808 results for 1980, Doctoral

  • A study of some New Zealand natural products.

    Jogia, Madhu Kant (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xii, 348 leaves :col. ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Chemistry

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  • The kinetics of mild acid hydrolysis of gluten and the functional properties of the modified proteins at various levels of hydrolysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biotechnology at Massey University

    Higgins, John Joseph (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Gluten is the mixture of proteins remaining in wheat flour after starch and water soluble components have been extracted by washing. Its unique dough forming properties are due to the structure of the proteins. A feature of the protein is the high glutamine content, about 30% of the total amino acids. A number of studies have shown that gluten's properties of insolubility and water-binding can be substantially modified by mild acid hydrolysis. The principal effect of the mild acid treatment is to hydrolyse the amide side chain of glutamine such that the amide group is replaced by a carboxyl group. In addition, it is known that hydrolysis of peptide bonds can have a large influence on the functional properties of proteins. The aims of this study were to determine the kinetics of the acid catalysed deamidation and peptide bond hydrolysis reactions, and to comment on the resultant changes in functional properties. A statistically designed experiment was used to determine the effect of temperature, hydrogen ion concentration and gluten concentration. An initial rate analysis of the results showed that reactions could be described by equations of the form: Rate of amide bond hydrolysis = k1.[Amide][H+] and Rate of peptide bond hydrolysis = k2 [Peptide] [H+] where k = koe -E/R.1/T A stoichiometric analysis of the experimental data confirmed that hydrogen ions were consumed in both reactions. A numerical solution was developed to predict the extent of reaction with time. A computer program incorporating the solution was used to simulate the reaction and test the solution. The simulation results appeared to overestimate the progress of the reaction with time. A series of ten gluten powders, hydrolysed to different extents was prepared at small pilot scale. The composition of the samples was determined and compared with the extent of hydrolysis predicted by the reaction simulation. Reasonable agreement was achieved. A selection of the functional properties of the prepared samples was examined. The quantity of alkali required to dissolve each preparation to the extent of its solubility at pH 7.6 increased markedly with the extent of hydrolysis due to the additional carboxyl groups requiring neutralization. The flavour of each preparation was exanined. A cereal flavour was found to decrease with the extent of hydrolysis. A lingering bitter flavour was found to increase with the extent of hydrolysis. The solubility of all preparations at p H 7.6 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer increased with the extent of treatment so that the most hydrolysed samples were almost completely soluble. No (significant) difference was found between freeze dried and spray dried samples. Samples prepared without dialysis showed no solubility difference from those prepared with dialysis at a similar extent of hydrolysis. The hydrophobicity of the preparations was measured using two different fluorescent probes and was found to increase with the extent of hydrolysis. The emulsion-forming properties of the preparations were found to depend on the oil used in the test, as would be expected if hydrophobicity was equivalent to the hydrophile lipophile balance, which is commonly used to classify emulsifying agents. The preparations did not, however, show the additivity properties of emulsifiers. It was also shown that only the soluble portion of the preparations was responsible for emulsion formation. The possibility of achieving deamidation of gluten using the enzymes peptidoglutaminase I and II was examined. No activity against gluten or partially hydrolysed gluten was found.

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  • Infant crying : mothers' perceptions and affective reactions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University

    Brennan, Michael Charles (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Two studies were conducted in order to examine three major issues arising from recent studies of mothers' reactions to their crying infants. These issues, which arise in connection with the Aversive Stimulus Model of crying, relate to (a) the relationships between cry characteristics and mothers' affective reactions to crying, (b) the variability of cry characteristics of individual infants, and (c) the influence of context on mothers' reactions to their infants' crying. Resting on the premise that the semantic differential is an appropriate technique for addressing these issues. Study A examined the relationships between three sets of semantic differential scales. These were the scales reported by Brennan and Kirkland (1983), which represent three dimensions labelled Affect, Potency, and Evaluation; the scales reported by Zeskind and Lester (1978); and the scales reported by Mehrabian and Russell (1974a), which represent three dimensions of emotion labelled Pleasantness/Unpleasantness, Degree of Arousal, and Dominance/Submissiveness. A combined factor analysis of cry ratings on these scales uncovered the factor structure of the Brennan and Kirkland scales and of the Mehrabian and Russell scales. The factor representing the Brennan and Kirkland Affect scales also represented both the Zeskind and Lester scales and the Mehrabian and Russell Pleasantness/Unpleasantness scales. The Brennan and Kirkland scales were found to effectively discriminate between perceptually different cry sounds. The Mehrabian and Russell scales, however, were found to be lacking in face validity and therefore unsuitable for use with cry sounds. Study B examined the perceptions and affective reactions of mothers listening to their own infants' cries, in two situations - in the home as the crying occurred, and in an experimental situation involving tape-recorded cry samples. The results indicate that: (a) mothers affective reactions to cries did not simply depend upon the aversiveness of the cry sounds, (b) mothers' affective reactions to cries were strongly associated with their attributions regarding the causes and consequences of the cries, (c) cries from the same infant and cries from different infants varied considerably with respect to their perceived characteristics and the types of affective reactions they evoked, and (d) ratings of the tape-recorded cry samples tended to over-emphasise the relationships between cry characteristics and mothers' affective reactions, and to under-represent the extent to which negative affective reactions were experienced by the mothers in the home situation. Several suggestions were made for future studies. These included the adoption of an individualised approach to study: (a) the cry repertoires of individual infants, (b) the types and patterns of affective reactions experienced by individual mothers, (c) mothers' attributions regarding to their own feelings and their infants' behaviors, and (d) the relationships between mothers perceptions, attributions, affective reactions, and actual caregiving behaviors.

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  • A comparative study of phosphofructokinase and tagatose 6-phosphate kinase from streptococcus lactis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Fordyce, Alison Mary (1982)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    In the lactic streptococci glucose is metabolised to lactic acid via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway. Metabolism of lactose and galactose in these organisms involves participation of the D-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway in which galactose 6-phosphate is metabolised to triose phosphates via tagatose derivatives. Phosphofructokinase (ATP : D-fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, E.C. 2.7.1.11) catalyses the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate in the EMP pathway. The analogous reaction in the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway, phosphorylation of tagatose 6-phosphate with ATP, is catalysed by a specific enzyme, tagatose 6-phosphate kinase. While phosphofructokinase (PFK) is known to be a major regulatory enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism in most organisms, little is known of the regulatory properties of tagatose 6-phosphate kinase (T6PK). PFK and T6PK were purified from Streptococcus lactis C10 PFK was purified to homogeneity (364-fold purification) by affinity chromatography on Blue-dextran-Sepharose. Unlike PFK, T6PK did not bind to Blue-dextran-Sepharose : a 136-fold purification was achieved using ammonium sulphate fractionation, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography. A study of some of the properties of PFK and T6PK from S. lactis C10 showed that these two enzymes are distinct proteins with different physical and kinetic characteristics. S. lactis PFK is a tetramer (MW 145,000 daltons) of identical subunits of molecular weight 33,500 daltons. It therefore appears structurally similar to other bacterial PFKs. T6PK from S. lactis has a molecular weight of approximately 114,000 daltons, a value similar to that of Staphylococcus aureus T6PK which is a dimer. S. lactis PFK exhibited the co-operative binding of F6P and inhibition by high concentrations of ATP relative to F6P which is typical of most bacterial and mammalian PFKs. F6P0.5. and Km (MgATP) values were 0.28 mM and 0.18 mM respectively. ADP stimulated PFK activity, shifting the sigmoidal saturation curve to a more hyperbolic form, with a corresponding decrease in nH. Ammonium and potassium ions also activated PFK, while activity was inhibited by AMP, PEP, FBP, T6P and inorganic phosphate. In contrast to PFK, T6PK showed no co-operative binding of sugar phosphate substrate and was less sensitive than PFK to ATP inhibition. Km values for T6P and MgATP were 0.16 mM and 0.4 mM respectively. Apart from ammonium and potassium ions, no activators of T6PK were found. Activity was inhibited by ADP, PEP, and FBP. PFK and T6PK could catalyse phosphorylation of both F6P and T6P although the enzymes showed a much greater affinity for their natural substrate. Maximum velocities attained were higher with the natural substrate than when the other sugar phosphate was used as substrate. Both enzymes showed similar pH optima and divalent cation requirement. Levels of PFK, T6PK, and Galactokinase (Gal K), enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Tagatose 6-phosphate, and Leloir pathways respectively, were measured in strains of S. lactis, S. cremoris, S. diacetylactis and S. faecalis grown on different sugars. Growth on lactose and galactose induced increased levels of T6PK and Gal K activity, galactose generally inducing higher levels of T6PK than lactose. In most strains, addition of glucose to media containing lactose or galactose resulted in lowered activities of Gal K, comparable to those in glucose-grown cells. In contrast, T6PK activity was generally not suppressed by growth on glucose plus lactose, while in growth on glucose plus galactose, T6PK activity was approximately 50% of the activity in cells grown on glucose alone. PFK activity was generally unaffected by the sugar in the growth medium. In spite of changes in specific activities of PFK and T6PK throughout the growth period of S. lactis, the ratio of PFK : T6PK remained fairly constant. The properties of S. lactis PFK and T6PK are compared to those of these enzymes in other bacteria, and the possible role of T6PK in regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in S. lactis is discussed.

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  • The life history strategy of Carex pumila Thunb. (Cyperaceae), a rhizomatous perennial pioneer species on the sand plains of the dune system of coastal Manawatu : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Botany

    Burgess, Robert Edward (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    The life history strategy of Carex pumila Thunb. (Cyperaceae), a major colonist of raw moist sand on the sand plains of coastal Manawatu, New Zealand, is outlined. By virtue of the continuous formation of sand plains, sites suitable for colonization are a permanent feature of this habitat and vegetation of increasing seral maturity is represented at any one time across a series of adjoining deflation hollows and low dunes. It is proposed that the species is an r-strategist well suited to exposure, nutrient stress and seasonal flooding. Amelioration of these conditions by deliberate perturbation treatments resulted in this seral species responding in a way that ultimately lead to its more rapid demise. The species has a rhizomatous perennial growth habit. Tne modular construction of its rhizome system is described for the first time. Similarly, the occurrence of both long and short sympodial rhizome branches and of large-diameter sinker roots have not been previously described in the literature on this species. Its floral development appears to be environmentally cued. Emergence of inflorescences occurrs in early October. Maximum size of dissemules is obtained by early January. Subsequently seeds are shed and the shoots bearing them die. The species is essentially allogamous, although in a laboratory experiment, it was found to be partially self-compatible. Self-pollination must be expected in the field since neighbouring shoots are likely to be part of the same genet. Field studies are reported in which the performance of Carex pumila was monitored, firstly at sites of increasing seral maturity both in space and in time, and secondly in response to perturbation treatments. Populations showed a pattern of development that included a juvenile phase of rhizome expansion, an adolescent phase of increasing shoot density, a mature phase in which a proportion of the shoots were reproductive, and a senile phase of diminished growth and seed production. Phasic development was more protracted on the more stressed and more exposed sites. Other species more rapidly filled the space made available by the death and decay of Carex pumila shoots, than the colonist itself. As a pioneer, the species is doomed to extinction on the sites it colonizes. In a perturbation experiment, the sward mass of the total vegetation per unit area was increased at all sites by nitrogen fertilizer, applied as ammonium ions at a rate of 50 kg N / ha. Where the Carex pumila population was in a senile phase in an old deflation hollow, the increase was made mainly by other species. In younger populations on a low dune, the density of shoots and expanding buds of Carex pumila were markedly increased by the fertilizer treatment. Associated with this, a significant increase occurred in the proportion of the total dry weight of vegetative branches in rhizomes and in green leaves. A nitrogen limitation to seed yeild was indicated at the older low dune site. Here nitrogen fertilizer addition increased seed output per unit area by increasing both seed number per culm and seed size. By contrast on the younger low dune site, seed output per unit area was unchanged by the perturbation. In this population, reallocation of resources within fertile shoots, which was seen as an increased number of seeds per culm, was offset however by a reduction in fertile shoot density. Seed reproductive effort varied between 0 and 16% of total biomass, whereas rhizome allocation was more variable; up to 100% of biomass where the species was invading an embryonic deflation hollow. As a proportion of the biomass of fertile shoots alone, seed reproductive effort estimates of up to 32% were obtained. The post-anthesis photosynthetic contribution of female spikes to final seed weight was estimated at 26%, in a growth room experiment. This estimate is considered conservative given that final seed weight was not significantly reduced by defoliation and shading of the culm. Thus, the allocation of biomass to seeds cannot be considered a drain on the carbon resources of the plant that might otherwise be allocated to growth or some other plant function. Total nitrogen concentrations were dissimilar in different plant parts and, for comparable organs, between populations of different ages. Thus, allocation patterns to component parts based on dry weight and total nitrogen were different. Given that nitrogen was seen to be limiting growth in this seral habitat, the allocation of this resource is likely to be of greater significance in the evolution of life history strategies than is that of dry weight.

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  • An evaluation of microcomputer assisted instruction for teaching word recognition to mentally retarded adults : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education, Faculty of Education, Palmerston North, New Zealand

    Ryba, Kenneth Allan (1980)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This study compared the utility of computer assisted instruction with more conventional interpersonal tuition for teaching word recognition skills to mentally retarded adults. A second aspect of the research was to evaluate acquisition, retention, and transfer of learning using two common methods of instruction; these were errorless discrimination (word-focus only) and paired associate learning (picture-word focus). Recognition of words was selected as the experimental task on the basis that this was a practical academic area that traditionally involves large amounts of teaching time, primarily within the realm of drill and practice procedures. The sample comprised 52 subjects who were drawn from three special education facilities in Palmerston North, New Zealand (a Special School, and two Vocational Training Centres). Subjects were screened initially on tests of visual perception and letter discrimination to ensure that they possessed requisite skills to benefit from participation in training. Pre-testing was carried out to determine whether subjects were able to recall or recognize any of the words to be taught. All subjects entering the experiment knew two or less of 16 words selected for inclusion in the training programmes. Subjects were randomly assigned to computer assisted instruction or individual tuition groups with 26 persons placed in each group. Within each group, subjects were again randomly allocated to receive errorless discrimination or paired associate modes of instruction. This 2 X 2 classification resulted in 13 subjects being placed in each subgroup. Two modules each containing eight words were used for training. Both the individual instruction and computer groups were given a total of 10 training sessions, or five sessions for each of the two modules. A modified microcomputer was interfaced with a sound-on-slide projector to provide both audio and visual instruction. Parallel teaching programmes were developed for administration by computer or individual tuition. The first programme (errorless discrimination) required subjects to select target words from a series of increasingly complex word discriminations with no picture cues provided. A second teaching method (paired associate learning) involved the pairing of pictures and words. Subjects were instructed to select target words from a list of printed items that matched referent photographs. Thirteen senior special education students (Teachers College Graduates) carried out the individual training while the experimenter supervised the computer based programmes. Progress in training was assessed by comparing pre- and post-test performance on Word Recognition (verbal labelling), Word Identification (pointing on cue), and Picture-Word Matching. Transfer of learning was evaluated using situational tests requiring that subjects match printed words with real life objects. Tests of retention were conducted four weeks after completion of training. A repeated measures design was used with counterbalancing to control for possible confounding effects of list order (Modules). The findings revealed that both computer assisted instruction and interpersonal tuition resulted in very similar learning outcomes with regard to acquisition, retention, and transfer of learning. No reliable differences were found between the two groups or modes of instruction in terms of training method. It was advanced that some common features of programmed instruction (e.g. active participation, self-pacing, over-learning, and immediate feedback) may have accounted for these equal gains in performance. In respect to the question of the potential utility of microprocessor technology in special education, this research points to the efficacy of computer assisted instruction for drill and tutorial practice. Specifically, the computer provides a highly structured learning experience that has the potential to assist retarded learners in organising input materials. Evidence from this study suggests that computer related learning environments give the adult learner considerably more control of the teaching situation, and provide consistent reinforcement that is not so readily administered through conventional forms of instruction. Finally, it was proposed that the relatively impersonal, though highly interactive, nature of the computer may avoid the triggering of perceptions of failure that can impede performance of handicapped learners. This dissertation is dedicated to my wife, Beth, whose understanding and support provided me with the encouragement to complete this work.

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  • Wastewater effects on epilithon, particularly sewage fungus, and water quality in the Manawatu River, New Zealand : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Biotechnology at Massey University

    Quinn, John Martin (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Epilithon development, in relation to the discharge of domestic sewage, dairy factory and meatworks wastewaters, and its effects on water quality were studied in laboratory channels and in the Manawatu River. During the three year period of the study the organic material inputs to this river were progressively reduced to meet the requirements of water rights designed to limit the in-river BOD5 to 5 g.m-3 at the end of a defined mixing zone with the objective of maintaining adequate oxygen levels and controlling sewage fungus growth. Laboratory channel studies demonstrated that, for a given BOD5 addition, untreated dairy factory wastewater increased the heterotrophic growth 2-3 times more than primary treated meatworks wastewater. Similar observations were made in the Manawatu River. These varied growth responses could be accounted for by the different relative contributions of dissolved and low molecular weight (< 1000 daltons) organic compounds in the different wastewaters. The dissolved or low molecular weight (determined after sample ultrafiltration) BOD5 therefore provide more reliable general sewage fungus control parameters than BOD5. Current velocity and spates had marked influences on the development of benthic communities. Maximum sewage fungus biomasses on the natural bed were observed at current velocities of 0.2 to 0.45 m.s-1. Short heterotrophic fronds occurred at the maximum current velocity investigated of 1.16 m.s-1. Small spates of up to 50 to 70 m.s-3 caused preferential sloughing of heterotrophs over epilithic phototrophs which had developed on concrete plates at river flows of approximately 25 m3.s-1. Flows in excess of approximately 150 m3.s-1 removed growths of Cladophora glomerata which had developed at sites where the pre-spate current velocity was 0.3 to 0.4 m.s-1. Much higher flows, in excess of 400 m3.s-1, were required to remove the dense growths of the macrophyte Potamogeton crispus. Observations of sewage fungus biomass at various depths in the Manawatu River and growth rates on both upper, sunlight exposed, and lower, shaded, surfaces of concrete plates suspended in the water column indicated that solar radiation inhibition of heterotrophic growth is not important in the Manawatu River. These heterotrophic growths in the river were replaced by heavy phototroph-dominated epilithon as organic concentrations were reduced. Both communities had significant impacts on the suspended biomass and dissolved oxygen levels in the river. A computer model simulating summer low flow conditions in the Manawatu River predicted that the river can sustain average respiration rates of 20 and 24 g 02 m-3 d-1 at mean river temperatures of 21°C to 12°C respectively without breaching the statutory minimum permissable dissolved oxygen concentration of 5 g.m-3. A multiple regression model of the factors influencing epilithon respiration was developed from in situ chamber studies of a range of epilithic community types. This gave adequate predictions when tested against measurements over reaches below the discharges and predicted that the benthic biomass resulting in the maximum permissible respiration rates decreased from approximately 143 g AFDW m-2 at 12°C to 34 g AFDW m-2 at 21°C. A management strategy limiting the organic, but not the nutrient, inputs to the Manawatu River was shown to be unlikely to ensure consistent maintenance of the statutory minimum dissolved oxygen concentration. The implications for management of the river are discussed,

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  • An evaluation of traditional staff development practices for implementing change in university teaching : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education, Faculty of Education,

    Ashcroft, Eric Robert (1987)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    This study examined the effectiveness of different staff development practices in implementing change in tertiary teaching. It assessed the effects of participation in three modes of staff development on staff attitudes, knowledge and teaching behaviours relevant to the teaching role. In particular, the research investigated effects of traditional and alternative modes of staff development operating in a New Zealand university for the five year period from 1979 to 1983. A new four variable model of implementation composed of interdependent influencing factors, the learning process, system components and an innovation, was used. Specified change in an instructional role was defined as the criteria of success. Changes were grouped within the three interrelated categories of attitudes, knowledge and behaviour. This research indicates the efficacy of Inner-directed methods for implementing change in attitudes. Even marked changes in attitudes however were not accompanied by changes to knowledge or instructional behaviour. For acquisition of new knowledge and implementation of new behaviours it is proposed that specific training, based on individually relevant goals, effects and involvements is necessary. Finally it is proposed that consistent application of the principles of learning is necessary for implementation of innovations in the instructional role of academic staff.

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  • Contribution of honeybees to white clover pollination in hill and high country grasslands under development in Otago

    Ogden, Stephen C. (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    Development of the hill and high country tussock grasslands of Otago (N.Z.) by aerial oversowing with legumes has been carried out on a large scale without concurrent research into the role of reseeding in the longevity of legume based pastures, or of the agents responsible for pollination. The present study focuses on (1) the level of pollination and seeding that occurs in hill country areas remote from apiaries, {2) how pollination levels can best be increased by the introduction of managed apiaries, {3) whether a honeycrop is available to the beekeeper to offset additional costs of operating in a more difficult environment, and (4) to identify some of the difficulties of high country beekeeping. In areas remote from commercial apiaries where no honeybees were found, pollination levels of approximately 20% were recorded. Low numbers of honeybees from non-experimental apiaries were found at most sampling sites, producing pollination levels generally between 20-30% and 2-3kg/ha of good seed. By manipulating insect access to white clover plots the maximum pollination level attainable by high densities of honeybees and bumblebees was found to be 97% and 95% respectively. Self pollination was thought to have caused between 1% and 7% pollination in cages where insects were excluded, and a high percentage of this seed was aborted. Very large increases in pollination and seed production were recorded following the introduction of an apiary to a hill country area remote from commercial apiaries. The pollinating range of honeybees from hill country apiaries was between 1km and 2km, and pollination levels declined with increasing distance from the apiaries. To maximise pollination, seed, and honey production it is recommended that 16-hive apiaries be spaced 2.5km-3km apart, depending on flower densities. Differences in pollination and seed production between sites with varying aspect were mainly caused by physical and climatic attributes of aspect influencing the timing and density of white clover flowering. A programme of pollen trapping revealed that pollen sources in high country areas may lack diversity and that pollen gathering can be restricted by unfavourable weather conditions in early spring. Pollen deficiency was identified as a probable cause of crop failure in hives overwintered in the high country for two consecutive winters. A programme of hive weighing showed that the honeyflow in high country areas can be very short, and can be curtailed by climatic conditions before the end of flowering. Honeycrop increases of up to 50% were recorded in high country apiaries at the expense of a 100% cost increase. Honeybees are necessary to produce high pollination levels in high country areas, however beekeeping in these areas is not economically viable at the present time.

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  • The sociocultural impact of tourism on the Te Arawa people of Rotorua, New Zealand

    Te Awekotuku, Ngahuia (1981)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    This is a study of how tourism in New Zealand has affected a major tribal community; their insights, reactions, and experiences. Covering five generations, it presents an oral account of the actively concerned social groups. Wherever possible, or necessary, this is reiterated and reinforced by the written record. The work comprises two parts, the first which outlines the historic background according to available documentation, and the second which focusses on particular aspects of tribal culture and experience. Material for this section, otherwise unrecorded, came from the narrated stories, reminiscences, and often shrewd observations of the people themselves. It deals with residential community, song and dance, arts and crafts, and the role of women. As an essentially ethnographic commentary, the study does not examine the economic features or effects of tourism, except where fiscal factors are pertinent to the understanding or continuity of the Te Arawa experience of the tourist world.

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  • The influence of the lithological and geotechnical properties of rocks on the morphology of glacial valleys

    Augustinus, Paul Christian (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The glacial valley cross-profile has traditionally had its development attrituted to the physical properties of the eroding glacier, with the input of the properties of the eroded rock mass to the development of the valley system considered in a purely qualitative sense. The present study shows that the size of the outlet trough is directly related to the volume of ice discharged through it, estimated from the glacier contributing area. The trough size and morphological variations therein, can be partially attributed to the influence of the bedrock strength properties. Rock intact strength measures showed little relationship to the form of the glacial trough. However, a modified rock mass strength method was developed and applied to a variety of morphological and geological terrains in the vicinity of the Main Divide of the New Zealand Southern Alps. The results indicate a significant correlation between the cross-valley form and mass strength (RMS) properties of the eroded bedrock. The RMS controls on the development of the trough were: joint spacing, joint orientation and joint continuity. The trend suggests that weaker, more densely jointed bedrock tends to develop broader, flatter valleys. RMS with respect to subaerial processed controls the extent of post-glacial/interglacial modification of the trough slope, and development of zones of weakened slope rock that could be preferentially exploited by subsequent glazier re-advances. Due to their position astride the Alpine Fault, the New Zealand Southern Alps are subjected to high levels of shallow crustal horizontal stresses. The PHS directions are indicated by geodetic and earthquake first-motion studies, as well as conjugate shear joint and glacial valley orientations. The in situ stress field may control the location and extent of rock failure, when considered in conjunction with the high gravitational stresses induced by the extreme relief. Finite element models of typical glacial troughs suggest that rock intact strength properties control the likelihood and site of stress-induced bedrock failure. Thus, the shape of a glacial trough depends not only on the physical properties of the glacier, but on the geotechnical propertied of the host rockmass. The stress-induced controls on the site of rick mass failure are important controls on the locus of erosion. Following development of the glacial trough, considerable modification of the size and form of the valley cross-profile may occur depending on the mass strength of the de-buttressed slope rock.

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  • A woman's reckoning: a feminist analysis of the power of the internationally accepted conception and implementation of the United Nations System of National Accounts

    Waring, Marilyn J. (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Waikato

    The United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA) was the formal and global institutionalization of the development of national accounts over a period of several centuries. Each man responsible for the development is historically located within a government in the midst of mercantile, colonial expansionism (civil and colonial wars) or global conflict (World Wars I & II). While apologists for the pathology now evident in the implementation of the UNSNA describe its conception as an attempt, with limited indicators and blunt tools, to produce the best possible measurement system for a particular short-term historical contingency, the over-riding ideology of power inherent in the conception and implementation of the UNSNA is patriarchy. Given the maintaining this system in place are devastating - both to and for the majority of the human species, and for the eco-system of the planet. This thesis establishes the conception of the UNSNA in Western political and economic patriarchal ideology. It exposes, in the narrow terms of the UNSNA, the major flaws of the system, and the passage of 'blame' from one 'profession' to another in locating responsibility for the perpetuation of a chronically impaired system. Then the thesis examines the nature of 'reproduction' not as 'another form of production', but as the primary exchange, the economic principle before and beyond which no production can exist. The absence of this concept from political economy, even as an extended debate is distinctly patriarchal. The environment, by way of analogy with women and children, suffers a similar rape, abuse, enslavement, and invisibility in the conception and implementation of the UNSNA. The global resource abuses and the policy consequences of such a treatment are examined in detail. Various reforms suggested of the UNSNA have been and are being developed. While some would offer the possibility of short-term policy options which would be of some improvement, the problem of pursuing only one indicator, the market dollar, remains. My own experience as a legislator has seen this as a barren basic, and I discuss a variety of options. Throughout 'A Woman's Reckoning', the approach is one of feminist scholarship, and the theoretical and political base of the thesis are unavoidably those of an enquiring activist.

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  • The five-part madrigals of Benedetto Pallavicino.

    Bosi, Kathryn Monteath (1981)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    480 leaves :illus., maps., pamph.(404-41p.) in pocket ; 30 cm. Bibliography: p.459-472. University of Otago department: Music. Vol. 2 "presents an edition of fifty-five madrigals from Pallavicino's eight books of five-part madrigals"

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  • The epidemiology and control of cervical cancer

    Cox, Brian (1989)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xv, 405 leaves :ill. ; 31 cm. Bibliography: leaves 348-376.

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  • Comparative feeding ecology of New Zealand marine shags (Phalacrocoracidae)

    Lalas, Chris (1983)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xxii, 228 leaves :ill. (some col.) ; 30 cm Includes bibliographical references. Appendix consisting of revised ch. 3 (leaves 292-308) in pocket. University of Otago department: Zoology

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  • Pelvic dimensions : an account of studies of the pelvis 1885-1988

    Baskerville, Rachel Francis (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xiv, 343 leaves :ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology.

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  • An examination of certain aspects of industrial relations ideologies : a theoretical analysis and an empirical study of managers

    Geare, Alan J. (1986)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    ix, 437 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: leaves 423-437. University of Otago department: Management.

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  • Fraser complex and alpine fault tectonics, central Westland, New Zealand

    Rattenbury, Mark Sinclair (1987)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    2 v. :facsims., music ; 30-37 cm. Includes bibliography. University of Otago department: Geology.

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  • Sea mammal hunting and prehistoric subsistence in New Zealand

    Smith, Ian W. G. (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xvii, 325 p. :ill., maps (chiefly col.) ; 31 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Anthropology.

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  • 'A married woman, or a minor, lunatic or idiot' : the struggle of British women against disability in nationality, 1914-1933

    Page, Dorothy (1984)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    This thesis is concerned with attempts to change the law which placed a British married woman under disability in nationality and the reasons these attempts failed between 1914 and 1933. Under provisions operative throughout the Empire, a British woman lost her nationality by marrying a foreigner, whereas a foreign woman became British by marriage to a British subject; a married woman could not be naturalized. By showing up the plight of British-born women, German by marriage, who were subject to the restrictions on enemy aliens, World War I proved a catalyst in feminist thinking on nationality and throughout the inter-war years a determined lobby pressed for an 'independent nationality', unaffected by marriage. Their case, supported by the major women's organisations, was based on sex equality and also practical justice, because a British-born woman could lose her vote or pension rights through a foreign marriage. The chief advocate of independent nationality was a Scottish barrister, Chrystal Macmillan, whose bill to implement it was introduced repeatedly into parliament between 1922 and 1939. The House of Commons favoured the reform, as a Joint Committee of 1923 and a resolution of 1925 made clear, but could not implement it because of the imperial nature of British nationality law; Imperial Conference discussions demonstrated that not all Dominions would accept a breach in 'family unity' in nationality, and Britain could not legislate unilaterally. A Conference in 1930 for the Codification of International Law indicated that independent nationality was not generally acceptable internationally either, and the resultant Hague Convention, to the disappointment of women who had demonstrated at The Hague for Independent Nationality, merely guarded against a woman being made stateless by a foreign marriage. In Britain, through a Pass the Bill Committee of national organisations set up by Macmillan and at the League of Nations through a Women's Consultative Committee on Nationality, women agitated against the Convention, and for independent nationality. The Consultative Committee lost its effectiveness because its members could not agree on the best means of achieving justice for married women in nationality. Meanwhile, the British parliament was offered a choice of legislation on women's nationality; in 1933 the bill for independent nationality sponsored by Macmillan's committee and a Government measure to bring British nationality legislation into line with the Hague Convention, preparatory to ratifying it, were simultaneously introduced. Despite ardent efforts by both the moderate and activist wings of the nationality lobby, the Government Bill was passed, the case for independent nationality lost until 1948. The insuperable obstacle to its attainment in the period under consideration was the need for unanimous Dominion support for any change in the nationality law, a need reinforced, ironically enough, when the Dominions gained full legislative autonomy, under the 1931 Statute of Westminster, by the inclusion of common nationality as part of the legal nexus of the Commonwealth. Between 1914 and 1933 the women's cause in nationality was soundly defeated by the imperial cause.

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