507 results for 1980, Masters

  • Tourism in the Manawatu : an analysis of spatial patterns in the demand for and supply of motel accommodation : a thesis ... for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Devi, Vijaya (1981)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The study concerns one form of accommodation, the motel, in the Manawatu, a non-key tourist area in New Zealand. Initially prompted by a claim that Palmerston North, the regional centre, was losing out on important conference custom because of a shortage of accommodation, the study considers this question and proceeds to both describe and analyse motel characteristics in the region. Description includes salient characteristics of moteliers, motels and clients obtained from a questionnaire survey conducted in May 1980. Spatial variations in the characteristics are accounted for in terms of centre types: regional, subregional, market and recreation centres. The theory of hierarchical diffusion and the concept of central places are used in an attempt to explain the location of motels. Findings showed that a large proportion of tourist traffic comprised transient tourists; the shortage of accommodation at Palmerston North appeared to be seasonal rather than absolute; accessibility in terms of visibility did not influence profit and some measure of 'amateurism' was evident in motel management. Time constraints and the limited area of study, however, could have influenced these general findings. It is suggested that transit tourism may be important in other non-key tourist areas, most obviously in the Waikato because of its similarity to the Manawatu, and that further study of this overlooked aspect of tourism seems worthwhile.

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  • Direct and correlated responses to selection for high or low ultrasonic backfat depth in Southdown sheep : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Animal Science at Massey University

    Ramirez, Jose Solis (1988)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Divergent selection was employed to establish high and low lines for liveweight-adjusted backfat depth (LABF) assessed ultrasonically in Southdown sheep. The selection lines were initially constituted from several sources with stock brought-in during the first three years of the experiment (1976-1978). These first years were used to evaluate ultrasonic equipment for measuring backfat depth. The lines were closed in 1979. Data analysed in this study were collected over 8 years (1979-1986) representing, approximately 2.66 generations. Selection was practised in two stages, with a preliminary selection based on the first LABF on the rams and ewes, and a final selection based on an average of all measurements assessed throughout the year for the rams only. Direct selection for high or low backfat depth resulted in the 1986 born animals in the high line having about 1.69mm (59.6%DEV) and 2.00mm (49.57%DEV) thicker backfat than the low line in the rams and the ewes, respectively. The responses to selection per unit of cumulated selection differential were in most cases high. Due to prior selection and difficulties in assessing the selection pressure, it was concluded that these regressions poorly represented the selection process. Correlated responses to selection for and against backfat depth were generally small. However, consistent positive correlated response were observed in liveweight-adjusted height and length (LAH and LAL) over the selection period. These responses imply a negative genetic correlation between these traits and backfat depth . This finding was in agreement with the published literature. Phenotypic correlations were calculated within-trait between-days and between-traits within-days. Correlations were pooled within-trait following tests of homogeneity. The within trait values were generally moderate to high and they were in agreement with the values reported in the literature. The between-traits correlation values were generally low, but were consistently negative for LABF-LAH and LABF-LAL, and consistently positive for LAL-LAH . Repeatability estimates, using the within-trait combinations, were also in agreement with the literature and suggested a moderate to high repeatability for LABF and LAH. Repeatability estimates for LAL were low to moderate and they were slightly smaller than the values reported in the literature. Estimates of the heritability of LABF varied with method used. The paternal half-sib method resulted in low values (0.14 to 0.19) while dam/offspring method gave moderate values (0.29 to 0.43) . Corresponding heritability estimates for LAH and LAL were about 0.31 and -0.14, respectively. These values were smaller than other results quoted in the literature. It was concluded that truncation selection on LABF reduced the genetic variability of these traits, although not to the same extent as for LABF. It was concluded that divergent selection for LABF was effective, resulting in lines with significantly different backfat depth at the same liveweight. Furthermore, selection for low LABF led to significantly longer and taller animals.

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  • Bull beef systems for Wairarapa hill country : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science at Massey University

    Journeaux, Philip Ross (1987)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the viability of a number of bull beef production systems integrated with sheep, within summer dry and summer wet Wairarapa ·hill country environments. This was achieved by construction of a spreadsheet feed budget simulation model, based on representative wairarapa pasture growth and animal production data. The model balanced feed requirements over fortnightly periods, with unconsumed feed transferred between periods subject to allowances for senescence and decay. Gross margin analysis was used to investigate the financial profitability of the systems examined, including the base sheep policies used. A survey of commercial sheep/bull beef hill country farmers within the Wairarapa was carried out to verify the assumptions made in model construction and to identify practical problems/opportunities. Several off- farm factors were then considered (eg supply of bulls, availability of killing capacity, United States beef market) in terms of their on-farm impact and the outlook for bull beef, over the next 2-3 years. Following analysis of the survey and off-farm data, several farmers were re-visited individually, and then a follow-up group meeting was held, to discuss the results of the model and survey analysis. The study showed that there are a number of bull beef systems which are viable and profitable on Wairarapa hill country, and that the number of bulls farmed on hill country is likely to increase in the future. while some farmers were achieving levels of production indicated feasible by the model, many were producing below these levels. There is therefore considerable opportunity to increase meat production and profitability on these farms. There is also considerable opportunity, in terms of the supply of bulls, for the bull beef industry to expand within New Zealand, although there are some market uncertainties which could hinder this. The overall conclusion from this study is that the production of bull beef offers considerable scope to increase the profitability of North Island hill country farming, and that this industry will continue to expand.

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  • Structure and dynamics of alluvial forest in the Pohangina Valley : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Botany

    Lusk, Christopher Harley (1984)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Species' population structures and replacement patterns are quantitatively described from intensive sampling of forest on alluvial surfaces of three ages. Observations and evidence from a range of other sites are incorporated to assist in tracing the development of forest on alluvial surfaces of the study area, and in examining factors influencing this development. Cockayne's postulate that: " ... the most important principle underlying succession in New Zealand forests is the relation of the different species to light." is investigated with respect to the study area. A Relatively even-aged totara-dominant dense podocarp stands have developed on floodplain surfaces made available by progressive channel down-cutting and lateral migrations. On older surfaces these first generation stands are replaced by forests dominated principally by the angiosperms tawa, titoki and mahoe. On a terrace surface c.2,000 - 3,000 years old, forest variation appears attributable to dynamic processes as well as differences in site drainage. On mesic sites tall tawa-dominant forest prevails, although recent windthrows have produced low groves of mahoe and other small angiosperms, and also apparently stimulated some podocarp regeneration. On xeric terrace sites, titoki and rewarewa dominate the canopy. Low densities of podocarps on the mesic terrace sites attest to very sparse regeneration after the demise of the dense first generation stands. The discontinuous size class distributions of podocarp species on these sites appear at least partially attributable tc speradic regeneration following major windthrows. Podocarp densities are higher on the terrace xeric sites, regeneration of matai and totara apparently being favoured by the lower vegetation density and higher understorey light levels. On these sites matai shows an all - sized stable population structure, and a cyclic discontinuous replacement of totara seems possible. Seedling growth experiments showed both totara and kahikatea to be less shade-tolerant than two large angiosperm species (titoki and pukatea, respectively) typically seen to be replacing them in old growth forests on their respective sites. Except on the terrace xeric sites, light levels measured in forest understoreys were mainly below the compensation point experimentally estimated for totara seedlings. These findings confirm that regeneration of kahikatea and especially totara is likely to be very infrequent in old growth forest on these sites. Cockayne's postulate does not completely explain species establishment patterns within these forests. However, the findings of this study lend support to his interpretation of "light relations" as the primary influence on successional trends, and suggest that regeneration of kahikatea and especially totara is likely to be largely disturbance-dependent.

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  • Making a difference : the lived world of nursing practice in an acute care setting : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing at Massey University

    Paterson, Bronwyn (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study examines the practice world of twenty two registered nurses working in medical and surgical wards of an acute general hospital in New Zealand. It is argued that nursing practice is a complex, context-specific, activity and needs to be studied using methods that do not assume an objective, context-free reality. The work of Patricia Benner (1984) guided this study which utilised a qualitative research approach to enter the lived world of nursing practice. Through descriptions of work days and a sharing of clinical exemplars, an understanding of the broader context of nursing practice was gained, areas of skilled performance in nursing emerged, and the meaning of making a difference for the nurses in the study examined. The central role of mutual advice and support in facilitating significant incidents in practice was apparent. An examination of the types of experiences which challenge current practice and change it in some way provided insight into the importance of experience in developing clinical expertise and the vital role of local knowledge in facilitating practice. Nursing practice emerged as crucial to patient welfare and safety in the acute care setting.

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  • Anorexia nervosa - its nature and treatment : a phenomenological investigation : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Education at Massey University

    Webb, Susan Bridget (1982)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study examined the psychosomatic syndrome of anorexia nervosa, its characteristics, etiology and effects. In addition the treatment of the disorder was considered from the perspective of the three psychotherapeutic approaches most commonly applied to it; psychodynamic, behavioural and family therapy. The historical emergence and identification of anorexia nervosa was briefly described and the emergence and development of the three treatment approaches were outlined. The diagnosis, characteristics, incidence and factors concerning outcome in the disorder were examined. Each treatment perspective was considered in turn by outlining its understandings of human functioning and approach to abnormal functioning in general. Its theoretical stance towards anorexia nervosa was elaborated and the treatment procedures based upon this described. Finally the outcome of treatment within each approach was considered. A case study method employing a phenomenological approach was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of seven subjects who were or who had been anorexic. In addition the perspective and experience of some of those closely associated with them at the time of their anorexia was also examined. Issues concerning the research method and the selection of the subjects were discussed and the nature of the contact with them and the manner in which the data was collected described. Data collected from the subjects, their associates, documentation provided by the subjects and observations were analysed into themes which emerged during the process of the data collection. These were grouped into four theme categories comprising: The Self-Physical, the Self-Psychological, the Self and Others and Intervention. The findings in each theme category are discussed in relation to existing literature. Major findings included an emphasis on issues concerning control and self concept in the disorder, a reluctance to develop sexual relationships and a continued concern about food, exercise and interpersonal relationships. Vocational choice indicated a preference for welfare-type work. Close family relationships were evident with some confusion apparent about female roles. Treatment experiences in the main tended to be perceived negatively in that they appeared largely controlling and insensitive. No one theoretical approach to the disorder could be identified as providing a completely comprehensive perspective with each having distinct advantages and disadvantages. Control and self-concept issues were identified as needing to be central to any consideration of anorexia nervosa treatment and it was reiterated that psychotherapeutic treatment needs as much as possible to recognize the unique nature of each case and not be too constrained by prescribed theoretical frameworks.

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  • Drifting towards moral chaos : the 1954 Mazengarb Report, a moral panic over juvenile immorality : a thesis completed in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Education at Massey University

    Soler, Janet (1988)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study investigates the concern over 'juvenile immorality' which began in early July 1954 and lasted until October the same year, when the recommendations made by the Mazengarb Report were passed by the House of Representatives. The 1954 Mazengarb Report and the events which surrounded it are analysed using sociological models of 'moral panic'. Such an approach provides the opportunity to examine a societal reaction to juvenile immorality and delinquency. It also allows an evaluation of the contributing groups and the processes which escalate public concern and facilitate the perception of a particular group of adolescents as a threat to society. The evaluation of the Mazengarb Report and the public reaction which preceded it presupposes a particular theoretical perspective. The development of the concept of moral panic is outlined, and the application of this theoretical model to historical research is critiqued. The study explores the local context which gave rise to the deviant behaviour, the role of the media in escalating public concern, the role of the 'campaigners' and 'defendants', and the legislative outcomes. It is concluded that the public concern over juvenile immorality in mid 1954 reflects the general structure of a moral panic as outlined in sociological models.

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  • The effect of music therapy on motor control of cerebral palsied children : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Philosophy in education at Massey University

    Croxson, Morva (1988)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In this study, the use of music therapy with cerebral palsied children aimed to establish consistent motor control and extend rehearsal of functional motor actions. Music therapy processes explored the effect of auditory rhythm and pentatonic melody on the quantity and regularity of arm-hand motor action of children with cerebral palsy. Eight children, aged five to eleven years, were involved, each child being considered as a single subject case study. The design of the study was an interrupted time series design (ABACA). A constant beat sound stimulus, emitted by a music-based computer, was determined from the personal tempo of each child and formed a beat-only condition in A sections. That beat sound was joined by child-activated pitched sounds in B and C, together with a third compatible music stimulus in section C, which was singing by the therapist. Pitched sounds and singing were restricted to the five notes of a selected pentatonic scale. Each child was asked to 'play with the beat', making arm-hand contact on a specially constructed keyboard. Measurements were recorded instantly by the computer, which registered number of contacts made, average note duration, note changes made, and three measurements relating to regularity of contacts made. Results showed that all children attended to the music-based task of playing with the beat. Melody plus rhythm stimuli gave more motor contact actions than rhythm stimulus alone, for all children. Measurements of regularity of motor control, (deviation from beat, average tempo and pulse-tempo deviation), were affected in varying ways by melody plus rhythm. Some neuromuscular delay could be inferred, although anticipation of beat sound and muscle action inherent in a rhythm task was present. This suggests that cerebral palsied children respond to a music-based task with extension of effort and some control of muscle tone. Results from pre and post tests done using selected items from the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency did not give results that could be regarded as significant. A longer experimental period than three weeks is suggested for similar studies. Computer measurement of time-based motor behaviour resulting from music stimuli was objective and accurate. Similar type music therapy studies could find this use of a music-based computer for measurement most useful. Overall the aim of the study was to look at the effect of music therapy on motor control of cerebral palsied children. Regular rhythm was used to provide structure for the required time-ordered behaviour, and the pace of befit stimulus given was personal to each child. In 'playing with the beat' the child attempted to synchronise arm-hand action with the beat-based signal; this process required cognitive anticipation of a sensorimotor action. The ability to make regular contact was relative to degree of neuromuscular dysfunction, age and maturation and affective interest in the task. The independent variables of music therapy, with rhythm and melody, were employed in a planned, sequential order so that the dependent variable, motor control, could be measured relative to the whole task and to rhythmic and melodic components in the task. The planned processes of a simple music therapy task, using rhythm and melody stimuli, supported extension of rehearsal of a motor task and improvement of motor control.

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  • The New Zealand guidance counsellor : an analysis of actual role performance : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Chua, Charles Siak-Thye (1980)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Guidance and counselling services have been an important feature of the New Zealand secondary education system for two decades now. However, there have been few official policy statements and little research on the subject, hence an adequate definition and prescription for the role of the guidance counsellor has not been produced. What type of work guidance counsellors do and how they perform their jobs has never been suitably examined in this country and it is something little known even to those who are actually involved in the service. What is known has been restricted to propositions provided by literature, which generally states what and how guidance counselling ought to be carried out, but rarely what is actually taking place. The actual role performance of guidance counsellors has been sought mostly by means of questionnaire survey studies. The present study made a day-to-day recording of the activities and the time allocated to the various activities of three practising guidance counsellors in three New Zealand secondary schools. The recording was carried out from June to August, 1979. Each counsellor was requested to make a detailed daily recording of all the activities undertaken and the amount of time spent on them. These records were then collected from the counsellors at the end of each week; the materials were collated and arranged into various categories and the amount of time for each was calculated. Comparisons were made among the three guidance counsellors in the activities undertaken and some comparison was also made with a comprehensive New Zealand questionnaire study. The overall results showed that the three guidance counsellors were involved in similar work patterns and about a third of their activities were in educational, vocational, and personal-social guidance areas which involved direct contacts with pupils whilst the remaining activities involved administrative duties, staff liaison, liaison with various supporting services, and a series of other minor responsibilities. Each counsellor, besides sharing the similar work patterns, was involved in some areas of activity which were unique from the other two. The counsellors had working weeks of lengthy duration which also included work done during the weekends. Although the period of the study was relatively short and involved only one part of the year, together with the fact that only three counsellors were studied, the results, nevertheless, provide a systematic and complete account of the actual role performances of these counsellors. In this way they provide a comprehensive account of what is actually being done by a selection of people in this important school position. The aims of this study were to achieve a better understanding of the role of guidance counsellors and to help overcome the vagueness usually associated with descriptions of the guidance counsellor's role.

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  • The night-time experience of elderly hospitalised adults and the nurses who care for them : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in nursing at Massey University

    Walton, Jo Ann (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is the report of a study into the night-time experience of elderly hospitalised adults and the nurses who care for them. A grounded theory approach was used for the analysis of data and subsequent generation of a theoretical description and partial explanation of patient experiences, nursing actions and nurse-patient interactions. Data were gathered through observation, interview, document audit and literature review; two general medical wards in a large regional hospital were the focus of field methods of data collection. It is argued that the night-time experiences of elderly hospitalised adults are to a large degree dependent on the individual patterns of sleep and waking behaviour of these people in their normal environments. If individualised care is to be given, nurses must be aware of people's usual patterns of behaviour. Nurses working at night engage in a series of complex decisions in the course of their interaction with patients. They work under constraints not present during the daytime, and are highly dependent on cooperation from colleagues on other shifts for information which would enable them to deliver optimum care at night. At the same time, night nurses have access to information from and about patients which could be invaluable to a total assessment of any patient's health state. Considerations of sleep and rest are relevant to nurses working all shifts. The findings of the study have implications in terms of nurses' knowledge of all aspects of sleep; assessment practices; nurse-patient and nurse-nurse communication; nurse-patient relationships at night; ward management; and the interdependence of nurses.

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  • Minor stressors and uplifts, affect intensity, and optimism as influences on health of the elderly : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in psychology at Massey University

    Laird, Richard John (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    An investigation was undertaken to examine the influence of minor stressors, uplifts, affect intensity, and dispositional optimism on the health of the elderly. The function of affect intensity and dispositional optimism as possible moderators of the relationships between minor stressors and uplifts to objective and subjective health was examined. In addition, the relationships between stressors and uplifts to somatic symptoms and subjective health were explored for causal effects. A sample of 114 elderly individuals, drawn from Fielding and Palmerston North, completed two questionnaires which included measures of hassles, uplifts, dispositional optimism, affect intensity, subjective health, somatic symptoms, functional limitation, and chronic ill-health. Uplifts were unexpectedly found to be related to subjective health. Neither dispositional optimism nor affect intensity were found to moderate the stressor-health or uplift-health relationships. Stressors were not found to cause ill-health. Our findings add further weight to the view that subjective health is a useful and valuable measure of health in the elderly. The tenuous nature of the moderating effects of dispositional characteristics on the stressor-health and uplift-health relationships are discussed. Reasons for stressors not being causative of ill-health in this sample are considered. Finally, our study provides evidence for constancy and stability in the lives of elderly people.

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  • District nursing clients :perceptions of participation in nursing care : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in nursing at Massey University

    Young, Wilma Audrey (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Research on participation in nursing care is sparse in New Zealand, particularly in the district nursing field. No studies were found on participation from the perspective of the New Zealand client of district nursing care. This study initiates steps to fill this gap by examining the question "What are the perceptions of district nursing clients toward participation in their care?". An exploratory descriptive study using a multiple triangulation design provided a background data base and revealed rich, meaningful qualitative information. Thirty eight district nursing clients were interviewed seeking quantitative data which were statistically analyzed and qualitative data which were analyzed using analytic description technique. The district nurse/client relationship studied here provided evidence supporting Kim's (1983a) theoretical framework of collaborative decision making, particularly that the nurse controls the "client's propensity to participate" through "allowance" or "sanctioning" of participation (p.279). This research discovered that from the client's perspective the district nurse guides the client/nurse relationship, encouraging the client's participation through discussion. Client and nurse cooperated and worked together to achieve a mutual goal of selfcare and independence. Study clients acquiesced to the nurse's guidance as a result of preconceived patient/nurse role attitudes and deference to the nurse's professional expertise. A continuum of participation was conceptualized with four perceptions of participation evident in this study: 'Withdrawal' of those who did not wish to participate; 'Acquiescence' or supporting the status quo by consenting without comment; a mid-point of 'Cooperation and Working Together'; and, 'Taking more Control' of care.

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  • The politics of art-making : a socialist-feminist critique : a thesis submitted to the Dept. of Sociology, Massey University in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts

    Cheyne, Christine (1985)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In this thesis I wish to respond to the claim that there is a need to elaborate a proper and useful relationship between sociology and art; that is, to find out what, if any, limitations there are to a sociological analysis of art. To a large degree, sociological approaches to literature have provided insights useful and similar to the present focus of artistic production. There are some who claim that sociology cannot replace or substitute art criticism, that the aesthetic merit of any work is beyond the scope of sociological analysis. This is a position which I consider to be flawed. Even those who correctly criticise the reductionist tendencies of some sociological approaches nevertheless do not properly acknowledge the changing nature of what is considered to be of aesthetic quality. To ask the question 'What is art?' is, in fact, to ask about that which is considered to be art by society, or – more correctly – by certain of its key members. Consequently, a range of definitions of art and related practices are excluded. In this thesis, I focus on women's experience, in the light of the evidence of the way in which women's art has traditionally been ignored or devalued. The origins of aesthetics as a distinct discipline (the study of the nature of art) are seen to be linked to other social and historical developments; that is, the prior and accompanying constitution of art itself as a self-contained discourse and practice. Feminists, in particular, whose focus involves a concern with cultural production, have pointed to the way in which art is socially-constructed. They have sought to address the way in which the dominant discourse about art has contributed to the disadvantages and inferior position experienced by women in the arts and, indeed, to the wider societal oppression of women. Through the arts, male-defined representations of the world are valued, and the very notion of 'artist', as it has been commonly held, has reinforced women's secondary status. A socialist-feminist critique is outlined, in terms of its challenge to conventional art-critical practices. It recognises the constraints imposed on women by art critics in their gatekeeping capacity. The role of the state in the patronage of the arts is seen as another example of the political nature of cultural production, and the discourse within which the state's role is defined and practised is seen to be a political and ideological exercise. A socialist-feminist approach requires the validation of women's realities, in particular, and a general rejection of representations that distort or mystify social relations in the interests of hegemonic ideologies. In addition to the critique of the content of images, it seeks to transform the structural elements of cultural production. To generate a specific prescription, of a conclusive and exhaustive nature, for a genuinely democratic form of art practice is inappropriate. Instead, for the requirements of an authentic socialist-feminist critique, the political nature of cultural production and the changing conjunctural aspects of cultural production are to be fully acknowledged and incorporated.

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  • Product development and the New Zealand food industry : a thesis in part fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Agricultural Business and Administration, M.B.A. (Agric.), Department of Marketing, Massey University

    West, Sandra Jean (1980)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    New Zealand food companies experienced radical changes in the 1970's in relation to their traditional markets. Success in meeting the challenges and exploiting the opportunities created by these changes depends to a large extent on developing new markets and new product development skills. The purpose of this research into product development in the New Zealand food industry was to identify, both overseas and in New Zealand, current methods of product development and to examine possible variables attributable to success. The research was designed to make it possible to analyse the organisation, structure, role and management of current practices in product development in the New Zealand food industry. Information was also gathered on the personnel involved in product development, including their attitudes toward the relevant variables for success of this important business function. By understanding the systems that currently exist in New Zealand firms, it was possible to identify areas of the company where improvements in product development skills might be made. The study was conducted through a detailed questionnaire sent to a randomly selected sample of twenty four companies in the New Zealand food industry. This was followed by a personal interview with the company executive responsible for the product development function in each of the sample companies. The results were subjected to several data analysis techniques including the multivariate technique of factor analysis. The product development process was considered in terms of both active and passive skills. Active skills (implementation) included the steps of planning, exploration, screening, analysis, development, testing, and commercialization. The passive skills (understanding) were seen as essential knowledge of design creativity, technology, and marketing. Companies of the sample indicated strength in the skills of technology but there was considerably less emphasis placed on design creativity. Products for export were generally the same as those produced for the domestic market and these were often copies of overseas products. There was evidence of some marketing strengths in the companies studied but marketing practices were weak in relation to knowledge of the consumer and in determining the market potential for new products. The development process, in the sense of an orderly arrangement and management of activity, was shown to hardly exist in these companies generally. Management of the product development function in the companies was shown to be the responsibility of one person whose major role in the firm in many cases was in some other area. There was no evidence of product development departments or teams for the management of new product development. A study of eighteen variables generally attributed to successful product development resulted in the identification of the following five factors as indications of what New Zealand managers thought to be important for product development success in their own companies: an innovative and technological company orientation; a supportive company structure; consideration for the consumer; security for development; a well-rounded company marketing emphasis. When these attitudes were measured against actual New Zealand practices as shown by this study, several correlations and discrepancies were noted. The research indicated that technological skills were heavily emphasized in product development but creativity and innovation were not. There was not a good supportive company structure and generally there was not a particularly well-rounded marketing emphasis for product development. Study of product failure indicated a lack of consideration for consumer needs in development. This was the first study of product development and its role in the New Zealand food industry. A more comprehensive study will be needed to determine whether the conclusions are valid for the industry as a whole. In the interim, several recommendations are offered for improvement of success in product development in the New Zealand food industry.

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  • A study of the digestion of protein in humans using ileal and faecal assays : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in biochemistry at Massey University

    Rowan, Angela Marie (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    A study was conducted with 12 adult human subjects including six ileostomates, to determine the digestibility of protein in a single mixed diet. Significant (P<0.05) differences were found between ileal and faecal amino acid digestibility values for most amino acids (histidine, arginine, aspartate, threonine, serine, glycine, proline, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, methionine, cysteine and tryptophan). The ileal digestibility coefficients ranged from 71.5 to 93.6% for glycine and lysine, respectively, whereas the faecal values ranged from 77.9 to 94.7% for glycine and leucine, respectively. The absolute differences between the methods ranged from 0.2 to 15.0% units for alanine/isoleucine and glycine respectively, and the average of the differences was 3.7% units. The ileostomised growing pig (25kg) was investigated as a model animal to allow more routine determination of the ileal digestibility of protein in human foods, and good agreement was found between the species for apparent ileal amino acid digestibility. There were no significant differences between the two species for the apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities of amino acids, except for lysine, glutamate, proline and alanine. The endogenous flows of amino acids at the terminal ileum were determined in both species, following consumption of a single protein-free meal. The amino acid compositions of the protein flows were similar for pigs and humans, with significant differences only being found for histidine, threonine, alanine, valine and methionine. The endogenous flows were used to correct apparent coefficients to give true estimates of digestibility. The latter values indicated near complete absorption of the dietary amino acids for the human subjects and growing pigs. When the interspecies comparison was based on the true digestibility values, there were only significant differences for the amino acids glutamate, phenylalanine, cysteine and methionine. The absolute differences between the mean amino acid digestibility values for each species were smaller for true coefficients than for the apparent values. The daily excretions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and diaminopimelic acid (DAP) were determined to indicate the levels of bacteria present at the terminal ileum and in the faeces of pigs and humans. There were higher levels of both of these marker compounds in human faeces samples than in ileal digesta. The opposite was observed for DNA in the pig, while the levels of DAP were similar at the two sites. The digestibility of fibre was also determined to indicate the extent of bacterial activity at these sites, and the values were greater in the faeces than in the ileostomy output of both species.

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  • Morphological and physiological changes in developing Pinus radiata D. Don seed and the effects of early cone collection and post-harvest treatment on seed quality : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Seed Technology at Massey University

    Rimbawanto, Anto (1987)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Morphological and physiological changes in developing Pinus radiata D. Don seed and the effects of early cone collection and post-harvest treatment on seed quality Anto Rimbawanto This study aimed to characterise the sequence of cone and seed development, investigate morphological and physiological changes occurring during artificial ripening and assess the potential of artificial ripening in commercial practice. In general, the results show that cone and seed development of Pinus radiata exhibit a pattern similar to other coniferous species, but seed development and the acquisition of germinability proceed at a rate much faster than the maturation of the cone itself. Seed germinability is attained in June when cone dry weight and size are at maximum; cone colour and specific gravity changes occur much later, thus lessening the effectiveness of these two parameters as indices of maturity. Therefore, a cone with a green colour and high specific gravity does not necessarily contain poorly germinable seeds. The aquisition of germination capacity is closely associated with the level of moisture within the seed. The seed requires a low level of moisture to switch on the germination programme. A moisture level of between 20 - 25% is suggested as the 'required' level. The seed needs to remain at this critical moisture level for a period of time to allow the developing seed to complete the process of switching. The more developed the embryo and megagametophyte, the better the germination performance. Immature seeds collected in March are not capable of germinating despite desiccation during artificial ripening. Artificial ripening of P. radiata seed for three weeks substantially improves the germinability of early collected seeds (April and May). For the late collected seeds (June onwards) artificial ripening has little scope to improve it since initial germination was high. Although further storage has little effect on the final germination, it reduces the speed of germination indicating a process of deterioration. During artificial ripening, no further development of embryo and megagametophyte of the early collected seed is observed nor are there any increases in dry weight. Moreover, the main protein complement of the seeds remains proportionally the same irrespective of time of collections and artificial ripening. These suggest that artificial ripening of P. radiata seed is a maturation process rather than a developmental one. The practical implications of these findings are potentially good. Brown cone colour is no longer a pre-requisite indicator to commence cone harvesting. Infact cone collection as early as autumn/winter is justifiable provided that the cones are allowed to dehydrate at a temperature not exceeding 20°C for at least six weeks, or until the specific gravity drops below 1.00 because at this point seed extraction can be successfully done by the kilning method. Cone storage for more than nine weeks would not be advisable since the seed will begin to deteriorate owing to unfavourable storage conditions. At this stage seed should be extracted from the cones and stored separately at 5°C.

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  • Environmental dispute resolution and consultation within the RMA : a case study : the Fitzherbert Avenue, cross river transportation dispute : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the Master of Philosophy in Resource and Environmental Planning at Massey University

    Johnston, Jane Ellen (1988)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis examines how democratically described new and revolutionary ideas came to be elucidated in the resource and environmental management framework provided within the Resource Management Act, 1991, and considers how they are given effect in current planning practice. The research focuses on consultation which seeks to resolve environmental disputes not only to achieve sustainable environment outcomes in an ecological sense, but also to give greater expression to democratic principles. This research undertaking is in response to a continually reiterated need to evaluate the effectiveness of planning practice in achieving its aims, together with a necessity to then take appropriate responses to the results of the evaluation, for instance as found within the Resource Management Law Reform reports of the 1980's, in planning publications, as well as in the Resource Management Act, 1991, itself. This thesis identifies the principles and objectives intended and anticipated to be realized through public participatory planning and environmental dispute resolution processes. It provides a theoretical framework for consideration of consultation and environmental dispute resolution processes, as it explores theory informing the characteristics of environmental disputes, and also the different types of consultation process able to be utilized for dispute resolution. The efficacy of resource and environmental management in achieving the principles underpinning, and objectives of, public participation in EDR processes is evaluated by consideration of participant perspectives of consultation processes. This research identifies and analyzes the benefits and strengths, problems and limitations experienced by participants in a variety of EDR processes that were employed to resolve a particular dispute - the 'Fitzherbert Avenue - cross river transportation dispute' - in Palmerston North, as a case study. An analysis between expectations and experience is extrapolated into an indicator of whether these EDR processes are achieving the RMA's intentions, in terms of the principles and objectives which necessitate public consultation. This research also provides some explanation for the experiences of participants, thereby indicating how and why the underlying principles and objectives are or are not being met. The research conclusions address the question, 'how well were the principles and objectives of consultation, within the context of the RMA, given effect or realised in practice?'. In drawing conclusions this thesis explores the uniqueness of a case study, but also identifies RMA implementation issues of more general relevance and interest. Analysis of generic RMA implementation issues describes consistent themes that indicate more needs to be done to effectively achieve the objectives of the RMA, as there are concerns about the abilities of planning practice and those responsible for implementing the Act to realise all its intentions. Concerns of relevance to consultation processes are discussed and suggestions for improving practical implementation of the RMA are made.

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  • Growth and nitrogen nutrition studies of onions (Allium cepa L.) : a thesis ... for the degree of Master of Horticultural Science in Horticultural Production at Massey University

    Ceesay, Momodou Alasan (1980)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer was studied in the field and in the greenhouse on the growth, development, maturation and storage life of onions (Allium cepa L.), cultivar "Pukekohe Long Keeper" (PLK). Samples were taken at specified harvest dates and morphological measurements, growth analysis and plant tissue analysis for nitrate-nitrogen (NO -N) and total nitrogen (total N) in the leaf blades, bulbs and roots of the onion plants were carried out. Also, high temperature storage for onions was investigated and compared with cool storage. Fresh and dry weight of the entire plant and the bulb dry weight increased with time to a maximum at the end of the growing period. Root dry weight, leaf dry weight, green leaf area and green leaf number increased with time then decreased as maturity approached. In general, whole plant fresh and dry weight and the plant parts, leaf and bulb, increased with increasing N fertilizer. Root dry weight was generally higher with the low N treatments than with the high N treatments. However, when N was too low, root growth was severely restricted. Low N rates tended to stimulate earlier bulb formation but delayed maturity. Very high N rates induced earlier maturity. Bulb weight and bulb diameter generally increased with increasing N fertilizer at the end of the growing season. Whole plant Relative Growth Rate (RGR) and bulb Relative Growth Rate (bulb RGR) were closely related. RGR and Leaf Area Ratio (LAR) decreased with time, however Net Assimilation Rate (NAR) was constant in the early growth stages but fluctuated in the later stages of growth. All the growth analysis parameters, RGR, NAR, LAR, Leaf Weight Ratio (LWR) and Specific Leaf Area (SLA), generally increased with increasing N fertilizer. The increase in RGR brought about by increases in N rate was mainly due to increases in LAR. The increase in LAR caused by increases in N levels was due mainly to increases in LWR. In general, NO -N and total N concentrations in the onion plant parts increased with increasing N fertilizer but declined as the plants advanced in age. Critical NO -N and total N concentrations for onions were determined from the relationship between relative growth and the NO -N and total N in the leaf blades, bulbs and roots. The NO -N concentration in the leaves and bulbs was found to be very low and appeared to be less reliable for determining the N status of the crop. The NO -N concentration in the roots was much higher, probably because nitrate is reduced in the roots in onions. However, analysing for total N, rather than NO -N, in the plant organs, in particular the leaf blades, is a much better method for monitoring the nitrogen status of an onion crop. The high N treatments generally removed more N than the low N treatments. A linear relationship was found between the bulb yield and the amount of N removed. For most soil conditions, 200 kg N/ha is considered an optimum level for onion production. There was little difference in storage life between bulbs stored under high temperature conditions and those under cool storage. Nitrogen fertilizer rates had no significant effect on bulb storability.

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  • Breast-feeding : personal and social influences : a thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing Studies at Massey University

    Sakulneya, Apirach (1986)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Based on a purposive non-random sample of 20 primiparous and 11 multiparous women who had their delivery at a general hospital, a descriptive study was conducted to explore personal and socio-cultural factors which influence women's choice of an infant-feeding method, and those factors that influence the continuation or cessation of breast-feeding. The women from both groups were interviewed four times with a similarly structured questionnaire – 3-5 days postnatally at the hospital and three times at home until the baby was 12 weeks of age. The first interview covered a retrospective review of the decision about the method of feeding and the present experience of breast-feeding whilst the questions asked at home related to the experience of breast-feeding including reasons for change of feeding method. The last interview concerned feeding experience and the women's perception of the major advantage and disadvantage of the feeding method that they were actually using. The result showed that all women elected to breast-feed their babies and almost all of them made such a decision prior to pregnancy or at an early stage of pregnancy. It was found that several aspects of personal characteristics influenced women's choice of infant-feeding. The personal value system, knowledge and experience affect women's decisions to breast-feed whilst coping ability and physical problems affect the continuation or discontinuation of breast-feeding. An analysis of the demographic background failed to indicate any influence on breast-feeding. Within the Socio-cultural context, cultural pratice, advice and help at hospital, and a source of help and encouragement at home, significantly affect choice and continuation of breast-feeding. Encouragement and help with household tasks from partner and family in particular appeared to be an important influence on the continuation of breast-feeding. Implications for nursing practice and other factors relevant to the Thai situation are derived from the results. These have been discussed and suggestion for change have been made.

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  • Government policy and housing rehabilitation in Wellington : a structural analysis : a thesis ... for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Crawley, Clare Susan (1982)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Government intervention in the rehabilitation of housing stock in New Zealand, particularly through the introduction of the Community and Housing Improvement Programme, can be meaningfully analysed using a structuralist approach. Housing is marketed as a commodity in the capitalist system. It therefore reflects those relationships which are inherent in the operation of that system. Housing has special attributes as a commodity and has different use values for different interest groups. The ability of some groups to achieve the use values they wish to derive from housing is a reflection of their social, political and economic power and the relative investment and accumulation opportunities that use provides for capital, and not simply a matter of consumer preference. Housing rehabilitation policy is therefore able to provide assistance to certain groups involved with housing, but cannot provide solutions to all interest groups as the uses to which these groups wish to put housing are seldom harmonious. Government policy, as it has been put into practice in the three Wellington Neighbourhood Improvement Areas reinforces the existing inequalities in housing allocation. Government intervention in the housing market and the process of rehabilitation is an attempt to alleviate the most obvious hardships created by the operations of the capitalist system but it does not alter the basic structures from which these inequities arise. Housing policies designed to alleviate the problem of deterioration of older housing stock cannot provide solutions to other housing problems, including those faced by the lower socio-economic groups. As long as housing is treated as a commodity it will provide opportunities for capital gain to diverse interest groups.

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