1,784 results for 1980

  • Tourism in the Manawatu : an analysis of spatial patterns in the demand for and supply of motel accommodation : a thesis ... for the degree of Master of Arts in Geography at Massey University

    Devi, Vijaya (1981)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The study concerns one form of accommodation, the motel, in the Manawatu, a non-key tourist area in New Zealand. Initially prompted by a claim that Palmerston North, the regional centre, was losing out on important conference custom because of a shortage of accommodation, the study considers this question and proceeds to both describe and analyse motel characteristics in the region. Description includes salient characteristics of moteliers, motels and clients obtained from a questionnaire survey conducted in May 1980. Spatial variations in the characteristics are accounted for in terms of centre types: regional, subregional, market and recreation centres. The theory of hierarchical diffusion and the concept of central places are used in an attempt to explain the location of motels. Findings showed that a large proportion of tourist traffic comprised transient tourists; the shortage of accommodation at Palmerston North appeared to be seasonal rather than absolute; accessibility in terms of visibility did not influence profit and some measure of 'amateurism' was evident in motel management. Time constraints and the limited area of study, however, could have influenced these general findings. It is suggested that transit tourism may be important in other non-key tourist areas, most obviously in the Waikato because of its similarity to the Manawatu, and that further study of this overlooked aspect of tourism seems worthwhile.

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  • A study of some New Zealand natural products.

    Jogia, Madhu Kant (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    University of Otago

    xii, 348 leaves :col. ill. ; 30 cm. Includes bibliographical references. University of Otago department: Chemistry

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  • Investigation into the business and operations of Carlton Party Hire Limited.

    Hart, Graeme Richard (1988)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    107 leaves. University of Otago programme: MBA. From title page: "Project 660".

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  • "Square girls" : Prostitutes and prostitution in Dunedin in the 1880s

    Lucas, E Heather (1985)

    Honours Dissertation thesis
    University of Otago

    The study of prostitutes and prostitution in New Zealand has usually been subordinate to a more general analysis of women and crime. As prostitutes were, and still are, regarded as criminals in New Zealand, this has been a valid approach. However, prostitution was a particular sort of crime, in that it was essentially a crime against middle class morality. As a consequence, a study of prostitution, in itself, not only allows a fuller appreciation of the nature and extent ,of prostitution in New Zealand, but also an insight into the social structure and attitudes pertaining to sexuality and morality in colonial New Zealand. [extract from Introduction]

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  • Fighting fit? A study of the Army's medical examinations, 1916-1918.

    Callon, Lynette (1980)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    v, 57 leaves :ill. (some col.), col. map ; 30 cm.

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  • Ethel Benjamin, New Zealand's first woman lawyer.

    Brown, Carol (1985)

    Undergraduate thesis
    University of Otago

    139 leaves ; 30 cm. Bibliography: l.136-139. Typescript (photocopy).

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  • Direct and correlated responses to selection for high or low ultrasonic backfat depth in Southdown sheep : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science in Animal Science at Massey University

    Ramirez, Jose Solis (1988)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Divergent selection was employed to establish high and low lines for liveweight-adjusted backfat depth (LABF) assessed ultrasonically in Southdown sheep. The selection lines were initially constituted from several sources with stock brought-in during the first three years of the experiment (1976-1978). These first years were used to evaluate ultrasonic equipment for measuring backfat depth. The lines were closed in 1979. Data analysed in this study were collected over 8 years (1979-1986) representing, approximately 2.66 generations. Selection was practised in two stages, with a preliminary selection based on the first LABF on the rams and ewes, and a final selection based on an average of all measurements assessed throughout the year for the rams only. Direct selection for high or low backfat depth resulted in the 1986 born animals in the high line having about 1.69mm (59.6%DEV) and 2.00mm (49.57%DEV) thicker backfat than the low line in the rams and the ewes, respectively. The responses to selection per unit of cumulated selection differential were in most cases high. Due to prior selection and difficulties in assessing the selection pressure, it was concluded that these regressions poorly represented the selection process. Correlated responses to selection for and against backfat depth were generally small. However, consistent positive correlated response were observed in liveweight-adjusted height and length (LAH and LAL) over the selection period. These responses imply a negative genetic correlation between these traits and backfat depth . This finding was in agreement with the published literature. Phenotypic correlations were calculated within-trait between-days and between-traits within-days. Correlations were pooled within-trait following tests of homogeneity. The within trait values were generally moderate to high and they were in agreement with the values reported in the literature. The between-traits correlation values were generally low, but were consistently negative for LABF-LAH and LABF-LAL, and consistently positive for LAL-LAH . Repeatability estimates, using the within-trait combinations, were also in agreement with the literature and suggested a moderate to high repeatability for LABF and LAH. Repeatability estimates for LAL were low to moderate and they were slightly smaller than the values reported in the literature. Estimates of the heritability of LABF varied with method used. The paternal half-sib method resulted in low values (0.14 to 0.19) while dam/offspring method gave moderate values (0.29 to 0.43) . Corresponding heritability estimates for LAH and LAL were about 0.31 and -0.14, respectively. These values were smaller than other results quoted in the literature. It was concluded that truncation selection on LABF reduced the genetic variability of these traits, although not to the same extent as for LABF. It was concluded that divergent selection for LABF was effective, resulting in lines with significantly different backfat depth at the same liveweight. Furthermore, selection for low LABF led to significantly longer and taller animals.

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  • Bull beef systems for Wairarapa hill country : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Agricultural Science at Massey University

    Journeaux, Philip Ross (1987)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the viability of a number of bull beef production systems integrated with sheep, within summer dry and summer wet Wairarapa ·hill country environments. This was achieved by construction of a spreadsheet feed budget simulation model, based on representative wairarapa pasture growth and animal production data. The model balanced feed requirements over fortnightly periods, with unconsumed feed transferred between periods subject to allowances for senescence and decay. Gross margin analysis was used to investigate the financial profitability of the systems examined, including the base sheep policies used. A survey of commercial sheep/bull beef hill country farmers within the Wairarapa was carried out to verify the assumptions made in model construction and to identify practical problems/opportunities. Several off- farm factors were then considered (eg supply of bulls, availability of killing capacity, United States beef market) in terms of their on-farm impact and the outlook for bull beef, over the next 2-3 years. Following analysis of the survey and off-farm data, several farmers were re-visited individually, and then a follow-up group meeting was held, to discuss the results of the model and survey analysis. The study showed that there are a number of bull beef systems which are viable and profitable on Wairarapa hill country, and that the number of bulls farmed on hill country is likely to increase in the future. while some farmers were achieving levels of production indicated feasible by the model, many were producing below these levels. There is therefore considerable opportunity to increase meat production and profitability on these farms. There is also considerable opportunity, in terms of the supply of bulls, for the bull beef industry to expand within New Zealand, although there are some market uncertainties which could hinder this. The overall conclusion from this study is that the production of bull beef offers considerable scope to increase the profitability of North Island hill country farming, and that this industry will continue to expand.

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  • Structure and dynamics of alluvial forest in the Pohangina Valley : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Botany

    Lusk, Christopher Harley (1984)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Species' population structures and replacement patterns are quantitatively described from intensive sampling of forest on alluvial surfaces of three ages. Observations and evidence from a range of other sites are incorporated to assist in tracing the development of forest on alluvial surfaces of the study area, and in examining factors influencing this development. Cockayne's postulate that: " ... the most important principle underlying succession in New Zealand forests is the relation of the different species to light." is investigated with respect to the study area. A Relatively even-aged totara-dominant dense podocarp stands have developed on floodplain surfaces made available by progressive channel down-cutting and lateral migrations. On older surfaces these first generation stands are replaced by forests dominated principally by the angiosperms tawa, titoki and mahoe. On a terrace surface c.2,000 - 3,000 years old, forest variation appears attributable to dynamic processes as well as differences in site drainage. On mesic sites tall tawa-dominant forest prevails, although recent windthrows have produced low groves of mahoe and other small angiosperms, and also apparently stimulated some podocarp regeneration. On xeric terrace sites, titoki and rewarewa dominate the canopy. Low densities of podocarps on the mesic terrace sites attest to very sparse regeneration after the demise of the dense first generation stands. The discontinuous size class distributions of podocarp species on these sites appear at least partially attributable tc speradic regeneration following major windthrows. Podocarp densities are higher on the terrace xeric sites, regeneration of matai and totara apparently being favoured by the lower vegetation density and higher understorey light levels. On these sites matai shows an all - sized stable population structure, and a cyclic discontinuous replacement of totara seems possible. Seedling growth experiments showed both totara and kahikatea to be less shade-tolerant than two large angiosperm species (titoki and pukatea, respectively) typically seen to be replacing them in old growth forests on their respective sites. Except on the terrace xeric sites, light levels measured in forest understoreys were mainly below the compensation point experimentally estimated for totara seedlings. These findings confirm that regeneration of kahikatea and especially totara is likely to be very infrequent in old growth forest on these sites. Cockayne's postulate does not completely explain species establishment patterns within these forests. However, the findings of this study lend support to his interpretation of "light relations" as the primary influence on successional trends, and suggest that regeneration of kahikatea and especially totara is likely to be largely disturbance-dependent.

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  • Making a difference : the lived world of nursing practice in an acute care setting : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Nursing at Massey University

    Paterson, Bronwyn (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study examines the practice world of twenty two registered nurses working in medical and surgical wards of an acute general hospital in New Zealand. It is argued that nursing practice is a complex, context-specific, activity and needs to be studied using methods that do not assume an objective, context-free reality. The work of Patricia Benner (1984) guided this study which utilised a qualitative research approach to enter the lived world of nursing practice. Through descriptions of work days and a sharing of clinical exemplars, an understanding of the broader context of nursing practice was gained, areas of skilled performance in nursing emerged, and the meaning of making a difference for the nurses in the study examined. The central role of mutual advice and support in facilitating significant incidents in practice was apparent. An examination of the types of experiences which challenge current practice and change it in some way provided insight into the importance of experience in developing clinical expertise and the vital role of local knowledge in facilitating practice. Nursing practice emerged as crucial to patient welfare and safety in the acute care setting.

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  • Anorexia nervosa - its nature and treatment : a phenomenological investigation : a dissertation presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Education at Massey University

    Webb, Susan Bridget (1982)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study examined the psychosomatic syndrome of anorexia nervosa, its characteristics, etiology and effects. In addition the treatment of the disorder was considered from the perspective of the three psychotherapeutic approaches most commonly applied to it; psychodynamic, behavioural and family therapy. The historical emergence and identification of anorexia nervosa was briefly described and the emergence and development of the three treatment approaches were outlined. The diagnosis, characteristics, incidence and factors concerning outcome in the disorder were examined. Each treatment perspective was considered in turn by outlining its understandings of human functioning and approach to abnormal functioning in general. Its theoretical stance towards anorexia nervosa was elaborated and the treatment procedures based upon this described. Finally the outcome of treatment within each approach was considered. A case study method employing a phenomenological approach was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of seven subjects who were or who had been anorexic. In addition the perspective and experience of some of those closely associated with them at the time of their anorexia was also examined. Issues concerning the research method and the selection of the subjects were discussed and the nature of the contact with them and the manner in which the data was collected described. Data collected from the subjects, their associates, documentation provided by the subjects and observations were analysed into themes which emerged during the process of the data collection. These were grouped into four theme categories comprising: The Self-Physical, the Self-Psychological, the Self and Others and Intervention. The findings in each theme category are discussed in relation to existing literature. Major findings included an emphasis on issues concerning control and self concept in the disorder, a reluctance to develop sexual relationships and a continued concern about food, exercise and interpersonal relationships. Vocational choice indicated a preference for welfare-type work. Close family relationships were evident with some confusion apparent about female roles. Treatment experiences in the main tended to be perceived negatively in that they appeared largely controlling and insensitive. No one theoretical approach to the disorder could be identified as providing a completely comprehensive perspective with each having distinct advantages and disadvantages. Control and self-concept issues were identified as needing to be central to any consideration of anorexia nervosa treatment and it was reiterated that psychotherapeutic treatment needs as much as possible to recognize the unique nature of each case and not be too constrained by prescribed theoretical frameworks.

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  • Drifting towards moral chaos : the 1954 Mazengarb Report, a moral panic over juvenile immorality : a thesis completed in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Education at Massey University

    Soler, Janet (1988)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This study investigates the concern over 'juvenile immorality' which began in early July 1954 and lasted until October the same year, when the recommendations made by the Mazengarb Report were passed by the House of Representatives. The 1954 Mazengarb Report and the events which surrounded it are analysed using sociological models of 'moral panic'. Such an approach provides the opportunity to examine a societal reaction to juvenile immorality and delinquency. It also allows an evaluation of the contributing groups and the processes which escalate public concern and facilitate the perception of a particular group of adolescents as a threat to society. The evaluation of the Mazengarb Report and the public reaction which preceded it presupposes a particular theoretical perspective. The development of the concept of moral panic is outlined, and the application of this theoretical model to historical research is critiqued. The study explores the local context which gave rise to the deviant behaviour, the role of the media in escalating public concern, the role of the 'campaigners' and 'defendants', and the legislative outcomes. It is concluded that the public concern over juvenile immorality in mid 1954 reflects the general structure of a moral panic as outlined in sociological models.

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  • The effect of music therapy on motor control of cerebral palsied children : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Master of Philosophy in education at Massey University

    Croxson, Morva (1988)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    In this study, the use of music therapy with cerebral palsied children aimed to establish consistent motor control and extend rehearsal of functional motor actions. Music therapy processes explored the effect of auditory rhythm and pentatonic melody on the quantity and regularity of arm-hand motor action of children with cerebral palsy. Eight children, aged five to eleven years, were involved, each child being considered as a single subject case study. The design of the study was an interrupted time series design (ABACA). A constant beat sound stimulus, emitted by a music-based computer, was determined from the personal tempo of each child and formed a beat-only condition in A sections. That beat sound was joined by child-activated pitched sounds in B and C, together with a third compatible music stimulus in section C, which was singing by the therapist. Pitched sounds and singing were restricted to the five notes of a selected pentatonic scale. Each child was asked to 'play with the beat', making arm-hand contact on a specially constructed keyboard. Measurements were recorded instantly by the computer, which registered number of contacts made, average note duration, note changes made, and three measurements relating to regularity of contacts made. Results showed that all children attended to the music-based task of playing with the beat. Melody plus rhythm stimuli gave more motor contact actions than rhythm stimulus alone, for all children. Measurements of regularity of motor control, (deviation from beat, average tempo and pulse-tempo deviation), were affected in varying ways by melody plus rhythm. Some neuromuscular delay could be inferred, although anticipation of beat sound and muscle action inherent in a rhythm task was present. This suggests that cerebral palsied children respond to a music-based task with extension of effort and some control of muscle tone. Results from pre and post tests done using selected items from the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency did not give results that could be regarded as significant. A longer experimental period than three weeks is suggested for similar studies. Computer measurement of time-based motor behaviour resulting from music stimuli was objective and accurate. Similar type music therapy studies could find this use of a music-based computer for measurement most useful. Overall the aim of the study was to look at the effect of music therapy on motor control of cerebral palsied children. Regular rhythm was used to provide structure for the required time-ordered behaviour, and the pace of befit stimulus given was personal to each child. In 'playing with the beat' the child attempted to synchronise arm-hand action with the beat-based signal; this process required cognitive anticipation of a sensorimotor action. The ability to make regular contact was relative to degree of neuromuscular dysfunction, age and maturation and affective interest in the task. The independent variables of music therapy, with rhythm and melody, were employed in a planned, sequential order so that the dependent variable, motor control, could be measured relative to the whole task and to rhythmic and melodic components in the task. The planned processes of a simple music therapy task, using rhythm and melody stimuli, supported extension of rehearsal of a motor task and improvement of motor control.

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  • The kinetics of mild acid hydrolysis of gluten and the functional properties of the modified proteins at various levels of hydrolysis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biotechnology at Massey University

    Higgins, John Joseph (1988)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Gluten is the mixture of proteins remaining in wheat flour after starch and water soluble components have been extracted by washing. Its unique dough forming properties are due to the structure of the proteins. A feature of the protein is the high glutamine content, about 30% of the total amino acids. A number of studies have shown that gluten's properties of insolubility and water-binding can be substantially modified by mild acid hydrolysis. The principal effect of the mild acid treatment is to hydrolyse the amide side chain of glutamine such that the amide group is replaced by a carboxyl group. In addition, it is known that hydrolysis of peptide bonds can have a large influence on the functional properties of proteins. The aims of this study were to determine the kinetics of the acid catalysed deamidation and peptide bond hydrolysis reactions, and to comment on the resultant changes in functional properties. A statistically designed experiment was used to determine the effect of temperature, hydrogen ion concentration and gluten concentration. An initial rate analysis of the results showed that reactions could be described by equations of the form: Rate of amide bond hydrolysis = k1.[Amide][H+] and Rate of peptide bond hydrolysis = k2 [Peptide] [H+] where k = koe -E/R.1/T A stoichiometric analysis of the experimental data confirmed that hydrogen ions were consumed in both reactions. A numerical solution was developed to predict the extent of reaction with time. A computer program incorporating the solution was used to simulate the reaction and test the solution. The simulation results appeared to overestimate the progress of the reaction with time. A series of ten gluten powders, hydrolysed to different extents was prepared at small pilot scale. The composition of the samples was determined and compared with the extent of hydrolysis predicted by the reaction simulation. Reasonable agreement was achieved. A selection of the functional properties of the prepared samples was examined. The quantity of alkali required to dissolve each preparation to the extent of its solubility at pH 7.6 increased markedly with the extent of hydrolysis due to the additional carboxyl groups requiring neutralization. The flavour of each preparation was exanined. A cereal flavour was found to decrease with the extent of hydrolysis. A lingering bitter flavour was found to increase with the extent of hydrolysis. The solubility of all preparations at p H 7.6 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer increased with the extent of treatment so that the most hydrolysed samples were almost completely soluble. No (significant) difference was found between freeze dried and spray dried samples. Samples prepared without dialysis showed no solubility difference from those prepared with dialysis at a similar extent of hydrolysis. The hydrophobicity of the preparations was measured using two different fluorescent probes and was found to increase with the extent of hydrolysis. The emulsion-forming properties of the preparations were found to depend on the oil used in the test, as would be expected if hydrophobicity was equivalent to the hydrophile lipophile balance, which is commonly used to classify emulsifying agents. The preparations did not, however, show the additivity properties of emulsifiers. It was also shown that only the soluble portion of the preparations was responsible for emulsion formation. The possibility of achieving deamidation of gluten using the enzymes peptidoglutaminase I and II was examined. No activity against gluten or partially hydrolysed gluten was found.

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  • The New Zealand guidance counsellor : an analysis of actual role performance : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education at Massey University

    Chua, Charles Siak-Thye (1980)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Guidance and counselling services have been an important feature of the New Zealand secondary education system for two decades now. However, there have been few official policy statements and little research on the subject, hence an adequate definition and prescription for the role of the guidance counsellor has not been produced. What type of work guidance counsellors do and how they perform their jobs has never been suitably examined in this country and it is something little known even to those who are actually involved in the service. What is known has been restricted to propositions provided by literature, which generally states what and how guidance counselling ought to be carried out, but rarely what is actually taking place. The actual role performance of guidance counsellors has been sought mostly by means of questionnaire survey studies. The present study made a day-to-day recording of the activities and the time allocated to the various activities of three practising guidance counsellors in three New Zealand secondary schools. The recording was carried out from June to August, 1979. Each counsellor was requested to make a detailed daily recording of all the activities undertaken and the amount of time spent on them. These records were then collected from the counsellors at the end of each week; the materials were collated and arranged into various categories and the amount of time for each was calculated. Comparisons were made among the three guidance counsellors in the activities undertaken and some comparison was also made with a comprehensive New Zealand questionnaire study. The overall results showed that the three guidance counsellors were involved in similar work patterns and about a third of their activities were in educational, vocational, and personal-social guidance areas which involved direct contacts with pupils whilst the remaining activities involved administrative duties, staff liaison, liaison with various supporting services, and a series of other minor responsibilities. Each counsellor, besides sharing the similar work patterns, was involved in some areas of activity which were unique from the other two. The counsellors had working weeks of lengthy duration which also included work done during the weekends. Although the period of the study was relatively short and involved only one part of the year, together with the fact that only three counsellors were studied, the results, nevertheless, provide a systematic and complete account of the actual role performances of these counsellors. In this way they provide a comprehensive account of what is actually being done by a selection of people in this important school position. The aims of this study were to achieve a better understanding of the role of guidance counsellors and to help overcome the vagueness usually associated with descriptions of the guidance counsellor's role.

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  • The night-time experience of elderly hospitalised adults and the nurses who care for them : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in nursing at Massey University

    Walton, Jo Ann (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    This thesis is the report of a study into the night-time experience of elderly hospitalised adults and the nurses who care for them. A grounded theory approach was used for the analysis of data and subsequent generation of a theoretical description and partial explanation of patient experiences, nursing actions and nurse-patient interactions. Data were gathered through observation, interview, document audit and literature review; two general medical wards in a large regional hospital were the focus of field methods of data collection. It is argued that the night-time experiences of elderly hospitalised adults are to a large degree dependent on the individual patterns of sleep and waking behaviour of these people in their normal environments. If individualised care is to be given, nurses must be aware of people's usual patterns of behaviour. Nurses working at night engage in a series of complex decisions in the course of their interaction with patients. They work under constraints not present during the daytime, and are highly dependent on cooperation from colleagues on other shifts for information which would enable them to deliver optimum care at night. At the same time, night nurses have access to information from and about patients which could be invaluable to a total assessment of any patient's health state. Considerations of sleep and rest are relevant to nurses working all shifts. The findings of the study have implications in terms of nurses' knowledge of all aspects of sleep; assessment practices; nurse-patient and nurse-nurse communication; nurse-patient relationships at night; ward management; and the interdependence of nurses.

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  • Minor stressors and uplifts, affect intensity, and optimism as influences on health of the elderly : a thesis presented in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in psychology at Massey University

    Laird, Richard John (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    An investigation was undertaken to examine the influence of minor stressors, uplifts, affect intensity, and dispositional optimism on the health of the elderly. The function of affect intensity and dispositional optimism as possible moderators of the relationships between minor stressors and uplifts to objective and subjective health was examined. In addition, the relationships between stressors and uplifts to somatic symptoms and subjective health were explored for causal effects. A sample of 114 elderly individuals, drawn from Fielding and Palmerston North, completed two questionnaires which included measures of hassles, uplifts, dispositional optimism, affect intensity, subjective health, somatic symptoms, functional limitation, and chronic ill-health. Uplifts were unexpectedly found to be related to subjective health. Neither dispositional optimism nor affect intensity were found to moderate the stressor-health or uplift-health relationships. Stressors were not found to cause ill-health. Our findings add further weight to the view that subjective health is a useful and valuable measure of health in the elderly. The tenuous nature of the moderating effects of dispositional characteristics on the stressor-health and uplift-health relationships are discussed. Reasons for stressors not being causative of ill-health in this sample are considered. Finally, our study provides evidence for constancy and stability in the lives of elderly people.

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  • District nursing clients :perceptions of participation in nursing care : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in nursing at Massey University

    Young, Wilma Audrey (1989)

    Masters thesis
    Massey University

    Research on participation in nursing care is sparse in New Zealand, particularly in the district nursing field. No studies were found on participation from the perspective of the New Zealand client of district nursing care. This study initiates steps to fill this gap by examining the question "What are the perceptions of district nursing clients toward participation in their care?". An exploratory descriptive study using a multiple triangulation design provided a background data base and revealed rich, meaningful qualitative information. Thirty eight district nursing clients were interviewed seeking quantitative data which were statistically analyzed and qualitative data which were analyzed using analytic description technique. The district nurse/client relationship studied here provided evidence supporting Kim's (1983a) theoretical framework of collaborative decision making, particularly that the nurse controls the "client's propensity to participate" through "allowance" or "sanctioning" of participation (p.279). This research discovered that from the client's perspective the district nurse guides the client/nurse relationship, encouraging the client's participation through discussion. Client and nurse cooperated and worked together to achieve a mutual goal of selfcare and independence. Study clients acquiesced to the nurse's guidance as a result of preconceived patient/nurse role attitudes and deference to the nurse's professional expertise. A continuum of participation was conceptualized with four perceptions of participation evident in this study: 'Withdrawal' of those who did not wish to participate; 'Acquiescence' or supporting the status quo by consenting without comment; a mid-point of 'Cooperation and Working Together'; and, 'Taking more Control' of care.

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  • Infant crying : mothers' perceptions and affective reactions : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education at Massey University

    Brennan, Michael Charles (1985)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    Two studies were conducted in order to examine three major issues arising from recent studies of mothers' reactions to their crying infants. These issues, which arise in connection with the Aversive Stimulus Model of crying, relate to (a) the relationships between cry characteristics and mothers' affective reactions to crying, (b) the variability of cry characteristics of individual infants, and (c) the influence of context on mothers' reactions to their infants' crying. Resting on the premise that the semantic differential is an appropriate technique for addressing these issues. Study A examined the relationships between three sets of semantic differential scales. These were the scales reported by Brennan and Kirkland (1983), which represent three dimensions labelled Affect, Potency, and Evaluation; the scales reported by Zeskind and Lester (1978); and the scales reported by Mehrabian and Russell (1974a), which represent three dimensions of emotion labelled Pleasantness/Unpleasantness, Degree of Arousal, and Dominance/Submissiveness. A combined factor analysis of cry ratings on these scales uncovered the factor structure of the Brennan and Kirkland scales and of the Mehrabian and Russell scales. The factor representing the Brennan and Kirkland Affect scales also represented both the Zeskind and Lester scales and the Mehrabian and Russell Pleasantness/Unpleasantness scales. The Brennan and Kirkland scales were found to effectively discriminate between perceptually different cry sounds. The Mehrabian and Russell scales, however, were found to be lacking in face validity and therefore unsuitable for use with cry sounds. Study B examined the perceptions and affective reactions of mothers listening to their own infants' cries, in two situations - in the home as the crying occurred, and in an experimental situation involving tape-recorded cry samples. The results indicate that: (a) mothers affective reactions to cries did not simply depend upon the aversiveness of the cry sounds, (b) mothers' affective reactions to cries were strongly associated with their attributions regarding the causes and consequences of the cries, (c) cries from the same infant and cries from different infants varied considerably with respect to their perceived characteristics and the types of affective reactions they evoked, and (d) ratings of the tape-recorded cry samples tended to over-emphasise the relationships between cry characteristics and mothers' affective reactions, and to under-represent the extent to which negative affective reactions were experienced by the mothers in the home situation. Several suggestions were made for future studies. These included the adoption of an individualised approach to study: (a) the cry repertoires of individual infants, (b) the types and patterns of affective reactions experienced by individual mothers, (c) mothers' attributions regarding to their own feelings and their infants' behaviors, and (d) the relationships between mothers perceptions, attributions, affective reactions, and actual caregiving behaviors.

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  • A comparative study of phosphofructokinase and tagatose 6-phosphate kinase from streptococcus lactis : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Biochemistry at Massey University

    Fordyce, Alison Mary (1982)

    Doctoral thesis
    Massey University

    In the lactic streptococci glucose is metabolised to lactic acid via the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway. Metabolism of lactose and galactose in these organisms involves participation of the D-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway in which galactose 6-phosphate is metabolised to triose phosphates via tagatose derivatives. Phosphofructokinase (ATP : D-fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, E.C. 2.7.1.11) catalyses the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate in the EMP pathway. The analogous reaction in the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway, phosphorylation of tagatose 6-phosphate with ATP, is catalysed by a specific enzyme, tagatose 6-phosphate kinase. While phosphofructokinase (PFK) is known to be a major regulatory enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism in most organisms, little is known of the regulatory properties of tagatose 6-phosphate kinase (T6PK). PFK and T6PK were purified from Streptococcus lactis C10 PFK was purified to homogeneity (364-fold purification) by affinity chromatography on Blue-dextran-Sepharose. Unlike PFK, T6PK did not bind to Blue-dextran-Sepharose : a 136-fold purification was achieved using ammonium sulphate fractionation, gel filtration, and ion exchange chromatography. A study of some of the properties of PFK and T6PK from S. lactis C10 showed that these two enzymes are distinct proteins with different physical and kinetic characteristics. S. lactis PFK is a tetramer (MW 145,000 daltons) of identical subunits of molecular weight 33,500 daltons. It therefore appears structurally similar to other bacterial PFKs. T6PK from S. lactis has a molecular weight of approximately 114,000 daltons, a value similar to that of Staphylococcus aureus T6PK which is a dimer. S. lactis PFK exhibited the co-operative binding of F6P and inhibition by high concentrations of ATP relative to F6P which is typical of most bacterial and mammalian PFKs. F6P0.5. and Km (MgATP) values were 0.28 mM and 0.18 mM respectively. ADP stimulated PFK activity, shifting the sigmoidal saturation curve to a more hyperbolic form, with a corresponding decrease in nH. Ammonium and potassium ions also activated PFK, while activity was inhibited by AMP, PEP, FBP, T6P and inorganic phosphate. In contrast to PFK, T6PK showed no co-operative binding of sugar phosphate substrate and was less sensitive than PFK to ATP inhibition. Km values for T6P and MgATP were 0.16 mM and 0.4 mM respectively. Apart from ammonium and potassium ions, no activators of T6PK were found. Activity was inhibited by ADP, PEP, and FBP. PFK and T6PK could catalyse phosphorylation of both F6P and T6P although the enzymes showed a much greater affinity for their natural substrate. Maximum velocities attained were higher with the natural substrate than when the other sugar phosphate was used as substrate. Both enzymes showed similar pH optima and divalent cation requirement. Levels of PFK, T6PK, and Galactokinase (Gal K), enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas, Tagatose 6-phosphate, and Leloir pathways respectively, were measured in strains of S. lactis, S. cremoris, S. diacetylactis and S. faecalis grown on different sugars. Growth on lactose and galactose induced increased levels of T6PK and Gal K activity, galactose generally inducing higher levels of T6PK than lactose. In most strains, addition of glucose to media containing lactose or galactose resulted in lowered activities of Gal K, comparable to those in glucose-grown cells. In contrast, T6PK activity was generally not suppressed by growth on glucose plus lactose, while in growth on glucose plus galactose, T6PK activity was approximately 50% of the activity in cells grown on glucose alone. PFK activity was generally unaffected by the sugar in the growth medium. In spite of changes in specific activities of PFK and T6PK throughout the growth period of S. lactis, the ratio of PFK : T6PK remained fairly constant. The properties of S. lactis PFK and T6PK are compared to those of these enzymes in other bacteria, and the possible role of T6PK in regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in S. lactis is discussed.

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