424 results for 1970, Masters

  • The repudiation movement : a study of the Maori land protest movement in Hawkes Bay in the 1870's : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University.

    Cole, Sharron Mary (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The Repudiation Movement was a Maori land protest organization that aroused suspicion and fear in the minds of Europeans in Hawkes Bay in the 1870's. It was a movement that adopted European methods and institutions as its means for solving land grievances and was led by influential Chiefs and by some Europeans. This adoption of the movement by these Europeans led to much animosity and conflict and accentuated the polarization of European political factions at provincial and national level. Despite its evident uniqueness when compared with other Maori protest movements, the Repudiation Movement has yet to become the object of an historical analysis that poses the obvious questions - how and why? M.P.K. Sorrenson, M.D.N. Campbell and Alan Ward have mentioned it briefly in their historical studies of broader issues and have made a number of fairly general observations about its causes and methods. The only detailed study that has been aimed specifically at Maori land protest in Hawkes Bay is P.J. Coleman's M.A. thesis in 1949.(1) (1) P.J. Coleman, 'The Native Lands Act and Hawkes Bay: Some Considerations on the Alienation of Maori Land in the Provincial Period of Hawkes Bay Government', Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Victoria University, 1949. Coleman's work concentrated mainly on the period of the 1860's following the Native Land Act and examined in depth the Hawkes Bay Native Lands Alienation Commission of 1873 largely ignoring the protest after 1873. Coleman's analysis was somewhat restricted by his lack of sources and his undue reliance on the Hawkes Bay Herald which research has shown must be used with great caution as it was an instrument of propaganda against the movement.

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  • Land purchases by missionaries of the Church Missionary Society before 1840: a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in History at Massey University

    Kenyon, Thomas (1970)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The missionaries of the Church Missionary Society in New Zealand were subjected to criticism as a result of their private land dealings. one critic in 1839, after a brief visit to the Bay of Islands claimed that they had been in the vanguard of a European conspiracy to rob the Maori of their lands. This was neither the first nor the last of such criticisms. This work will deal solely with the purchases made by members of the Church Missionary Society. only two Wesleyans are known to have purchased land on their own account whilst there is no evidence that the Roman Catholic missionaries bought land for private purposes in the short time which elapsed between their arrival in 1838 and the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. The representatives of the three missionary bodies operating in New Zealand before 1840 also bought land for the purpose of establishing mission sites, but since there was no criticism or dispute arising from these purchases it is not proposed to include them in the scope of this work.

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  • An appraisal of water use management in New Zealand : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Philosophy at Massey University

    Walker, Evan Andrew (1975)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Water use management is defined in the context of the New Zealand law and overall water resource management. A simple descriptive model is then introduced as a theoretical framework for examination of the management structures and procedures which are shown as links between the social and biophysical systems. A brief history of the evolution of water use management in New Zealand is outlined, using the development of legal controls as an index. The provisions of the principal enabling law, the 1967 water and Soil Conservation Act, and its subsequent amendments are detailed, and present the management regime discussed in terms of the general model. Problems and Issues with the present management framework are described. The Water Rights system and Water Quality Management (in particular - Classification) are dealt with in detail as the two major procedures, and other technical, administrative and legal issues are identified. The appropriateness of the present Water Rights and controlling agencies (the Regional Water Boards) for water use management is discussed. The topical subjects of land use planning and regional reorganisation are included. An attempt is made to place the New Zealand management in perspective, particularly in terms of overseas experience, and the study is concluded with a view of the prospects for the future.

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  • Educational turbulence and New Zealand Army children : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

    Kewin, Daniel Arthur (1978)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Military employment involves a high rate of geographic mobility which, it is often presumed, disadvantages service children educationally. This cross-sectional study was undertaken to empirically evaluate this presumption by comparing, in relation to educational turbulence, the academic achievement and personalities of 84 army and 130 civilian children. Relationships between parental attitudes to military and itinerant employment and the children's academic achievement were also investigated. The Form II subjects of both sexes attended six selected schools; three predominently populated by army children and three predominently populated by civilian children. The civilian and army groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, socio-economic status, ethnicity and school environment. Official school records provided biographic and mobility (number of schools attended) data as well as Progressive Achievement Test raw scores on the Reading Comprehension, Reading Vocabulary, Listening Comprehension and Mathematic tests. The Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory was used to measure the children's degree of extraversion-introversion and neuroticism-stability. A self administered Parent Questionnaire, collected educational turbulence data in terms of mobility and the amount of short and long term absence of the father from home. Four attitude scales were constructed within the Parent Questionnaire to measure parental attitudes towards: (a) The effects of mobility on education (b) The effect of the service environment on the family (c) Involvement in their children's education and (d) Shifting the family home. Army children were found to have experienced more than twice as much educational turbulence as the civilian children. There was no evidence however that they achieved less academically than comparable civilian children; nor did the groups differ on the personality dimensions of extraversion-introversion and neuroticism-stability. Furthermore, no strong and consistent relationships between parental attitudes measured and the children's academic achievement were found. There is however some evidence that army children whose parents believe the military environment detrimentally effects [i.e. affects] the family achieve higher academic results, most apparent in Mathematics Test performance, than those army children whose parents do not. It is suggested that compensatory efforts may be made by some army parents for the perceived deleterious effects of the service environment. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research and the New Zealand context.

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  • Maoritanga : a study of teacher sensitivity : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts at Massey University

    Nightingale, Michael Dries (1976)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    For many years it has been recognised, both by official and unofficial sources, that as a group, Maori children do less well in school than Pakeha children. The major explanations for this have usually involved reference to lower socio-economic status or linguistic variables. While not denying that these variables are important, this study has attempted to place much greater emphasis on variables related to the discontinuity between the teachers' background and the sub-cultural and minority group status of their Maori pupils. Ranginui Walker's statement that teachers are predominantly monocultural and not sensitised to react to biculturalism or the minority group needs of Maori pupils, was taken as a hypothesis. A Questionnaire was designed and circulated amongst groups of Pakeha teachers and psychologists. A group of Maoris was also selected to complete part of this Questionnaire. The results suggest that by and large Pakeha teachers seek few experiences which would lead them to a greater understanding of the "Maori side" of their Maori pupils' lives. Furthermore they appear to have a poor knowledge of Maoritanga. This conclusion was found to be true of teachers in areas where there was a relatively high percentage of Maori pupils, as well as their counterparts in areas where relatively few Maori pupils are on school rolls.

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  • The exporting behaviour of manufacturing firms : a thesis ... for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Addis, Ngaire Margaret (1979)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Increasing emphasis has been placed on the need for manufactured exports to make a more important contribution to the New Zealand economy, due to declining demand for agricultural produce and a growing balance of trade deficit. The New Zealand government, over the past twenty years, has introduced a variety of export incentives to encourage manufacturing firms to export. The aim of this thesis is to examine what happens to manufacturing firms when they expand their operations to international markets. The adoption of the export function has implications for growth and survival of firms, especially for small firms which predominate in the New Zealand manufacturing sector. Firms can be classified according to their different stages of organisational growth. Thresholds must be overcome if a firm is to develop and expand its operation space. The stages theory of firm growth is analogous to the stages theory of exporting behaviour - a firm increases its international orientation and foreign market commitment in incremental stages as it acquires knowledge and experience in the exporting field. Discussion centres on describing the actual exporting activity of manufacturers at a macro level. This discussion then provides a platform for analysing the exporting behaviour within the individual firms and finally leads to an examination of how exporting firms have contributed to the peripheral urban economies to which they belong.

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  • Unemployment in New Zealand, 1875-1914 : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Economics at Massey University

    Campbell, Robert James (1976)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Unemployment, although a common feature of economic and social life in colonial New Zealand, has received little attention from historians or economists for the period before 1920. While construction of a reliable index of unemployment is not possible from available data, an intensive analysis of published and other official sources establishes the significance of unemployment. The decade of the 1880's, following as it did years of large scale immigration and marked as it was by little overall economic growth, drew attention to the insecurity of employment for many skilled and unskilled workmen. Agitation, though evidenced frequently enough was not sufficient in the absence of an organised labour movement, to move policy. Nevertheless as part of an overall move towards a regulative role in many economic and social spheres, Government formalised procedures for coping with unemployment. The activities of the Labour Bureaux in assisting unemployed to find jobs became an important part of the labour market, and assisted the co-operative works scheme of completing necessary public works. The thesis suggests that it is this regulative approach of Government which is the significant feature. Other periods and societies have had a more welfare-oriented approach to unemployment. The ideology of work in a growing colonial economy was fiercely against any form of pauperisation, or even long term support. Unemployment, apart from apparent cyclical influences in the 1880's and less certainly 1903-1907, was largely of a seasonal or frictional variety. Availability of seasonal work in areas surrounding most towns absorbed even skilled workmen who lacked employment for summer months. However, winter and any slackening of public construction works, brought high levels of unemployment to many towns. Often, these problems were exacerbated by new immigrants entering the job market. Because the fluctuations in employment were so localised, the efforts of the Labour Department in developing a national labour market were appropriate though not uniformly successful. These efforts were not geared to find skilled employment where this was desired in many cases, nor was female unemployment adequately catered for. Assisting mobility and identifying employment opportunities were important contributions of the Department of Labour. Government also played a limited role as an employer of unemployment workers. No government of the period, central or local, was clearly and unambiguously in favour of providing work as a means of combatting unemployment. Although the co-operative works system had as one of its functions the provision of a "buffer" for male unemployment, the system cannot be considered purely as a relief work mechanism. The last two decades of the period are marked by the articulation and implementation of the problems and policies identified during the 1880's.

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  • A description and evaluation of special education for backward pupils at primary and intermediate schools in New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Applied Psychology at Massey University

    Glass, Marjorie (1977)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The thesis begins with a brief account of why and how special classes for backward children were instituted in New Zealand schools. There follows an outline of how special classes are currently organized: policies and procedures for the admission of pupils to special classes: goals of special education for backward children: the recruitment and training of special class teachers: the special class curriculum: specialist services available to special class teachers and children. The literature survey focuses initially on early studies comparing academic achievement and social/emotional adjustment in mildly mentally retarded children assigned to special classes and those retained in regular classes, studies which, because of inadequate and inappropriate assessment methods and a variety of uncontrolled variables, show conflicting results. The writer then reviews more recent studies which have been concerned with two main issues: societal and educational inequalities which influence the selection of pupils for special class placement and the extent to which special education merits the description "special". These two themes underlie the series of questions compiled by the writer for distribution to a 20% random sample of special class teachers at primary and intermediate schools throughout New Zealand as described in the third segment of the thesis. The questionnaire is concerned with demographic data on special class teachers and pupils and a variety of data on curricula, parent/school relations and specialist services available to special class teachers and pupils. 96% of the teachers surveyed returned completed questionnaires. Analysis of the data thus collected leads the writer to the following conclusions: disproportionate numbers of special class children are male, Maori and/or of low socio-economic status: for the majority of pupils special class placement is permanent: the average special class teacher is a woman, under 36, trained and experienced in regular class teaching but with little training and relatively brief experience in teaching backward children: since there is no curriculum designed specifically for backward children at primary and intermediate schools, teachers must rely primarily on their own resources in adapting regular curricula to the special needs of their pupils with limited assistance from organisers of special classes and educational psychologists and virtually none from the advisory service: the integration of special and regular class children, as endorsed by the Department of Education, occurs primarily in the non-academic areas of the curriculum: special class teachers succeed in meeting most of their pupils' parents for the purpose of discussing the progress of individual pupils but opportunities for parental participation in school life are apparently limited: organisers of special classes constitute the major source of professional assistance for special class teachers however the demands made of them appear to be excessive in view of their limited training and numbers. In the final segment of the thesis the writer returns to the two issues which motivated her survey and concludes that, for many New Zealand children, special class placement represents confirmation of their inferior status within the larger society and that special education for backward children at primary and intermediate levels in New Zealand schools does not appear to merit the description "special".

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  • Divorced and separated families : some mothers' views of cause and effect : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Education at Massey University

    Wilson, Ormond Munro (1972)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Forty divorced or separated women receiving either a domestic purposes benefit or a deserted wives benefit participated in an interview to determine some of the important issues facing their families. The results of these interviews were not intended to represent a total view of divorced and separated families but rather a tentative understanding of them so that guidelines on community action might be formulated with more insight. The information gained was supplemented by the views expressed in the preliminary survey and the representations in the reviewed literature. This was then used in the formulation of ideas for further research. The women defined four major causes of marriage failure all of which were attributable to their (ex) husbands' behaviour; excessive drinking, physical violence, financial irresponsibility and adultery. The provisions of the June 1972 budget had improved incomes but saving for the replacement of the more expensive household items was difficult. However, the security of a regular income since separation meant a marked improvement for most of the women. The monetary advantage accruing to those who rented houses or units as opposed to those in privately rented houses or flats, was quite marked. The women currently employed showed an above-average morale and seemed generally satisfied with this aspect of their lives. The strongest features of the examination of health were the 60% of mothers who noted an improvement in health since their separation, the fact that birth order was a much more important independent variable than sex when considering the children's health, and the general conclusion that the health of both mothers and children is likely to be better under the conditions of single parenthood rather than in an 'unhappy' but 'unbroken' home. The generally low level of educational achievement for both the mothers and fathers contrasted with the mothers' generally high expectations for their children's educational achievement. This was consistent with the mothers' expressed satisfaction with the schools' performance. About half of the mothers tended towards an introverted social attitude whilst the other half felt the desire to expand their social contacts. There was a generally low level of neighbour-contact but this could be partly explained by the high mobility of this group-just under half had moved house within the previous two years. The wider kinship group emerged as the strongest single source of assistance for the families studied. There was no clear emergence of one single type desired assistance and it was found that for the majority of the women their needs could be defined as non-material. For 45% of the group leisure activity outside the home was almost non-existent. A little under a half of the mothers found the effect of fatherlessness to be harmful to their children, but a majority considered that the father's absence had benefited the children. Both could be indicative of the damaging effects of the more extreme kinds of pre-separation tension. This was further manifested by the kinds of emotional disturbance reported among the children and their difficulties over social contacts. As might be expected, the older children were regarded as being much less willing to accept a step-father than the younger ones. For a large majority of mothers, the area of mother-child relations posed no unusual problems. Over half of the mothers could be described as being well-adjusted to their single parenthood or that their adjustment was improving but 30% continued to be adversely affected by the separation. Only a quarter of the sample considered that remarriage would be undesirable under any circumstance, and one in ten professed to a lingering affection for their (ex) husband. It was demonstrated that the offspring of unhappy marriages were in turn more likely to experience unhappy marriages than the population at large. Responses to the 'Cantril' questions showed the various differences among sub-groups of the sample particularly differences between the older women. Perhaps the most important single feature to emerge from this part of the study was the fact that the burdens of single-parenthood tended to fall most heavily on the shoulders of the women separated for two years or less. The findings of this study left one impression more strongly than any others, that whilst difficulties and hardships persisted among divorced and separated mothers, these were a preferable alternative to the deprivations and indignities that prevailed for most of them before their husbands left home.

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  • Access to continuing education : a clientele analysis of the Hawkes Bay Community College : a thesis for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Benseman, John (1979)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Access to Continuing Education is largely confined to a small section of the adult population. Clientele analysis of Continuing Education institutions throughout the world have shown participants in Continuing Education to be consistently similar in terms of their social and demographic characteristics. Most participants are already advantaged in terms of their life-style - a narrow 'creme de la creme' sector of the population. Few Continuing Education institutions have set out to cater for the educational needs of all persons in an area - including the disadvantaged. This thesis presents the findings of a clientele survey of the Hawkes Bay Community College. From the beginning, College administrators were committed to catering for all groups within the Hawkes Bay population. This study analyses the characteristics of all persons attending College programmes in September 1978 and assesses their representativeness of the region's population. In brief, it describes the social and demographic characteristics of persons for whom the College provided access to Continuing Education. A self-administering questionnaire was completed by 1849 College clients and the results were compiled using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences on a Burroughs 6700. Questionnaire items covered the respondent's age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, place of residence, occupation, income, present and past education. Analysis of the participants in terms of these factors shows that the College has succeeded in attracting a number of persons from groups which have previously been under-represented in Continuing Education. Increased rates of participation are found among members of ethnic minorities, persons with low-status occupations and persons with low levels of educational attainment and consumption. Within the College itself, the Community Education department attracts a more heterogeneous clientele than the Vocational Education department. Much of the latter group's homogeneity stems from its youthful age structure. Most prominent among non participants at the College are older men, older members of ethnic minorities, semi - and unskilled workers and residents of small towns and rural areas. Although the College has been successful in attracting numbers of people from groups not usually involved in Continuing Education, these groups are still under-represented at the College on a proportional basis. The College clientele is still dominated overall by groups who have always had high participation rates in Continuing Education. The Hawkes Bay Community College has, however, been successful in making headway towards opening up access to Continuing Education for all groups, including the disadvantaged.

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  • Aspects of the biology of the freshwater crayfish Paranephrops Planifrons White in Lake Rotoiti

    Devcich, Alan A. (1974)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Aspects of the biology of Paranephrops planifrons White in Lake Rotoiti were studied and comparisons made with P. planifrons inhabiting neighbouring Lakes Okataina and Rotorua. Two migrations upwards occurred, in spring and summer, the first thought to be associated with temperature and egg-hatching, the second due to hypolimnetic deoxygenation. Hence in late summer and early autumn crayfish were concentrated above and within the thermocline. Movement downwards occurred in early winter, after lake turnover and this was thought to be associated with gonad maturation, induced by low temperatures and shorter photoperiod. During winter crayfish distributed evenly over the lake floor. There were two breeding seasons, in late autumn and winter (the larger of the two) and late spring and summer. Lake Okataina P. planifrons bred annually, during late autumn and winter, and showed no apparent seasonal movement patterns. Moulting occurred during the warmer months. Average densities of 0.030, 0.014 and 0.003 adult crayfish/m. ² were calculated for Lakes Rotoiti, Okataina and Rotorua respectively. In these populations a broad inverse relationship was found between density and mean population size, for individual sizes were small in Wright’s Bay, Rotoiti compared to those in Lakes Okataina and Rotorua and other parts of Rotoiti. Sizes of males and females were not significantly different and mean size was constant throughout all depths. Sex ratios of 1.9:1 and 2.3:1 in favour of males were found in Lakes Rotoiti and Okataina respectively. Stomach content analyses revealed that the diet was mainly detritus, but also included animal remains and vascular plant material. Sediment analyses showed that food quality was essentially the same at all depths. Feeding was continuous at depths greater than 20m. but in shallower water it took place only at night. It appeared that P. planifrons does not display homing and the home range is extensive. Observations revealed that territorial behaviour occurred and males were not dominant over females, although larger crayfish were dominant over smaller animals.

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  • The geochemistry of soluble salts in the Wright and Taylor Valleys, South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    Field, Adrian Bruce (1975)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Samples of salt deposits, snow, meltwater and soils were collected in the Wright and Taylor Valleys, South Victoria Land, during the summer field season of 1973-74. The primary aim of the work carried out was to demonstrate the application of chemical techniques to geological problems in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica. Salt samples identified by X-ray diffraction patterns were halite, thenardite and mirabilite. Snow, ice and groundwater samples were analysed for Na⁺, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, K⁺. Cl⁻ and SO₄²⁻. The results show that atmospheric transport from the sea is probably the most important source of supply of salts to the Dry Valley system, with saline groundwater flows as important means of transport of salts to the Dry Valley lakes.

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  • Cooperation in Maori and European children

    Vercoe, Glynis Price (1971)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The object of this study is to compare the cooperative behaviour of Maori and European children and to investigate and compare the effects, upon the performance of the two ethnic groups, of working under cooperative conditions and under competitive conditions. Certain differences are expected to exist between the two ethnic groups as a result of the different child rearing practices employed by the Maoris and by the Europeans.

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  • A Replication of the St. Louis Test for New Zealand

    Ng, Ah Kan (1973)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Monetary theory is less abstract than some economic theory in the sense that it cannot avoid a relation to reality. Its development has been to a considerable extent prompted by the experiences encountered by the writers in their own time, and monetary disturbances have always acted as a catalyst in its development. It seems that the role of money in an econmy has appeared to be more important in some periods than others, and writers on monetaryu issues, have therefore, had to adjust their theories accordingly.

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  • Prestige in form VII: A comparative field study

    Boyd, Ellie MacDonald (1973)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Form VII is a unique phenomenon in the school system since it is the final year for students who have successfully passed all the formal requirements of the secondary education system. Form VII students have qualified for University Entrance but elect to continue their studies for an additional year at school. They are the senior students of the high school. The Form VII year is also a year of transition. From about the age of five they have been subject to the supervision of teachers acting in loco parentis but since Form VII students will move on, at the end of the year, and most will become university students, this final year is one where they must add to their maturity and must develop their ability to study independently. Consequently, the nature of the relationship between these students and their teachers and school administrators changes from what it was earlier. Their relationship with the many high school students who are their juniors, also changes. The larger the secondary school, the more likely it is that these senior students who are now classified by the school as a unit, Form VII, will have been brought together from a variety of different working groups. At the Form VI level, a student's selection of academic subjects and his past academic record, usually determine the group in which he will study. There may be many sixth forms; some emphasizing Science and Mathematics, others Commerce or Foreign Languages or Social Studies, while others, again, may be General.

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  • Anthony Eden, Neville Chamberlain and the Cabinet Quest for Italy, 1937 to February 1938

    Davidson, Gerald Sinclair (1973)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Historians have not yet provided a detailed authenticated account of Anthony Eden's term as Foreign Secretary in the Chamberlain Cabinet and of his resignation. Written in the immediate aftermath of Eden's resignation, the Chatham House account reflects the mixture of confusion and speculation manifested by contemporary spectators caught largely unaware, despite rumours, by an event supposedly significant but the precise nature of that significance e1usive. By the time Churchill's version appears, with the aid of hindsight after the holocaust, a rift based on clear-cut policy alternatives is discerned. On one side there is Chamberlain and his ageing sycophants bedazzled by a quest for 'peace in their time', conceived as a mission, therefore unthwartable and increasingly representing a position of weakness; on the other Eden, with harsher principles for dealing with truculent dictators , a martyr to a more resolute cause. The rift is therefore inevitable, and significant in the chronicling of the 'disastrous' policy of appeasement, because it centres on different principles for the execution of foreign policy.

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  • Morality and the criminal law: an examination of some recent attempts to define theoretical limits to the proper scope of the criminal law

    Macdonald, Douglas Alan (1972)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    The aim of this essay is to show that any attempt to define theoretical limits to the proper scope of the criminal law must fail. In Chapter 1 an attempt is made to refute the Wolfenden Committee's contention that society must recognise 'a realm of private morality and immorality which is … not the law's business.' In so far as his arguments also pursue this aim Lord Devlin' s thesis is defended but no attempt is made to defend all that he said. Briefly, the argument advanced asserts that, if it is accepted that any society has the right to take whatever steps it considers necessary to ensure its continued survival then no jurisdictional barrier, such as that proposed by the Wolfenden Committee can be erected, owing to the public nature of all conduct. In other words, if by ' private morality and immorality ' is meant ' private behaviour in matters of morals' then there is no sphere of morality which can be distinguished on the ground that it has no public effect. The argument that there can be no theoretical limits placed on the proper scope of the law does not commit one to holding that all immoral conduct ought to be prohibited by law but rather that any immoral conduct may justifiably be prohibited.

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  • The Influence of flood protection on perception of flood hazard and choice of adjustment by residents of Otorohanga Borough, New Zealand

    Munro, Alistair John (1971)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Man and the results of his work are distributed according to the decisions he makes. In endeavouring to interpret and explain the spatial distribution of any particular phenomena reflecting man's actions over a part of the earth's surface, the geographer should, of necessity, take account of human behaviour and, in particular, individual decision making. This may not be an easy task since decision making is a complex process involving many variables. Nevertheless, geographers are devoting increasing attention to behavioural variables in their analyses of the man-land relationship. To this end the theme of environmental perception is a significant one in geographic research since it is concerned with analysing human behaviour in terms of men's reaction to his environment. This study embraces the theme of environmental perception. Its particular concern is with man's view or awareness of flood hazard, and his attitude towards the adoption of measures for reducing flood damage. A single urban community with a history of flooding was chosen in order to examine the behaviour of residential managers (i. e. householders) towards flooding. In the chosen study area, Otorohanga, an evaluation of flood hazard perception by individual managers was made and their adjustments to this hazard analysed.

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  • The Origin of overland flow in Otutaru Catchment

    Pittams, Richard John (1971)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    Data collected from 14 runoff plots and Otutaru catchment indicate that there is a very close relationship between runoff measured at the plots, and rates and volumes recorded at the outlet from Otutaru catchment. This ' relationship is dependent principally on rainfall intensity and is influenced by soil moisture conditions before and during a storm. The influence of aspect, storm direction and wind speed are analysed and it is deduced that they are minor influences on runoff. It is concluded that overland flow is generated throughout Otutaru catchment when rain of sufficient intensity occurs. Initially the bulk of this flow is lost by infiltration in the valley bottom but after rain of a certain volume or sufficient intensity has fallen the whole catchment appears to contribute to Otutaru runoff. The slopes produce relatively greater flow, but all areas contribute significantly to catchment runoff.

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  • Delinquent hositility: The effect of Borstal Training, and it's relationship to authoritarian attitudes

    Simcock, Robert Malcolm (1972)

    Masters thesis
    University of Waikato

    This study was based on the assumption that it is not psychologically useful to research all criminals whether detected or not, as one group. It is argued that the group usually referred to as delinquent, is made up of a relatively homogeneous collection of law breakers, and further, that the essential characteristic of this group is a high degree of hostility. Previous work has indicated that prison staff tend to be highly authoritarian, and the theory concerning authoritarian people suggests that they are highly hostile, although this has not been emperically verified. It was therefore decided to investigate the relationship between these factors in the present study. Because it is considered that hostility is central to delinquency, it is likely that any significant effect of Borstal Training would show itself in a change of hostility levels. Both the frustration and modelling based theories of hostility, seem to suggest that the Borstal is unlikely to reduce hostility, particularly if, as is argued , most staff are of the authoritarian personality type. The study used four measures, one verbal and one non-verbal measure of authoritarianism, and one verbal and one mainly non-verbal measure of hostility. As expected the non-verbal tests gave better results with the delinquent samples. The results of the analysis of authoritarianism and its relationship with hostility were at best inconclusive and no significant change in authoritarian attitudes occurred as the result of Borstal Training. The hypothesis that delinquency is related to hostility was supported by an analysis of hostility scores and their relationship to four indices of delinquency. It was found that Borstal Training was associated with a very significant increase in fantasy hostility. The verbal measure of hostility gave few significant results, but neither did it suggest any conclusions contrary to those suggested by the non-verbal measure. Overall the two tests correlated with one another significantly. The non-verbal measure, the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study scored according to the method devised by Chorost, proved a very sensitive instrument showing good correlations with the indices of delinquency and a highly significant increase after Borstal Training. The staff sample was found to be highly authoritarian as expected, and there was no evidence that the level of authoritarianism was decreasing. It was concluded that hostility is a basic factor in delinquency and that Borstal Training as it now operates increases hostility. It was also concluded that the employment of less authoritarian staff will not be sufficient to bring a change, because such staff are unlikely to remain long in the job as presently defined.

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