-dependent in the sense that response to any one stimulus change is related to the preceding stimuli, and often in anticipation of those to follow. That is, each item of information is by itself an incomplete action signal. Many of these adjustments are typical elements in the complex skills required to operate modern equipment such as that used in tracking systems. Characteristically, equipment of this sort transmits information at speeds that are not under the operator’s control, and that are independent of his responses; i.e. performance of the particular task is mechanically paced. The modern environment contains numerous situations of this type. These focus attention on the need for experimental study, and greater understanding of human skill in performance when responding to information that is serially presented at a relatively rapid but arbitrary rate, with each stimulus by itself an incomplete action signal.

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  • The intertidal ecology of the rocky shores of the Kaikoura Peninsula

    Rasmussen, Robert A. (1965)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The biology of the echinoid evechinus chloroticus (val.) in different habitats

    Dix, Trevor G. (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    -

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  • A study of Scutus breviculus (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) in marine and esturaine environments, with special reference to blood composition and nerve conduction

    Tucker, Lois E. (1968)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    In 1958 Kinne wrote "What happens in an organism that is adapting to different salinities? Which structural or functional alterations can be observed? Are these alterations primarily expressed on an enzyme, protoplasmic, cellular, organ or nervous level? What is the physiological meaning of these alterations? We know almost nothing about these questions. During the ten years since Kinne wrote this, there have been many papers published on salinity adaptation, but the same questions that he asked can still be asked today.

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  • Studied [i.e. Studies] on the nitrogen nutrition of excised tomato roots

    Mwauluka, K. (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The effect of regulating elements on the dynamic behaviour of power systems

    Umdrill, John Michael (1965)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis describes the analysis of the dynamic performance of a complete hydro electric generating set under conditions of balanced three phase operation. The hydro generating set, or system, under consideration has been limited to a single synchronous generator, its control devices a shunt load at its terminals and a balanced three phase transmission line terminating at an infinite bus. Fig. 1.1 is an overall block diagram of this system. The system as shown in fig. 1.1 is a good representation of an isolated power station supplying power to a large central system via a high voltage transmission line, since the shunt load at the sending end of the line can be used to represent line changing capacitance as well as the local load. In this thesis a general analysis of this system will be produced and a means of reducing this general analysis down to any of the common special cases, such as voltage regulated synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus, will be provided.

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  • Studies on the biology of Trichosurus vulpecula Kerr.

    Gilmore, D. P. (1966)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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  • The ecology of some alpine grasslands

    Burrows, C. J. (1968)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The study of the ecology of the alpine grasslands of New Zealand is in its infancy and one of the lesser-known kinds of grassland is that dominated by the short grass Chionochloa oreophila (Petrie) Zotov. This grass lives near the upper limit of alpine vegetation, usually in hollows where snow lies late into the summer (frontis-piece). The grasslands in which it is prominent are not very extensive in area compared with those dominated by other species but they are an interesting example of vegetation occupying a narrow niche between sites where harsh environmental factors limit plant growth and sites where taller grasses are vigorous to the exclusion of the short grass. The specific purposes of the present study and the general approaches to it are outlined in section I.2. The research embodied in this dissertation was carried out mainly in the field, from 1960 to 1966, in the western mountains of the South Island of New Zealand. Some greenhouse and laboratory study supplemented the field work. Grasslands dominated by Ch. Oreophila are found from about lat. 42°S. to lat. 46°S, mainly west of a line which approximates the eastern boundary of high precipitation (about 50 ins. annual average precipitation) (fig. 1.1). concentrated study was made in the alpine ecosystems at Lewis Pass (lat. 43°22’S. long. 172°23’E.) and Arthurs Pass (lat. 43°35’S. long. 171°34;E.) (fig. 1.2). The main study sites in Trovatore Basin, Lewis Pass and Rough Creek Basin, Arthurs Pass, are on or very near the main divide of the Southern Alps. Other field work was carried out in places between north-west Nelson and southern Fiordland (fig. 1.2). Throughout the dissertation, references to the alpine grasslands apply to these two sites unless specific mention of other places is made. The main study sites are at or above 5000 ft. of altitude on the mountainsides, whilst the valley floors are lower than 2500 ft. and separated from the sites by steep mountainsides. In both cases some 1500 ft. or more of forest was traversed before the alpine grasslands above timberline could be reached. All equipment was backpacked to these sites and samples of soil, plants etc. taken on the mountains were backpacked to the valley floor. Time was always short on visits to the study sites and bad weather often help up the work. Only on a few occasions could overnight stays be made near the sites. Difficulty of access thus placed considerable limitations on the amount of fruitful research effort which could be made. Many of the other sites visited were much more inaccessible.

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  • Ecology of Nothofagus solandri (Black beech and mountain beech)

    Wardle, John (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The species Nothofagus solandri, within which two subspecific taxa are recognised, i.e. Nothofagus solandri var. solandri and Nothofagus solandri var. cliffortioides (for descriptions see below), occupies a wide geographical and ecological range throughout much of New Zealand. It is often the only tree species of any account throughout the headwaters of many of New Zealand's larger rivers, especially those which have their origins on the eastern side of the Main Divide in the South Island and in the central mountain ranges of the North Island. For this reason the species is one of our most important protection forest trees and the forests which it forms must be kept in a healthy regenerating condition in order that they effectively act as a barrier to excessive soil erosion and minimise fluctuations in water yield. To fulfill these requirements and thus to aid in the management of these forests, some knowledge of the ecological behaviour, the life history, and variations in the life history of Nothofagus solandri is necessary. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the life history and ecological behaviour of Nothofagus solandri, to relate variations in the life history to habitat and thus to attempt to explain the present geographic and ecological distribution of the species. During the course of this study many of the forests of which Nothofagus solandri is a component were visited, but detailed experimental work was mainly confined to the Craigieburn Range and Mt Thomas in North Canterbury and the Kaweka Range in the Central North Island.

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  • A study of the variation and ecology of Rumex acetosella L. sensu latus.

    Harris, Warwick (1968)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    What follows is the consequence of a very simple observation – “Rumex acetosella occurs in a wide range of habitats and its forms varies considerably between these different habitats.” The approach to the elucidation of this observation has been deliberately broad. For convenience of presentation the study has been divided into three groups. In the first part data is presented measuring the range of phenotypic expression shown y by R. acetosella as this is recorded from field collections in New Zealand and herbarium material encompassing the entire range of the species complex. These data are viewed in conjunction with observations on the morphology of populations grown in the experimental garden at Ilam, Christchurch. Attempts are made to correlate the phenotypic and genotypic components of variation with crudely defined environmental parameters of the collection sites. The data of the first part are examined in reference to the taxonomy of the species complex. In the second part the results of a series of experiments examining physiological aspects of variation in R.acetosella are presented. The gross – external morphology of the leaf has been stressed as a measurement of the response to environmental factors. The third part includes experiments conveniently defined as investigations into the ecology of the species complex. Particular emphasis is placed on studies of the competitive interactions of R.acetosella with Lolium and Trifolium repens based on the de Wit (1960) model of plant competition for the same space.

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  • Studies of the solid state: The mineralogy and environment of some New Zealand glauconites.

    Seed, D. P. (1964)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Glauconite occurs as the major constituent of late Cretaceous and Tertiary greensand deposits formed in New Zealand during periods of marine transgression. These glauconites are generally found to be high in potassium content, and X-ray studies show them to be well ordered, some of them falling into the highest classification group for this mineral (1M). These 1M glauconites are not restricted to any particular period, and are usually found associated with calcareous or quartzose sediments. Recent glauconites, now forming off the East Coast of New Zealand, have not yet fully developed the glauconitic structure and are extensively interlayered with an expandable montmorillonitic clay. They form mainly as foraminiferal casts, in sediments which often contain very little clay sized material. Glauconites from different deposits are shown to react differently to both mechanical and chemical wreathing, the effects being largely due to the manner of cementation of the glauconite crystallities. The change in glauconite structure on heating has been studied both by X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption methods. On heating to 1000ºC a spinel is formed; the order of crystallisation of this spinel is found to depend on the Fe : Mg ratio in the glauconite. The origin of glauconite is discussed. X-ray investigation of vermicular pellets, which occur in large quantities in South Canterbury and North Otago, upholds an existing theory of the change of biotite – or other mica – to glauconite. Many other deposits from these areas suggest foraminiferal casts, formed by either the alteration of existing degraded clay particles, or by a method of precipitation from solution. This later method is found to be possible by synthesis on a laboratory scale, and is suggested as a highly probably method of formation for some greensand deposits.

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  • Ultrastructure of vacuoles in root tips.

    Fineran, B. A. (1969)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The aim of this project has been to gain experience in electron microscopy and to investigate selected problems of ultrastructure in root tips using techniques of thin sectioning and freeze-etching. The work was conducted while employed as a full time University Lecturer. Studies began in 1963 and were continued in 1964 during visits to the Physics and Engineering Laboratory (P.E.L.) D.S.I.R., Lower Hutt. Towards the end of 1965 practical work began at Canterbury following the acquisition of equipment and improved facilities. In 1968 a further visit was made to P.E.L. to use the recently installed freeze-etch equipment. In the absence of experienced ultrastructural plant oytologists for guidance throughout most of the study, one of the principal tasks has been the selection of material and problems amenable for investigation. Exploratory work was carried out on the fine structure of meristem and differentiating root cap cells (Fineran, 1966 – included here as an appendix). From this study a more detailed investigation developed on the ultrastructure of vacuoles. The final results and discussions of this work on the vacuole and the necessary preliminary experiments on the preparation of root tips for freeze-etching form the basis of this dissertation. Each chapter represents a unified topic within the framework of the project. The literature relevant to each topic is reviewed in the chapter concerned. An integral part of the project involved the establishment of an electron microscope laboratory in the Botany Department of this University.

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  • An analysis of the solid-state spectra of trivalent rare earth ions

    Wybourne, B. G. (1960)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of trivalent rare earth ions in crystals at low temperatures are characterized by groups of very sharp lines in the visible, near ultraviolet and infrared. It is generally agreed that these sharp line spectra are due to transitions between states of the 4fn configuration of the ion which is partially shielded from fluctuations in the surrounding crystalline field by the outer closed 5s²p⁶ shells. The average field, however, penetrates the ion and results in a crystalline Stark splitting of the free ion levels, each level of the free ion being characterized by the quantum numbers L S J. The magnitude of the Stark splittings of the free ion levels, and the resultant number of components into which the levels are split depend on the nature of the crystal field and the L S J state of the level. By studying the behaviour of particular L S J states of the free ions on immersion in a crystalline field a considerable amount of information on the nature of the crystal field could be gained. Unfortunately, the L S J states of the free rare earth ions are unknown apart from the trivial case of 4f¹ (Ce³⁺). Thus, before the rare earth ions can be profitably used as probes, an attempt must be made to determine the L S J designations of the individual groups of lines observed in the solid state. The research reported here represents a successful attempt to assign L S J values to the observed line groups of many of the rare earth salts. In chapter one the broad field of the solid state spectra of the rare earth ions and their interpretation will be sketched while the succeeding chapters will outline the calculation of the energy levels of 4fn configurations and the application of these calculations to the interpretation and assignment of L S J values to known line groups of their spectra.

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  • Studies on nematodes of dune sands

    Yeates, G. W. (1968)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    Although nematodes abound in soils little has been discovered about their role in the biology of soils. Dune sands were selected for this study since if this "relatively simple" habitat could be understood it would provide a starting point to an understanding of the vastly more complex biology of agricultural soils. It was thought that the nematode fauna in sand dunes would be depauperate, that the environmental conditions might be simple enough to be understandable, if necessary duplicable, and that their variation might explain variation in the nematode fauna. In an attempt to achieve some understanding of the nematode fauna the following points were considered:- 1. Taxonomic characterisation of the nematode fauna to species level. Although de Man (1880, 1884) described several species of nematodes from the coastal dunes of the Netherlands, the nematode fauna of this environment is poorly known. Clark (1960, 1963) and Killick (1964) have described new species from New Zealand dunes. 2. Examination of the population changes of the species in relation to season, depth and other environmental factors. The majority of population studies have concerned economically important species in agricultural soils. 3. Elucidation of trophic relationships. The trophic relationships of many nematodes are unknown or unsubstantiated. Goodey (1963) gives the essence of the knowledge of the bionomics of each genus. 4. General examination of the biology of "free living" nematodes, aided by comparison between conditions in vivo and in vitro. Because of the supposed simplicity of the biota, physics and chemistry of dune sands comparison of results obtained from cultures with those obtained in the field seem more acceptable than if species from a complex agricultural soil were used.

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  • The question of post-Rangitata Peneplantation in New Zealand

    Gair, H. S. (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    This thesis is an investigation of the question of peneplanation following the Rangitata Orogeny. Two opposed views had been put forward:- A. That the Rangitata Orogeny was followed by peneplanation and that both were of New Zealand-wide extent, B. That the Rangitata Orogeny was not of New Zealand-wide extent and that on the contrary, in the East Cape and Marlborough, the sequence was continuous and hence there was no peneplanation. The investigation thus necessitated the examination of Cretaceous sequences and their relationship to older rocks in certain key areas viz. East Cape, Marlborough, North Westland and Northwest Nelson. It is shown that:- A. Physiographic evidence of peneplanation in the form of exhumed fossil peneplain surfaces, and stratigraphic evidence in the form of deep weathering (=leaching) on an old landscape, exist in most places throughout New Zealand and the outlying Chatham and Campbell Islands. The apparent absence of exhumed fossil plain remnants in areas of thick Cretaceous marine sediments is considered to be due to the high dip of the cover beds and not that peneplanation did not take place. The dip is appreciably greater than the natural declivity of hill slopes and any fossil plain surface below would thus tend to be truncated rather than exhumed by erosion processes. The absence of stratigraphic evidence of peneplanation (i.e. leaching and quartzose coal-measures) in these areas is considered to be due to an increased tempo of diastrophism resulting in rapid marine transgression that eroded-off the leached zone completely in most places and was too rapid to allow the formation of coal-measures. B. The stratigraphic position of the peneplain is below the Paparoa and Pakawau beds of the Greymouth and Northwest Nelson areas respectively and not immediately below the quartzose coal-measures (Brunner-type beds). C. In all the areas examined major metamorphic unconformities are present either between Cretaceous sequences. The terms “covering strata” and “undermass” are valid and all the beds recognised as cover are everywhere younger than the youngest undermass rocks. D. The Korangan Stage is not valid and the Urutawan Stage is redefined to include the fossils formerly considered to be diagnostic of the Korangan. E. The lithological correlation of the Korangan Stage (= Koranga Sandstone in part) with the Taitai Sandstone at Mt Taitai is wrong and the Taitai Series is thus restricted to apply to only the Taitai Sandstone and the Mokoiwi Mudstone and their age correlatives when proved by fossils. F. The oldest known cover beds are ?Aptian and the youngest undermass ?Hauterivian. The amount of time missing is of the order of 20 million years which is considered to be sufficient for peneplanation to have taken place. It is thus concluded that both the Rangitata Orogeny and subsequent peneplanation were New Zealand-wide in extent and that at the time New Zealand was part of a much larger landmass that included the Chatham and Campbell Islands.

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  • On the metabolism of sulphur in excised roots

    Reay, P. F. (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    The assimilation of several sulphur compounds in excised roots grown in culture was studied. To obtain sulphate deficient conditions a sulphate impurity was removed from the sugar component of the medium by ion exchange. The sulphur compounds investigated were sulphate, taurine, cysteic acid, elemental sulphur, cystine, cystamine, glutathione, homocystine and methionine. Of these possible sources of sulphur, sulphate, cystine, homocystine and methionine were utilized for growth. All four were available for the synthesis of protein cysteine and methionine. The roots responded to elemental sulphur but whether the roots assimilated the sulphur before or after oxidation to sulphate was not established. 2. The radioactive sulphur compounds present in tomato root extracts were separated after ion exchange fractionation by thin layer electrophoresis and chromatography. Thiols present in these extracts were protected from oxidation by reaction with iodoacetamide, but acetamidocysteine was later found to be unstable. 3. Among the compounds labelled by incubating tomato roots for quarter of an hour with carrier-free (³⁵S)sulphate, were glutathione, cysteine and methionine as well as protein cysteine and methionine. 4. When both sulphate and methionine were supplied to roots, exogenous methionine was incorporated preferentially into protein methionine whereas the label of sulphate, after assimilation into cysteine was incorporated preferentially into protein cysteine. Glutathione was but slightly labelled and cysteine not at all by methionine in the presence of sulphate so sulphate or a metabolite reduced the conversion of methionine into cysteine and supplied most of the sulphur for cysteine synthesis.

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  • Studies on proliferation in sunflower tissues induced by escherichia coli

    Fenwick, E. L. (1967)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

    An investigation has been carried out on the effects of inoculating sunflower tissues with Escherichia coli following Philipson and Sheat’s (1963) report of the stimulatory action of this bacterium on sunflower hypocotyl tissue. No consistent results could be obtained when aseptically grown decapitated seedlings were inoculated with E.coli, so that in most experiments 1 mm-thick disks of sunflower hypocotyl were grown on a simple sucrose-inorganic salts medium which was modified on occasion with the addition of indole acetic acid. Disks cultured in this way were inoculated with bacteria and grown in the light or darkness at 250 C. _ After treatment observations were made of the gross morphology of the disks while fresh and dry weights were recorded. In addition a detailed histological study was carried outo The reactions to inoculation of older sunflower plants and of clonal pith tissue were also investigated. Hypocotyl disks inoculated with E. coli and grown in the light proliferated from the lower surface and formed numerous long roots while those in the dark were usually inhibited in comparison with uninfected disks. Inoculation of disks with the crown gall bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, induced proliferation mainly from the upper surface and a few short roots were formed. Although the addition of 0.01 ppm IAA to uninfected disks induced growth similar to that in E. coli- inoculated disks grown in the light on the simple medium, histological studies showed that the proliferating tissues were different in charactero The histological studies also showed distinct differences between the proliferation in E and AQ tumefaciens-infected disks. By increasing the time between wounding and inoculation with E. coli the growth response of the disks was shown to be closely connected with wounding. Since E. coli can produce IAA and vitamins under certain culture conditions, and other bacteria have been shown to produce cytokinins, it was suggested that the bacteria produce some sub stances of this nature. reacting with freshly-wounded tissue, which induce proliferation in light-grown disks or inhibition in disks grown in the dark.

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  • A four-dimensional formulation of classical kinematics.

    Appleby, Peter Graeme (1966)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Canterbury Library

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