674 results for 1970, Doctoral

  • Studies on the foaming properties of proteins : the role of soluble leaf proteins and other surfactants in the persistence of bloat foams : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Jones, William Thomas (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Methods were developed for the isolation of the soluble leaf proteins in as pure a form as possible and free of any phenoloxidase products. This protein material was separated into two fractions (Fraction 1 and Fraction 2 proteins). A detailed study of the foaming properties of these soluble protein fractions was made so that the conditions necessary for the production of stable foams from these solutions could be evaluated. The nature of the foams derived from bovine salivary secretions and the soluble proteins of the holotrich protozoa were also examined. The foams derived from the leaf and protozoal proteins were rigid and of high stability only when the foams were of high compressive strength. In contrast the salivary secretions produced foams of low compressive strength but high persistence. For protozoal proteins and Fraction 1 protein of white clover and red clover the optimum pH for foam production was close to pH 5.8 to 5.9 and for the plant Fraction 2 proteins in the range 5.1 to 5.4. The foams derived from bovine salivary mucoprotein was unaffected by changes in pH over the range 3.5 to 7.5. The foams generated in vitro from rumen liquor were of low compressive strength but extremely high persistence, and their properties were very different from those of the foams generated from either the plant or protozoal proteins except that they showed maximum foam persistence in a similar pH range. The concentration of Fraction 1 protein in the rumen liquor was below the minimum concentration required to produce stable Fraction 1 protein foams. Of this low concentration only 24% was surface denatured in production of these very stable rumen foams. The significance of this result is discussed. Apart from the low level of Fraction 1 protein, other low molecular weight proteins together with a major component containing carbohydrate as well as protein, were observed on analysing the rumen liquor by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and cellulose acetate electrophoresis. This major component resembled salivary mucoprotein in its schlieren profile in an analytical ultracentrifuge. This material was isolated by preparative ultracentrifugation and some of its properties examined. It was not precipitated by trichloracetic acid, unlike the protozoal and plant proteins, but was precipitated by 60% ammonium sulphate, 80% ethanol, and an equal volume of 1% cetavlon. The antibody to this material gave a positive precipitin reaction with the salivary mucoprotein, the sensitivity of which could be increased by incubating the salivary mucoprotein with neuraminidase, an enzyme which removes the sialic acid from the mucoprotein. molecule. The significance of these findings in relation to other work is discussed. The action of various surfactants that have been implicated in the bloat syndrome on the foaming properties of Fraction 1 protein foams was examined. Thus calcium was found to increase the rigidity of Fraction 1 protein foams, slightly increase the rigidity of Fraction 2 protein foams at high calcium concentrations only, but was without effect on salivary mucoprotein foams. Sodium polygalacturonate increased the persistence of Fraction 1 protein foams at concentration greater than 0.04% w/v. Two salivary secretions were examined for their effect on Fraction 1 protein foams. The first of these was bovine salivary mucoprotein, which whilst increasing the persistence of the foam, decreased its rigidity. Foams of maximum persistence were produced from solutions containing Fraction 1 protein/mucoprotein in the ratio 2/1 , w/w. The second salivary secretion examined was the oesophageal mucin. This material did not produce stable foams by itself, but was an extremely effective stabilizing agent of Fraction 1 protein foams. The most effective antifoaming agent of the polar lipids of red clover examined in this thesis, was phosphatydyl choline which at a concentration of 50 µg ml-1 completely inhibited the production of Fraction 1 protein foams. Addition of mucoprotein to lipid/Fraction 1 protein mixtures which would not support stable foams, resulted in production of extremely persistent foams. Both Fraction 1 protein and mucoprotein were essential for the formation of these foams which resembled the properties of the foams generated in vitro from rumen liquor. From this study it appeared that neither the plant nor the protozoal proteins by themselves could account for the properties of the rumen foams. The properties of the rumen foams could be reproduced by generating foams from mixtures of Fraction 1 protein/plant lipid and salivary mucoprotein. The soluble proteins and the foaming properties of extracts of bloat and non-bloat provoking legume pastures were examined. It was found that the temperate non-bloating legumes contained condensed tannins which precipitated the soluble leaf proteins and thus by removing the plant foaming agents from solution inhibited foam production from these extracts. These tannins were isolated from Lotus pedunculatus Cav., and were shown to form insoluble complexes, not only with the soluble leaf proteins, but with protozoal proteins, salivary mucoprotein, and the protein present in rumen liquor. Tannins were common in the Lotus species, but of the Trifolium species examined, they were found only in Trifolium arvense L.. The significance of incorporation of tannins into bloating pastures in an attempt to eliminate bloat is discussed. The non-bloating tropical legumes, apart from the Desmodium species, did not contain tannins but were lower in soluble leaf protein, and the bloat potential could be correlated with the compressive strength of the foams derived from extracts of these plants.

    View record details
  • The complexing of calcium and magnesium by organic plant constituents : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Chemistry/Biochemistry Department, Massey University

    Molloy, Leslie Francis (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The definition, occurrence and aetiology of hypomagnesaemic tetany is discussed as an introduction to the practical implications of the present investigation. The current hypotheses, involving an unfavourable pasture chemical composition, accounting for the binding of Ca++ and Mg++ in the intestinal tract of ruminants are reviewed. The role of undigested or partly-digested plant cell wall materials is advanced as another such hypothesis, and the present investigation of the cell wall polymers of a typical pasture grass is outlined. The comprehensive analysis of the grass Yorkshire fog (Holcus lanatus) involves, initially, the extraction and purification of pectic substances, lignin, hemicelluloses and cellulose. The non-volatile organic acid content of the grass is also determined. Analytical methods are developed and evaluated in order to assess the homogeneity of these isolated cell wall fractions, and their chemical constitution investigated to aid in determining any possible relationship between cation complexing and polymer (or monomer) structure. The pectic fraction isolated from Yorkshire fog is approximately 90% polygalacturonic acid while the hemicelluloses are basically arabinoxylans with varying hexose and uronic acid content. Attempts tofractionate the predominant hemicellulose, hemicellulose B, into homogenous arabinoxylans gives inconclusive results. Most of the chemical evidence, however, indicates the presence of three discreet polysaccharides in this fraction - a simple arabinoxylan, an acidic galactoarabinoxylan and a neutral glucan. Infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy is utilised to determine the purity of the isolated lignin as well as the presence of typical lignin functional groups. Yorkshire fog lignin has a moderate phenolic hydroxyl and -OMe content and, like most other monocotyledonous lignins, gives yields of syringaldehyde, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde on alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation. The outstanding feature of the lignin is its appreciable content of etherified hydroxyl groups in the 4-position of the aromatic ring and the low yield of syringaldehyde. The water-soluble, non-volatile organic acids are quantitatively determined by anion-exchange resin chromatography and their identity confirmed by paper chromatography. The major acid is the tricarboxylic acid, trans-aconitic acid, which is determined spectrophotometrically. The normal plant acids, citric and malic, are present in moderate quantities while the alicyclic acids, quinic anc shikimic, are only present in minor amounts. A limited amount of data on the seasonal fluctuation of these organic fractions in Yorkshire fog is presented. Electrolytes and the concept of ionic activity are discussed in the introduction to the study of the ability of these plant fractions to bind Ca++ and Mg++ in an aqueous salt solution of cationic composition similar to that of the intestine of a ruminant. A cation exchange method is developed whereby changes in the activity of Ca++ or Mg++ on the introduction of a plant fraction into the salt solution are reflected in the cationic composition of the equilibrium resin. An investigation is undertaken of a large number of calibration solutions varying in [ca++] and[Mg++], but constant in [Na+], [K+] and [NH4+], the latter cations being present in excess as 'swamping' cations. Regression expressions relating solution cation concentration to the equilibrium resin cation concentrations are derived and used as calibration equations to determine the amounts of bound and ionic Ca++ and Mg++ in solutions in equilibrium with the plant fractions. The pectic substances, lignin and the organic acids are effective in complexing a large proportion of the solution Ca in a non-ionic form but only lignin and the organic acids display a significant complexing of solution Mg++. Except for hemicellulose B (branched) at a slightly alkaline pH, the hemicelluloses and cellulose have little ability to complex either Ca++ or Mg++. The complexing results are discussed in terms of the relationship of polymer structure to observed cation affinity. Factors involved in cation binding are: - the charge and degree of hydration of the cation itself; - distribution and degree of esterification of carboxyl groups in the polymer; - monomer conformation; - type of glycosidic linkage in the polymer; - the possibility of hydrogen-bonding and non-bonded interactions between substituents on the polymers; - solution pH. The in vivo implications of the results are finally discussed in the context of general ruminant nutrition and alkaline-earth metal absorption discussed in the introduction.

    View record details
  • Biogeochemical studies of nickel and copper in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Timperley, Michael Horace (1971)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The accumulations of various metals by some indigenous trees growing on the Riwaka Basic Complex, North-west Nelson, New Zealand, were investigated by the application of statistical techniques to biogeochemical data. Particular reference was given to nickel and copper to evaluate the usefulness of plant analysis as a prospecting tool. Preliminary investigations showed that serious errors could result from the methods of sampling plants and soils and sampling procedures were adopted to minimise these errors. In addition, errors arising from atomic absorption analysis were found to be significant for some metals. Leaves and twigs from three Nothofagus species, W.racemosa and Q.acutifolia as well as their associated soils, were collected and analysed for nickel, cobalt, copper, zinc, chromium, calcium, magnesium, manganese and potassium. The plants were also analysed for iron. These results showed that each species accumulated different, but related, amounts of various metals and that they distributed these metals in different ways between their leaves and twigs. N.truncata and N.fusca which are closely related genetically, accumulated metals to similar degrees, while N.menziesii which is not closely related to the other Nothofagus species accumulated metals to differing degrees. Relationships between the metal concentrations in the plants and in the soils were evaluated by computing correlation coefficients. The best correlations for nickel were obtained for the Nothofagus genus although the other species also showed highly significant correlations. The Nothofagus genus also showed the best correlation for copper. In view of the above results, a more extensive study of the Nothofagus genus was carried out. A second survey was undertaken in the same area in which leaf samples of this genus as well as their associated soils were collected. While the metal concentrations in the soils collected in this survey compared well to those collected previously, the metal concentrations in the plants, in general, did not show good agreement. Trend analysis was used to compare in detail the nickel and copper contents in the leaves of the Nothofagus genus with the concentrations of those metals in the soils. It was shown by comparison of the trend surfaces and residuals that the accumulation of nickel was determined primarily by the concentration of nickel in the soil, whereas for copper the accumulation by the plant was a function primarily of the specific requirement of the plant for this metal. Multiple regression analysis was used to improve the prediction of the copper and nickel concentrations in the soil from the concentrations of these metals in the leaves of the Nothofagus species, by making quantitative allowance for the processes influencing the accumulation of these metals by the plants. Improvements of between 25% and 35% were obtained at the 90% confidence level. Inter-metal ratios in the leaves were considered as possible indicators of nickel and copper concentrations in the soil but the results were discouraging. Studies were made of the locations and chemical forms of nickel, copper, zinc and iron in both freeze-dried and fresh leaves from some trees growing on the Complex. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure the concentrations of these metals in both plant extracts and on the electrophoresis and chromatography papers used to separate the metal complexes in the extracts. Results indicated that the major part of the nickel present in the leaves was not contained in cell organelles nor was it bound to cell walls, but existed as a positively charged complex in either the cytoplasm and/ or the vacuole. Copper, zinc and iron were distributed differently with varying fractions, depending on the metal, existing predominately as anionic complexes. It was concluded that the research embodied in this thesis had illustrated the application of statistical techniques to biogeochemical studies, showed that biogeochemical prospecting for nickel in New Zealand was feasible and that methods of total analysis for metals could be applied to the study of microgram amounts of metals in biological systems.

    View record details
  • Studies on Cooperia curticei (Ransom 1907) a nematode parasite of sheep : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    Ahluwalia, Jagjit Singh (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis records in part I studies on the ecology of the free living stages of Cooperia curticei , both under controlled and natural conditions. At constant temperatures free living stages developed throughout the temperature range of 10-37c. At all temperatures each larval stage occupied the same proportion of the total developmental time to reach the infective stage. The relationship between the rate of development in log days and temperature was found to be linear. Under natural conditions the rate of development was most strongly correlated with mean maximum air temperature and was not significantly different to that observed under controlled conditions. When faecal cultures were kept at 10°C, 27°C and 37°C a higher proportion of eggs completed development to the infective stage at 27°C than at the other temperatures. Under natural conditions the percentage recovery was influenced by weather conditions particularly rainfall. Submergence of the free living stages in water inhibited their further development. First and second stage larvae survived longest at temperatures between 5°C and 15°C but for a much-shorter time than infective larvae. Between the extremes of -6 and 52°C, the longest survival of infective larvae was 312 days at 10°C. Techniques are described for the recovery of Cooperia curticei larvae from sample units of pasture, soil and faecal pellets. Under natural conditions the maximum survival of larvae from monthly experiments ranged from 9 - 26 weeks. Maximum survival was particularly influenced by temperature. Infective larvae survived through the winter. There was an exponential relationship between the percentage survival and percentage of larvae recovered from the herbage. Vertical migration of larvae appeared to be primarily affected by rainfall and evaporation. It is concluded that infective larvae of Cooperia curticei are available to grazing sheep throughout the year. Theoretically the nematode can complete from 9 - 11 generations in each year. Part II of this thesis records experiments on the relationship between Cooperia curticei and the host sheep. Experiments carried out in vivo and in vitro demonstrated that infective larvae of C. curticei exsheath under conditions provided by the rumen. The process of exsheathment was similar to that described for H. contortus. A series of experimental observations were made on the effect of Cooperia curticei infection in sheep using animals of differing ages, on different diets and with various sizes of infection. The prepatent period of infection was 14- 16 days. Peak egg counts were recorded 5 - 7 days after infection became patent . There after they declined gradually in sheep given 10,000 larvae but in sheep given 50,000 to 100,000 larvae the decline was more abrupt. The egg output per female worm was found to range up to 1,958 eggs per day. No clinical sign of infection was observed from any experimental animal. Body weights, wool growth and blood analyses showed no significant changes and no gross lesions or significant histopathological changes were observed. The results indicate a well balanced relationship between C. curticei and the sheep. The distribution of the C. curticei in the small intestine was skewed, and most of the worms were recovered from 5- 10 feet from the gastric pylorus. A predominance of female worms was observed at all levels of the small intestine. Maximum percentage recovery of C. curticei was observed in sheep given 10,000 larvae. Experimental animals with higher doses besides giving a lower rate of recovery showed inhibition of development and stunted growth of worms. Serum and intestinal mucus samples from infected animals were tested for precipitating antibodies by gel diffusion against five antigens. Antigens were prepared from first stage, second stage, ensheathed third stage, exsheathed third stage larvae and exsheathing fluid. Variable numbers of precipitin lines were obtained with serum and mucus from infected sheep more than 6-7 months old. Sheep 2-3 months old showed no such response but did show evidence of an acquired resistance to infection.

    View record details
  • Malignant lymphomas in sheep : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Johnstone, Alastair Campbell (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Malignant lymphoma is the general term applied to any neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue, including Hodgkin's disease and reticulum cell sarcoma. This group of neoplasms are among the most commonly occurring spontaneous neoplasms of sheep in New Zealand, being exceeded in frequency only by carcinomas of the small intestine and primary neoplasms of the liver. It has not been established whether malignant lymphoma is of sporadic or enzootic occurrence in this country, but from limited epidemiological observations in which on two occasions the disease was seen in two animals from the same property, it is possible that the latter distribution occurs. This and most other series indicate that mature sheep are most frequently affected but the disease does occur in younger sheep and lambs. A study has been made of the pathology of ovine malignant lymphoma, based on 22 cases, most of which were collected from slaughter-houses and histological material from a further 18 cases filed previously at this laboratory. In nearly all cases nodular or diffuse lesions, consisting of accumulations of invasive neoplastic cells of lymphoid origin, were distributed widely throughout the body. Gross evidence of tumour in the lymph nodes was present in all except three cases of the disease. This involvement was usually multiple, with many of the carcass and visceral lymph nodes containing tumours. The spleen contained neoplastic lesions in 73 per cent. of the cases examined. Of the non-lymphoid organs affected by malignant lymphoma, the liver, kidney, bone marrow, heart, small intestine and abomasum predominated. Of the 40 cases examined, 37 were classified as lymphosarcomas and three as reticulum cell sarcomas. The degree of cellular differentiation in the lymphosarcomas varied from primitive lymphoblastoid to well differentiated lymphocytic cell types, with the less differentiated forms being more common. Some nuclear and cytoplasmic abnormalities which have previously been described as being non-specific in other types of neoplasms were seen in specimens from 10 cases which were examined with an electron microscope. Support for the hypothesis that "malignant lymphoma of sheep is transmissible" was sought by attempts to experimentally transmit this disease to lambs using intraperitoneal injections of cell-free tumour extracts during gestation or within 12 hr of birth. To date none of these sheep, which are only three years old, have developed overt neoplasia but 20 of them have developed elevated numbers of circulating lymphocytes. This has persisted for periods of two years or more and there is evidence to indicate that this should be interpreted as a preclinical phase of malignant lymphoma. To investigate an hypothesis that malignant lymphoma of sheep is due to infection by an oncorna virus, electron microscopic examinations were made on specimens from fresh tumour as well as on preparations from tissue cultures which had been inoculated with various ovine lymphoid tumour homogenates. These studies were inconclusive and it was not until cultures of phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes derived from the sheep with experimentally transmitted lymphocytosis were examined that virus-like particles, consistent with the morphology of "type-A" oncorna viruses could be demonstrated. They were present in membrane-limited vacuoles and cytoplasm of these cells and less frequently extra-cellularly in the five experimentally inoculated sheep examined but were not present in any of the lymphocytes from an equal number of control sheep. Lymphocyte cultures from 15 of the experimentally inoculated sheep showed sensitization to antigens in ovine malignant lymphoma homogenates when tested by a macrophage migration inhibition test. This test also demonstrated the presence of common tumour specific antigens in five of the six tumour extracts used either for sheep inoculations or in testing for macrophage inhibitory factor production. In an attempt to accelerate the development of overt neoplasia in three of the experimentally inoculated animals showing a persistent lymphocytosis, they were given a combined course of the immunosuppressive agents azathioprine and horse anti-sheep lymphocyte globulin. This resulted in a profound fall in circulating lymphocytes and while the cell mediated immunity was suppressed, as judged by the survival of skin allografts, macrophage migration inhibition in response to tumour antigens was not significantly altered in two of the three animals under treatment. A close relationship was demonstrated in the experimentally inoculated sheep between the occurrence of lymphocytosis, the development of tumour specific cell mediated immunity and the presence of virus-like particles in phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes. This evidence combined with the demonstration of common apparently tumour specific antigens in malignant lymphoma extracts used in these studies provides strong support for the hypothesis"that this disease of sheep is transmissible and is most probably due to an infection with an oncogenic virus". The exploitation of the sheep model described is of potential value for the comparative study of preneoplastic events in the general field of cancer research.

    View record details
  • The design of nutritional food products for a developing country : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Ph.D. in Product Development

    Edwardson, William (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    A systematic methodology was developed for designing food products for the Philippines. This was the initial stage of an investigation at Massey University into the application of quantitative product development techniques to the food industry in developing countries. A study of economic, nutritional and food industry conditions indicated that Taiwan, Korea and the Philippines best satisfied the conditions necessary for the use of product development in the food industry. The Philippines was chosen for this first investigation and the quantitative study was on the selection of raw materials in formulation according to their nutritional properties. The selection of raw materials in the product development was made quantitative by use of linear programming. A linear programming model was developed to select, from a list of one hundred and seventy raw materials indigenous to the Philippines, a raw material mixture capable of satisfying twenty-six nutrient requirements as well as several interrelationships between nutrients, at a minimum cost. In the development of this model, investigations were made on the effects of altering nutritional requirements, raw material costs and compositional data and also the variety of raw materials. The linear programming model was found particularly useful for investigating the effects of changes in the nutritional requirements and in raw material costs, but rather unpredictable for changes in raw materials. The precision of the model was much greater than could be expected of the nutritional composition data. The mixture of raw materials selected to meet the Philippine nutritional requirements was developed, using the product development system, to an acceptable canned meat-loaf-type product. This product was selected, from a number of systematically generated product ideas, by a critical evaluation method, based on information on processed food eating patterns, food processing facilities and processed food distribution systems, obtained during a visit to the Philippines in 1973. This product was designed to be manufactured in large meat processing plants in the Philippines and distributed to the small stores throughout the country. The linear programming model was also used to guide the design of a food product enriched with chemical nutrients and capable of rapid introduction to Philippine diets to supplement the basic rice meal. The linear programming technique provided quantitative data for evaluation of the feasibility of enrichment with various types of food materials and chemical nutrients for the cost of various levels of enrichment and for design of product formulations, allowing for nutrient losses during processing. A coconut bun with nutrient enriched filling was developed. This product could be manufactured in the many bakeries scattered throughout the Philippines. Chemical analysis of the two products showed reasonable agreement with calculated nutrient levels, but generally nutrient levels were below calculated levels, implying that some scaling up of nutrient requirements may be necessary for this model. The real value of the systematic methodology cannot be finally assessed until an attempt is made to implement the industrial production in the Philippines and introduce the products into the diets. This first stage, of the development of the raw material selection model has provided a basis for further work on inclusion of the other properties of the raw materials such as eating quality, so that a comprehensive model for the quantitative design of foods can be finally achieved.

    View record details
  • Some aspects of meiosis in normal and Robertsonian translocation-carrying rams : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Veterinary Science at Massey University

    Chapman, Helen Margaret (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    SOME ASPECTS OF MEIOSIS IN NORMAL AND ROBERTSONIAN TRANSLOCATION-CARRYING RAMS A study was made of the meiotic chromosomes in air-dried preparations from 35 genitally sound rams (Ovis aries). The quantity and quality of dividing cells were best when testicular material was obtained by castration under local anaesthesia from rams during their breeding season. Sodium tri-citrate solution was used as hypotonic treatment and the cells were fixed in suspension with glacial acetic acid and absolute alcohel plus a trace of chloreform. Slides were stained either with aceto-orcein or with Giemsa for a "C-banding" technique. Fourteen of the rams bad a normal mitotie karyetype (54,xy) and the remainder were heterozygous or homozygous carriers of a Massey I, Massey II or Massey III Robertsonian translocation and had the following mitotic karyotypes: 53,xy,t(5q26q); 52,xy, t(5q26q) t(5q26q); 53,xy,t(8q11q); 53,xy,t(7q25q); 52,xy, t(7q25q) t (7q25q). One ram was heterozygous for both the Massey I and Massey III Robertsonian translocations. Analysis of primary spermatocyte cells showed that a modal number of 27 chromosomal elements was present in normal rams, while in both heterozygous and homozygous Robertsonian translocation-carriers, a modal number of 26 chromosomal elements was recorded. Heterozygous carriers of the three types of Robertsonian translocations, which involved non-homologous chromosomes, were characterized by the presence of a trivalent in cells at the diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I stages. The modal number of chromosomal elements was recorded in over 80 per cent of the cells at diakinesis and metaphase I in the heterozygous and normal rams while over 77 per cent of the cells in the Massey I homozygote and 90 per cent of the cells in the Massey III homozygote had modal counts. An association between the sex bivalent and a small autosomal bivalent was recorded in 7.5 per cent of the diakinesis-metaphase I cells from normal rams and in between 3.4 and 4.7 per cent of the cells from the translocation-carrying rams. Separation of the sex chromosomes was observed in 0.5 to 1.5 per cent of the diakinesis-metaphase I cells in both Robertsonian translocation-carrying and normal rams. However no evidence at metaphase II of the sex chromosome aneuploidy expected if the two univalents disjoined at random at first anaphase whs observed. Eighty seven metaphase II figures from normal rams and 1,146 metaphase II figures from Robertsonian translocation-carrying rams were recorded. Detailed analysis of 1,131 cells showed that over 80 per cent of the non-polyploid metaphase II figures from the normal and homozygous rams had euploid chromosome arm counts. In contrast between 54 and 67 per cent of the metaphase II figures from the heterozygous rams were euploid. No hypermodal cells were recorded at metaphase II in either the normal or homozygous rams but from 4.5 to 9.2 per cent of the metaphase II cells in the three types of heterozygous ram were hypermodal. The results obtained in this thesis showed that the proportion of cells with chromosome arm counts of 29 was higher in the heterozygotes than in the normal or homozygous Robertsonian translocation-carrying rams. There were significantly greater numbers of cells with 29 chromosome arms than with 31 chromosome arms in the three heterozygote classes which suggested that chromosome loss due to lagging at first anaphase or technical manipulation, must have occurred in addition to non-disjunction. Statistically significant differences in chromosome arm distributions were shown to exist between rams which were heterozygous for a particular translocation and rams which were homozygous for the same translocation or normal rams. In addition to differences between individual rams, a significant difference between the Massey II Robertsonian translocation and the Massey I and III Robertsonian translocations occurred. Fewer balanced translocation X-bearing metaphase II cells were recorded than expected in three of the four Massey II Robertsonian translocation heterozygotes. Non-translocation bearing X and Y cells predominated at metaphase II in the three translocation types when total metaphase II counts were considered, and greater than expected numbers of X-bearing cells were found in both the euploid and aneuploid classes in the Massey III Robertsonian translocation heterozygotes. Since the majority of normal ewes mated with Robertsonian translocation heterozygous rams conceived to their first service, and because no lambs with unbalanced karyotypes associated with a Robertsonian translocation have been recorded, it is suggested that only chromosomally balanced (euploid) spermatozoa are involved in fertilization. It is further suggested that the absence of unbalanced karyotypes in progeny is explicable on the basis of a degeneration of aneuploid spermatocytes occurring prior to their maturation. The three translocations in the homozygous state behaved as normal autosomal bivalents at meiosis with regular segregation at anaphase I. It is suggested that the lowered fertility seen in matings involving heterozygous rams and heterozygous ewes cannot be attributed to any deficiencies in the spermatogenic function of the ram.

    View record details
  • An ecological study of Paranephrops planifrons white (Decapoda: Parastacidae) in Lake Rotoiti, North Island

    Devcich, Alan A. (1979)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The Paranephrops planifrons population in mesotrophic L. Rotoiti consists of 2 bathymetrically and temporally separate breeding groups. Late autumn breeders comprise about 80% of the population, occupy depths mainly above 30 m and at night feed in the littoral zone, where food is 80% more concentrated than elsewhere. Early summer breeders exist mainly below 30 m depth. Utilisation of the whole lake bottom and seasonal changes in food available to the early summer breeders are tentatively given as explanations of this pattern. Crayfish show increased sensitivity to light intensities greater than 150-205 lux and consequently occupy shelters above around 12 m depth. Shelters include any recesses subjected to intensities below this range. This zone accomodates almost the entire juvenile population and ca 10-20% of the adult population. This response to light intensity is believed to be an adaptation promoting avoidance of their main predator, the shag. Nocturnalism is another adaptation reducing losses to predators, including trout. Crayfish at greater depths lie unprotected and inactive by day and ca 70-80% of these adults form a high density band around the lake at a mean annual depth of 19.2±2.8 m. The band has a mean annual vertical depth range of 11.4±2.1 m and densities up to 50 crayfish m⁻². At dusk activity begins in the deepest waters first and crayfish forming the band migrate shorewards, while those above emerge from shelters. Within the hour feeding on detritus mainly, commences amongst the weed beds which extend to 6 m depth. At dawn a downward migration preceeds reformation of the high density band. These dual diel migrations apply almost solely to late autumn breeders and are part of a circadian rhythm, the timing of which is modified by light. Locomotion associated with migratory activity appears to be effected mainly through leg proprioceptors responsive to gravity. Directional orientation at this time and also generally, is inversely related to bottom slope angle. The diel distribution pattern varies seasonally. In summer and autumn the high density band is displaced shorewards by a vertical distance of 3.3 m, to a mean depth of 18.3 m and there is a 4 fold increase in crayfish inhabiting shallow water shelters. This closer association with the main feeding ground is probably an adaptation to meet coincident increases in energy needs. It applies especially to late autumn breeding females, whose period of ovarian development occurs between December and April. Energy requirements appear to be met through food consumed rather than from food stored. Female feeding activity is directly related to temperature but not in males, and prewinter storage is apparently of little importance in both sexes. Hypolimnetic deoxygenation affects early summer breeders mainly and induces a mass migration from the deeper regions to above the 30 m contour by February. Complete recolonisation of these parts follows lake turnover in May. Crayfish occur on all substrate types in approximately equal numbers except very soft muds, which support densities of <0.001 crayfish m⁻².

    View record details
  • Prehistoric communities in Palliser Bay, New Zealand

    Leach, B. Foss (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    A programme of archaeological research was undertaken in the Wairarapa region on the northern shores of Cook Strait, New Zealand. Some 27 excavations conducted during a 3 year period were designed primarily to examine prehistoric economy and settlement pattern in the region. In addition, studies were made of early historical records of Māori life, Māori traditional history, and aspects of the modern and prehistoric enviroment. In the analysis of excavated material, particular attention was given to physical anthropology, subsistence economy, and the trading patterns revealed by the importation of a number of rock types from elsewhere in New Zealand. It was found that human occupation in Palliser Bay was most intense from about 1150AD to 1400AD, and that significant depopulation may have occurred by 1650AD. At least 6 kinship linked communities were resident in this early period, probably originating from further north. Over several centuries thay strengthened their social ties with other communities in Cook Strait, progressively losing contact with northern areas. A conjunctive picture is reconstructed of a typical community of 30 to 40 people, and aspects of their physical condition, economy, technology, settlement pattern, external social relationships and ideology described. Their economy was initially a balance between hunter-gatherer pursuits and kumara-based horticulture, but in the course of time their forest clearing activities set into motion a series of episodes of erosion which culminated in the development of broad shingle river beds and active fans. High riverine sediment loads led to the loss of much of the local marine fauna at river mouths. A general climatic deterioration about 1450AD and then from 1600 onwards accelerated this process to render the enviroment largely unsuitable to Polynesian habitation. It is argued that coupled to these changes are settlement pattern modifications and an increase in human disease and malnutrition.

    View record details
  • Prehistoric man and his environment in the Catlins, New Zealand

    Hamel, Jill (1977)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xx, 347, [100] leaves. :ill., maps ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology

    View record details
  • Agrarian businessman organise : a comparative study of the origins and early phases of development of the National Farmers' Union of England and Wales and the New Zealand Farmers' Union ca 1880-1929

    Brooking, Tom (1977)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This dissertation is a comparative study of the origins and early phases of development of the National Farmers' Union of England and the New Zealand Farmers' Union between approximately 1880 and 1929. It attempts to assess the development of these two farmers' political organisations by comparing and contrasting them one against the other. Previous assessments of both farmers' unions have been somewhat modified by placing them in this broader perspective. The dissertation first outlines the socio-economic and political situation from which the two unions emerged and generally highlights the considerable economic and political advantages which New Zealand farmers held over their English counterparts. It also attempts to isolate various factors which help to explain the very different level of organisational success achieved by the two unions. The second section concentrates on the English side of the study by examining general farmers' organisations which preceded the NFU and then moving on to trace the origins of the NFU in Lincolnshire and its subsequent development at the national and county levels. The first part of this section makes clear the fact that the NFU was a new type of agricultural organisation which challenged the traditions laid down by its predecessors. The second part in examining the development of the NFU at the national, county and local levels, highlights its considerable organisational achievement. The third section begins by examining the general farmers' organisations which preceded the NZFU and reveals that there were more direct links between these institutions and the NZFU than there were between the NFU and its predecessors. It then proceeds to relate the story of the NZFU at the national, provincial and local levels and highlights the discrepancies in the performance of the two unions, especially at the intermediate level. Section four tries to draw the threads together by making some direct comparisons which highlight the fact that the NFU was a far more representative, cohesive and effective organisation. Some reasons are also postulated as to why the NFU was generally more successful and these suggestions are developed further in the conclusion. The dissertation is shaped by two major arguments. 1. That both farmers' unions were essentially similar organisational responses from the two farming communities to the profound socio-economic and related political changes which swept across the English speaking world in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Both unions were part of the more sophisticated, post-populist agrarian response to change. 2. That Hofstadter is correct in asserting that farmers became more adept at evolving effective political organisations once their numerical significance and economic importance declined. English farmers evolved a more effective pressure group than their New Zealand counterparts because they had to. The demands made by the more mature and complex socio-economic and political situation of England forced English farmers to develop a sophisticated pressure group in the interests of economic survival. Finally, the majority of them also tended to think and act as agrarian businessmen rather than yeomen farmers and entrepreneurial primitives. They were better able to face up to the reality of twentieth century society by countering the influence of urban sectional groups through the mechanism of a sophisticated pressure group organised at the national level.

    View record details
  • Laser applications to analytical ultracentrifugation : a thesis presented to Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Doctor of Philosophy

    Lewis, James Anthony (1972)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The work of Svedberg and his collaborators in the early 1920's heralded the use of centrifugal fields for the study of macromolecular systems. Following this work the developments in both theoretical and experimental aspects have been dramatic, so much so that the majority of current researchers take the use of the analytical ultracentrifuge for granted as a basic tool for the determination of molecular weights of macromolecules. The latter is justified in view of the theoretical and experimental evidence to date, and reviews citing original references and covering the state of the art from its inception to the present day are available.

    View record details
  • The social organization of the pukeko, Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus, Temminck, 1820 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Zoology at Massey University

    Craig, John L. (1974)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The social organization and behaviour of the pukeko, Porphyrio porphyrio melanotus, is described for two different habitats. The study shows that pukeko breed in pairs or communal groups with the proportion of these varying according to habitat. All breeding pairs and groups defend territories, but the degree of maintenance varies. In some defence occurs at all times of the year; of the remainder and outside the breeding season, some restrict defence to a core area while with the rest defence ceases. Outside the breeding season also, part of the population form flocks. A hierarchy exists among members of groups and flocks. Furthermore, a hierarchy is found between pukeko of adjacent territories as is demonstrated by differential boundary positions. In group territories, all adults participate in breeding and often more than one female lays in the same nest. Breeding success varies, in this study, pairs are more successful than groups.

    View record details
  • The intracellular site of synthesis of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase in rat liver : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry at Massey University

    McLean, John William (1979)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase, E.C. 3.1.3.11) has been purified from rat liver cytoplasm by a new purification procedure. Monospecific antibodies were raised to FBPase in rabbits to enable the immunochemical isolation and quantitation of FBPase in protein homogenates. Pulse labelling of rat liver in vivo showed that the synthesis of FBPase amounted to 0.89% of total soluble protein synthesis. Newly synthesized FBPase was found almost entirely in liver cytoplasm in contrast to serum albumin which was associated only with microsomes, and amounted to 16.7% of total microsomal protein synthesis. Isolated free and bound polysomes from liver synthesized almost equal amounts of FBPase when incubated in vitro, whereas albumin synthesis was confined to bound polysomes. Premature termination of translation led to the release of partial protein transcripts which were specifically immunoprecipitated. Affinity-purified 125 I-labelled antibodies to FBPase and albumin were used to quantitate nascent protein chains on free and bound polysomes. FBPase antibody bound to both classes of polysome with almost equal affinity but albumin antibody was only associated with bound polysomes. Poly(A)+ RNA isolated from free and bound polysomes by poly(U)-Sepharose chromatography was translated in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system derived from wheat germ. RNA from both classes of polysome synthesized FBPase, but albumin was only synthesized in response to bound polysomal RNA. Some full lengths transcripts corresponding to both proteins were produced in wheat germ extracts, but a large amount of smaller molecular weight material was specifically immunoprecipitated. Total translation products from both classes of polysome also produced considerable abnormally short molecular weight material, but only full length transcripts were produced when the system was programmed with TMV RNA. Since liver cells contain twice as many bound polysomes as free, it has been concluded that about 70% of intracellular FBPase synthesis takes place on bound polysomes. In contrast, albumin synthesis was almost totally confined (>97%) to bound polysomes and newly synthesized albumin was segregated into microsomes. The partitioning of synthetic activity for albumin is therefore a result of the distribution of mRNA coding for this protein.

    View record details
  • Leptospirosis in the pig : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Ryan, Terence John (1978)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The chapters that follow a review of the literature, describe firstly the serological and culture techniques which were used to study leptospiral infection in pigs, and secondly an attempt to define the epidemiology of leptospirosis in pigs in New Zealand. After this an investigation of cell mediated immunity in pigs which had been infected with serovar pomona is described. During the study a number of experiments were conducted with the aim of defining the optimal conditions of cell culture for these transformation experiments, and a number of these have been reported in the appendices.

    View record details
  • Plant pathogenic species of Stemphylium wallr. in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Singh, Gurmit (1977)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    A taxonomic study was conducted of 48 isolates of plant pathogenic Stemphylium Wallroth species, all of which produced a Pleospora Rabenhorst perfect state in culture. Specific identification was attempted using gross colony characters and morphological features of the imperfect and perfect states. Only conidial and ascospore features proved to be of taxonomic value. The diagnostic conidial features were shape, dimensions, length/width ratio, number of longitudinal and lateral septa, number of lateral septal constrictions, ornamentations and pigmentation. Ascospore features of taxonomic significance were dimensions, and shape of both juvenile and mature spores. On the basis of these criteria it was concluded that three Stemphylium species were present, namely Stemphylium botryosum Wallroth, Stemphylium globuliferum (Vestergen) Simmons, and Stemphylium vesicarium (Wallroth) Simmons, each with a corresponding Pleospora state. This cross-pairing had value since identification of form-species allowed reliable prediction of the Pleospora species, and vice-versa. The cultural conditions providing the best expression of conidial features (and thus facilitating separation of Stemphylium species) were 5% V-8 agar, pH 7.5, 20C and an 8h photoperiod. Synchronous production of conidia was induced with an injury technique and ascostromata were matured most rapidly at either 12C or a diurnal temperature regime of 8h at 16C/16h at 8C. A taxonomic survey of 166 Stemphylium isolates from 12 host species revealed the three previously mentioned species and a further undescribed species. The latter was isolated from annual phlox and was characterized by exceptionally large ascospores. S. vesicarium was by far the most common species, occurring on asparagus, chrysanthemum, blue lupin, Russell lupin, tree lupin, onion, pepper and tomato. The legumes were hosts of more than one species; lucerne for instance was a host for S. botryosum, S. globuliferum and S. vesicarium, while Russell lupin and tree lupin were only infected by S. botryosum. and S. vesicarium. By contrast, lettuce and carnation were only infected by S. botryosum. Cross-pathogenicity tests indicated that host specialization was relatively uncommon. S. botryosum from lettuce and the Stemphylium sp. from annual phlox were the only isolates exhibiting host specificity. The results of ultrastructural studies of conidiogenesis, the phenomenon of vegetative reversion of conidiophores and juvenile conidia, and the mechanism of ascospore release in Pleospora are discussed. A previously undescribed, saprophytic, chain-forming species of Stemphylium is also described.

    View record details
  • On the theory and methodology of role : a contribution towards an interactive paradigm : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Bates, Richard Jeremy (1976)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis (i) presents a critique of structural and socialisation perspectives in role theory, (ii) argues for a philosophical and theoretical position of transindividualism in the explanation of behaviour, (iii) examines the compatibility of current psychological and sociological theories with such a position, (iv) reviews discontinuities between theory methodology and interpretation in studies of role, (v) develops a comprehensive theoretical model for the analysis of individual and social system interactions via the mediating concept of role, (vi) presents a methodology appropriate to the examination of the general model in respect to a small scale social system, (vii) reports the results of the empirical investigation, and (viii) summarises and discusses the relevance of these findings to the proposed theoretical and methodological issues. It is concluded that both theory and methodology, having been supported by the empirical investigation of a small scale social system, might usefully be further applied to larger and more complex social systems.

    View record details
  • The application of matrix theory to optimal design experiments : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Thomas, Vernon John (1975)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    A development of the theory of optimum experimental design is presented. The notation and proofs are in terms commonly used by statisticians, rather than in the earlier measure theory terms. The D-optimality equivalence theorem is extended to the singular case, and similar results derived for a number of other criteria. Atwood's theorem for special n-tic polynomials is extended to the case where not all parameters are of interest. Finally methods of constructing optimal designs are considered and extended to allow deletion of unsatisfactory points, and some numerical examples are included.

    View record details
  • Cultural dimensions : factor analysis of Textor's 'A cross cultural summary' : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University

    Stewart, Robert A. C. (1970)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Textor's A Cross-Cultural Summary is a computer produced compilation of significant relationships between all the extant cross-cultural variables that were available in 1966. Together with two coefficients of association (phi and chi square), and levels of significance, the relationships are also expressed in verbal form. In order, however, to reduce these findings to more manageable proportions and to obtain basic underlying factor dimensions which account for the relationships between the variables, a principal components analysis and Varimax rotation was conducted. The first 488 variables from the Summary were used. Also included was a review of cross-cultural research to date, and the problem of sampling as related to the area. A random stratified sample of 98 cultures was drawn from Textor's (1967) list of cultures for which there were at least 6 samples of contributions (not including contributions of the ethnographic Atlas). Specific hypotheses of "Bibliographic Selection Bias" relating to this sample were tested, using actual comparisons in the Summary. Twelve factors of phi were obtained, and a thirteenth factor was disregarded as it accounted for less than 5% of the total variance. The factors were rotated to the Varimax criterion to approach Thurstone's simple structure. Factor scores were computed for each culture on each factor dimension. For each of the following factors, the cultures with the highest positive and negative factor scores are given in order: Factor One: Structural Complexity (Thai, Copper Eskimo); Factor Two: Father-Centred Family (Rwala, Lamba); Factor Three: Tropical Rain Forest Culture (Trobriand, Siriono); Factor Four: Paternal Authority (Samoan, Navaho); Factor Five: Matrilineal Kin Groups (Trobriand, Semang); Factor Six: Status as Determined by Occupation (Thai, Lamba); Factor Seven: Aggressive Achievement Behaviour (Ashanti, Hano); Factor Eight: North American Tribal Culture (Cheyenne, Ashanti); Factor Nine: Child Affection and Indulgence (Papago, Thonga); Factor Ten: Sexual Restraint Cultures (Thonga, Ifugao); Factor Eleven:Post-partum sex taboo (Tiv, Tanala); Factor Twelve:Adolescent Peer Group Activity (Samoans,Jivaro). Within the limits of the study, these suggest key dimensions to describe a given culture, and it may be that future refinements of this work will permit the development of reliable and valid methods of ethnographic enquiry for the tapping of these major cultural dimensions.

    View record details
  • Heavy metal pollution in the New Zealand environment : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Massey University

    Ward, Neil Ian (1977)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Section I: The optimum conditions for the determination of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, silver and zinc by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (part B) were investigated. Elemental concentrations were determined in samples of animal organs (organs, muscle tissue, bone and wool), soils and plants (pasture species, natural vegetation and bryophytes). The historical development of non-flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (part C) was reviewed. Analytical methods using the carbon rod atomizer for the determination of elemental concentrations in natural water and tree ring-core samples were investigated. The analytical technique used for the determination of lead in whole blood involved dilution with 5% Triton X-100 followed by sample application (1 µl) to the carbon rod atomizer. A detection limit of treatment plant at Te Aroha, all bryophytes had high metal concentrations compared with the substrate, and indicated foliar uptake of airborne contaminants compared with uptake by bryophytes in mineralized areas due presumably to passive ion-exchange at the rhizoid-soil interface. Uptake of silver near a treatment plant at Maratoto, and uptake of heavy metals by the aquatic bryophyte Fissidens rigidulus (Hook.f.et. Wils.) were also investigated.

    View record details